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Test Your Knowledge in Computers #280
Difficulty: Easy
CPU modes (also called processor modes, CPU states, CPU privilege levels and other names) are operating modes for the central processing unit of some computer architectures that place restrictions on the type and scope of operations that can be performed by certain processes being run by the CPU.
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types.h(3head) [bsd man page]

types.h(3HEAD)							      Headers							    types.h(3HEAD)

types.h, types - primitive system data types SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/types.h> DESCRIPTION
The data types defined in <sys/types.h> are as follows: 32-bit Solaris The data types listed below are defined in <sys/types.h> for 32-bit Solaris. typedef struct { int r[1]; } *physadr; typedef long clock_t; typedef long daddr_t; typedef char * caddr_t; typedef unsigned char unchar; typedef unsigned short ushort; typedef unsigned int uint; typedef unsigned long ulong_t; typedef unsigned long ino_t; typedef long uid_t; typedef long gid_t; typedef ulong_t nlink_t; typedef ulong_t mode_t; typedef short cnt_t; typedef long time_t; typedef int label_t[10]; typedef ulong_t dev_t; typedef long off_t; typedef long pid_t; typedef long paddr_t; typedef int key_t; typedef unsigned char use_t; typedef short sysid_t; typedef short index_t; typedef short lock_t; typedef unsigned int size_t; typedef long clock_t; typedef long pid_t; 64-bit Solaris The data types listed below are defined in <sys/types.h> for 64-bit Solaris. typedef long blkcnt_t typedef long clock_t typedef long daddr_t typedef ulong_t dev_t typedef ulong_t fsblkcnt_t typedef ulong_t fsfilcnt_t typedef int gid_t typedef int id_t typedef long ino_t typedef int key_t typedef uint_t major_t typedef uint_t minor_t typedef uint_t mode_t typedef uint_t nlink_t typedef int pid_t typedef ptrdiff_t intptr_t typedef ulong_t rlim_t typedef ulong_t size_t typedef uint_t speed_t typedef long ssize_t typedef long suseconds_t typedef uint_t tcflag_t typedef long time_t typedef int uid_t typedef int wchar_t Preprocessor Symbols For 32-bit programs, pointers and the C data types int and long are all 32-bit quantities. For 64-bit programs, pointers and the C data type long are defined as 64-bit quantities. The preprocessor symbol _ILP32, made visible by the inclusion of <sys/types.h>, can be used with the preprocessor #ifdef construct to define sections of code that will be compiled only as part of a 32-bit version of a given C program. The preprocessor symbol _LP64 can be used in the same way to define sections of code that will be compiled only as part of a 64-bit version of a given C program. See EXAMPLES. This header incorporates definitions of other preprocessor symbols that can be useful when keeping code portable between different instruc- tion set architectures. _LITTLE_ENDIAN _BIG_ENDIAN The natural byte order of the processor. A pointer to an int points to the least/most significant byte of that int. _STACK_GROWS_UPWARD _STACK_GROWS_DOWNWARD The processor specific direction of stack growth. A push onto the stack increases/decreases the stack pointer, so it stores data at successively higher/lower addresses. _CHAR_IS_UNSIGNED _CHAR_IS_SIGNED The C Compiler implements objects of type char as unsigned or signed respectively. This is really an implementation choice of the com- piler, but it is specified in the ABI and tends to be uniform across compilers for an instruction set architecture. _CHAR_ALIGNMENT _SHORT_ALIGNMENT _INT_ALIGNMENT _LONG_ALIGNMENT _LONG_LONG_ALIGNMENT _DOUBLE_ALIGNMENT _LONG_DOUBLE_ALIGNMENT _POINTER_ALIGNMENT _FLOAT_ALIGNMENT The ABI defines alignment requirements of each of the primitive object types. Some, if not all, might be hardware requirements as well. The values are expressed in bytes. _MAX_ALIGNMENT The most stringent alignment requirement as specified by the ABI. Equal to the maximum of all the above _XXX_ALIGNMENT values. _LONG_LONG_ALIGNMENT_32 The 32-bit ABI supported by a 64-bit kernel may have different alignment requirements for primitive object types. The value of this identifier is expressed in bytes. USAGE
The daddr_t type is used for disk addresses except in an inode on disk. Times are encoded in seconds since 00:00:00 UTC, January 1, 1970. The major and minor parts of a device code specify kind and unit number of a device and are installation-dependent. Offsets are measured in bytes from the beginning of a file. The label_t[] types are used to save the processor state while another process is running. EXAMPLES
Example 1: Use of preprocessor symbol _LP64. In the following example, the preprocessor symbol _LP64 defines sections of code that will be compiled only as part of a 64-bit version of the given C program. #include <sys/types.h> ... #ifdef _LP64 printf("The data model is LP64 in this environment "); #else #ifdef _ILP32 printf("The data model is ILP32 in this environment "); #else #error "Unknown data model!" #endif #endif ATTRIBUTES
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes: +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Interface Stability |Stable | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ SEE ALSO
types32.h(3HEAD), attributes(5), standards(5) SunOS 5.10 6 Oct 2004 types.h(3HEAD)

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