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Cache read misses from an instruction cache generally cause the longest delays because the processor, and in particular the thread of execution, has to wait until the instruction is fetched from main memory.
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setmode(3) [bsd man page]

SETMODE(3)						     Library Functions Manual							SETMODE(3)

NAME
getmode, setmode - modify mode bits SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/types.h> mode_t getmode(set, mode) void *set; mode_t mode void * setmode(mode_str) char *mode_str; DESCRIPTION
The getmode function returns a copy of the file permission bits mode as altered by the values pointed to by set. While only the mode bits are altered, other parts of the file mode may be examined. The setmode function takes an absolute (octal) or symbolic value, as described in chmod(1), as an argument and returns a pointer to mode values to be supplied to getmode. Because some of the symbolic values are relative to the file creation mask, setmode may call umask(2). If this occurs, the file creation mask will be restored before setmode returns. If the calling program changes the value of its file cre- ation mask after calling setmode, setmode must be called again if getmode is to modify future file modes correctly. If the mode passed to setmode is invalid, setmode returns NULL. ERRORS
The setmode function may fail and set errno for any of the errors specified for the library routine malloc(3). SEE ALSO
chmod(1), stat(2), umask(2), malloc(3) HISTORY
The getmode and setmode functions first appeared in 4.4BSD. 4.4 Berkeley Distribution February 20, 1996 SETMODE(3)

Check Out this Related Man Page

SETMODE(3)						   BSD Library Functions Manual 						SETMODE(3)

NAME
getmode, setmode -- modify mode bits LIBRARY
Standard C Library (libc, -lc) SYNOPSIS
#include <unistd.h> mode_t getmode(const void *set, mode_t mode); void * setmode(const char *mode_str); DESCRIPTION
The getmode() function returns a copy of the file permission bits mode as altered by the values pointed to by set. While only the mode bits are altered, other parts of the file mode may be examined. The setmode() function takes an absolute (octal) or symbolic value, as described in chmod(1), as an argument and returns a pointer to mode values to be supplied to getmode(). Because some of the symbolic values are relative to the file creation mask, setmode() may call umask(2). If this occurs, the file creation mask will be restored before setmode() returns. If the calling program changes the value of its file cre- ation mask after calling setmode(), setmode() must be called again if getmode() is to modify future file modes correctly. If the mode passed to setmode() is invalid or if memory cannot be allocated for the return value, setmode() returns NULL. The value returned from setmode() is obtained from malloc() and should be returned to the system with free() when the program is done with it, generally after a call to getmode(). ERRORS
The setmode() function may fail and set errno for any of the errors specified for the library routine malloc(3). SEE ALSO
chmod(1), stat(2), umask(2), malloc(3) HISTORY
The getmode() and setmode() functions first appeared in 4.4BSD. BSD
April 28, 1995 BSD

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