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PS(1)											    PS(1)

       ps - process status

       ps [ acgklnrtuwxU# [ core [ swap [ system ] ] ] ]

       Ps  prints certain indicia about active processes.  To get a complete printout on the con-
       sole or lpr, use ``ps axlw'' For a quick snapshot of system activity, ``ps au'' is  recom-
       mended.	A hyphen may precede options with no effect.  The following options may be speci-

       a      asks for information about all processes with terminals (ordinarily only one's  own
	      processes are displayed).

       c      causes  only  the  comm  field to be displayed instead of the arguments.	(The comm
	      field is the tail of the path name of the file the  process  last  exec'ed.)   This
	      option  speeds  up  ps  somewhat and reduces the amount of output.  It is also more
	      reliable since the process can't scribble on top of it.

       g      asks for all processes.  Without this option, ps only prints  ``interesting''  pro-
	      cesses.	Processes  are deemed to be uninteresting if they are process group lead-
	      ers, or if their arguments begin with a `-'.  This normally eliminates  shells  and
	      getty processes.

       k      causes  the file /usr/sys/core is used in place of /dev/kmem and /dev/mem.  This is
	      used for postmortem system debugging.

       l      asks for a long listing.	The short listing contains the	user  name,  process  ID,
	      tty,  the cumulative execution time of the process and an approximation to the com-
	      mand line.

       n      asks for numeric rather than symbolic wchans.  This flag implies the ``l'' flag.

       r      asks for ``raw'' output.	A non-human readable sequence of structures is output  on
	      the  standard  output.   There  is  one  structure  for each process, the format is
	      defined by <psout.h>

	      restricts output to processes whose controlling tty is the specified ttyname (which
	      should  be  specified  as  printed by ps, including t?  for processes with no tty).
	      This option must be the last one given.

       u      A user oriented output is produced.  This includes the name of  the  owner  of  the
	      process, process id, nice value, size, tty, cpu time used, and the command.

       w      tells  ps you are on a wide terminal (132 columns).  Ps normally assumes you are on
	      an 80 column terminal.  This information is used to decide how much  of  long  com-
	      mands to print.  The w option may be repeated, e.g.  ww, and the entire command, up
	      to 128 characters, will be printed without regard to terminal width.

       x      asks even about processes with no terminal.

       U      causes ps to update a private database where is  keeps  system  information.   Thus
	      ``ps -U'' should be included in the /etc/rc file.

       #      A  process  number may be given, (indicated here by #), in which case the output is
	      restricted to that process.  This option must also be last.

       A second argument tells ps where to look for core if the k option  is  given,  instead  of
       /usr/sys/core.	A third argument is the name of a swap file to use instead of the default
       /dev/swap.  If a fourth argument is given, it is taken to be the file containing the  sys-
       tem's namelist.	Otherwise, ``/unix'' is used.

       The output is sorted by tty, then by process ID.

       The long listing is columnar and contains

       F      Flags  associated  with  the  process.   These  are  defined  by	#define  lines in

       S      The state of the process.  0: nonexistent; S: sleeping; W: waiting; R: running;  I:
	      intermediate; Z: terminated; T: stopped.

       UID    The user id of the process owner.

       PID    The process ID of the process; as in certain cults it is possible to kill a process
	      if you know its true name.

       PPID   The process ID of the parent process.

       CPU    Processor utilization for scheduling.

       PRI    The priority of the process; high numbers mean low priority.

       NICE   Used in priority computation.

       ADDR   The memory address of the process if resident, otherwise the disk address.

       SZ     The size in blocks (512 bytes) of the memory image of the process.

       WCHAN  The event for which the process is waiting or sleeping; if blank,  the  process  is

       TTY    The controlling tty for the process.

       TIME   The cumulative execution time for the process.

	      The command and its arguments.

       A  process that has exited and has a parent, but has not yet been waited for by the parent
       is marked <defunct>.  Ps makes an educated guess as to the file name and  arguments  given
       when  the  process was created by examining memory or the swap area.  The method is inher-
       ently somewhat unreliable and in any event a process is entitled to destroy this  informa-
       tion, so the names cannot be counted on too much.

       /unix		   system namelist
       /dev/kmem	   kernel memory
       /dev/swap	   swap device
       /usr/sys/core	   core file
       /dev		   searched to find swap device and tty names
       /var/run/psdatabase system namelist and device information

       kill(1), w(1), pstat(8)

       Things  can change while ps is running; the picture it gives is only a close approximation
       to reality.

       Some processes, typically those in the background, are printed with null or garbaged argu-
       ments, even though the process has not swapped.	(Sometimes ps even loses on its own argu-
       ments!)	In these cases, the name of the command is printed in parentheses.

       When automatic crash dumps are enabled, /usr/sys/core is not a sensible default core  file

3rd Berkeley Distribution								    PS(1)
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