strtol - convert string value to a long
strtol(nptr, endptr, base)
The strtol() function converts the string in nptr to a long value. The conversion is done
according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special
The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined by isspace(3))
followed by a single optional `+' or `-' sign. If base is zero or 16, the string may then
include a `0x' prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is
taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is `0', in which case it is taken as 8
The remainder of the string is converted to a long value in the obvious manner, stopping
at the first character which is not a valid digit in the given base. (In bases above 10,
the letter `A' in either upper or lower case represents 10, `B' represents 11, and so
forth, with `Z' representing 35.)
If endptr is non nil, strtol() stores the address of the first invalid character in
*endptr . If there were no digits at all, however, strtol() stores the original value of
nptr in *endptr. (Thus, if *nptr is not `\0' but **endptr is `\0' on return, the entire
string was valid.)
The strtol() function returns the result of the conversion, unless the value would under-
flow or overflow. If an underflow occurs, strtol() returns LONG_MIN. If an overflow
occurs, strtol() returns LONG_MAX. In both cases, errno is set to ERANGE .
[ERANGE] The given string was out of range; the value converted has been clamped.
atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtoul(3)
The strtol() function conforms to ANSI C X3.159-1989 (``ANSI C'').
Ignores the current locale.
4.4 Berkeley Distribution January 12, 1996 STRTOL(3)