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BSD 2.11 - man page for chmod (bsd section 1)

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CHMOD(1)										 CHMOD(1)

       chmod - change mode

       chmod [ -Rf ] mode file ...

       The  mode  of  each named file is changed according to mode, which may be absolute or sym-
       bolic.  An absolute mode is an octal number constructed	from  the  OR  of  the	following

       4000	 set user ID on execution
       2000	 set group ID on execution
       1000	 sticky bit, see chmod(2)
       0400	 read by owner
       0200	 write by owner
       0100	 execute (search in directory) by owner
       0070	 read, write, execute (search) by group
       0007	 read, write, execute (search) by others

       A symbolic mode has the form:

	      [who] op permission [op permission] ...

       The  who  part is a combination of the letters u (for user's permissions), g (group) and o
       (other).  The letter a stands for all, or ugo.  If who is omitted, the default  is  a  but
       the setting of the file creation mask (see umask(2)) is taken into account.

       Op  can	be  +  to  add	permission to the file's mode, - to take away permission and = to
       assign permission absolutely (all other bits will be reset).

       Permission is any combination of the letters r (read), w (write), x (execute), X (set exe-
       cute  only if file is a directory or some other execute bit is set), s (set owner or group
       id) and t (save text - sticky).	Letters u, g, or o indicate  that  permission  is  to  be
       taken  from  the current mode.  Omitting permission is only useful with = to take away all

       When the -R option is given, chmod recursively descends its  directory  arguments  setting
       the  mode  for  each  file as described above.  When symbolic links are encountered, their
       mode is not changed and they are not traversed.

       If the -f option is given, chmod will not complain if it fails to change  the  mode  on	a

       The first example denies write permission to others, the second makes a file executable by
       all if it is executable by anyone:

	      chmod o-w file
	      chmod +X file

       Multiple symbolic modes separated by commas may be given.  Operations are performed in the
       order specified.  The letter s is only useful with u or g.

       Only the owner of a file (or the super-user) may change its mode.

       ls(1), chmod(2), stat(2), umask(2), chown(8)

7th Edition				   May 22, 1986 				 CHMOD(1)
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