PI(1) General Commands Manual PI(1)
pi - Pascal interpreter code translator
pi [ -blnpstuwz ] [ -i name ... ] name.p
Pi translates the program in the file name.p leaving interpreter code in the file obj in the current directory. The interpreter code can
be executed using px. Pix performs the functions of pi and px for `load and go' Pascal.
The following flags are interpreted by pi; the associated options can also be controlled in comments within the program as described in the
Berkeley Pascal User's Manual.
-b Block buffer the file output.
-i Enable the listing for any specified procedures and functions and while processing any specified include files.
-l Make a program listing during translation.
-n Begin each listed include file on a new page with a banner line.
-p Suppress the post-mortem control flow backtrace if an error occurs; suppress statement limit counting.
-s Accept standard Pascal only; non-standard constructs cause warning diagnostics.
-t Suppress runtime tests of subrange variables and treat assert statements as comments.
-u Card image mode; only the first 72 characters of input lines are used.
-w Suppress warning diagnostics.
-z Allow execution profiling with pxp by generating statement counters, and arranging for the creation of the profile data file pmon.out
when the resulting object is executed.
file.p input file
file.i include file(s)
/usr/share/pascal/pi_stringstext of the error messages
/usr/share/pascal/how_pi*basic usage explanation
obj interpreter code output
Berkeley Pascal User's Manual
pcc(1), pix(1), px(1), pxp(1), pxref(1)
For a basic explanation do
In the diagnostic output of the translator, lines containing syntax errors are listed with a flag indicating the point of error. Diagnos-
tic messages indicate the action which the recovery mechanism took in order to be able to continue parsing. Some diagnostics indicate only
that the input is `malformed.' This occurs if the recovery can find no simple correction to make the input syntactically valid.
Semantic error diagnostics indicate a line in the source text near the point of error. Some errors evoke more than one diagnostic to help
pinpoint the error; the follow-up messages begin with an ellipsis `...'.
The first character of each error message indicates its class:
EFatal error; no code will be generated.
wWarning - a potential problem.
sNon-standard Pascal construct warning.
If a severe error occurs which inhibits further processing, the translator will give a diagnostic and then `QUIT'.
Charles B. Haley, William N. Joy, and Ken Thompson
Formal parameters which are procedures and functions are not supported.
The keyword packed and the function dispose are recognized but have no effect.
For clarity, semantic errors should be flagged at an appropriate place in the source text, and multiple instances of the `same' semantic
error should be summarized at the end of a procedure or function rather than evoking many diagnostics.
When include files are present, diagnostics relating to the last procedure in one file may appear after the beginning of the listing of the
3rd Berkeley Distribution PI(1)
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ERROR(1) BSD General Commands Manual ERROR(1)
error -- analyze and disperse compiler error messages
error [-n] [-s] [-q] [-v] [-t suffix_list] [-I ignore_file] [name]
error analyzes and optionally disperses the diagnostic error messages produced by a number of compilers and language processors to the source
file and line where the errors occurred. It can replace the painful, traditional methods of scribbling abbreviations of errors on paper, and
permits error messages and source code to be viewed simultaneously without machinations of multiple windows in a screen editor.
List of functions to ignore. See nullify, below.
-n Do not touch any files; all error messages are sent to the standard output.
-q The user is queried whether s/he wants to touch the file. A ``y'' or ``n'' to the question is necessary to continue. Absence of the
-q option implies that all referenced files (except those referring to discarded error messages) are to be touched.
-s Print out statistics regarding the error categorization. Not too useful.
Take the following argument as a suffix list. Files whose suffixes do not appear in the suffix list are not touched. The suffix
list is dot separated, and ``*'' wildcards work. Thus the suffix list:
allows error to touch files ending with ``.c'', ``.y'', ``.foo*'' and ``.h''.
-v After all files have been touched, overlay the visual editor vi(1) with it set up to edit all files touched, and positioned in the
first touched file at the first error. If vi(1) can't be found, try ex(1) or ed(1) from standard places.
error looks at the error messages, either from the specified file name or from the standard input, and attempts to determine which language
processor produced each error message, determines the source file and line number to which the error message refers, determines if the error
message is to be ignored or not, and inserts the (possibly slightly modified) error message into the source file as a comment on the line
preceding to which the line the error message refers. Error messages which can't be categorized by language processor or content are not
inserted into any file, but are sent to the standard output. error touches source files only after all input has been read.
error is intended to be run with its standard input connected via a pipe to the error message source. Some language processors put error
messages on their standard error file; others put their messages on the standard output. Hence, both error sources should be piped together
into error. For example, when using the csh(1) syntax,
make -s lint | error -q -v
will analyze all the error messages produced by whatever programs make(1) runs when making lint.
error knows about the error messages produced by: make(1), cc(1), cpp(1), ccom(1), as(1), ld(1), lint(1), pi(1), pc(1), f77(1), and DEC
Western Research Modula-2. error knows a standard format for error messages produced by the language processors, so is sensitive to changes
in these formats. For all languages except Pascal, error messages are restricted to be on one line. Some error messages refer to more than
one line in more than one files; error will duplicate the error message and insert it at all of the places referenced.
error will do one of six things with error messages.
synchronize Some language processors produce short errors describing which file it is processing. error uses these to determine the file
name for languages that don't include the file name in each error message. These synchronization messages are consumed entirely
discard Error messages from lint(1) that refer to one of the two lint(1) libraries, /usr/libdata/lint/llib-lc and
/usr/libdata/lint/llib-port are discarded, to prevent accidently touching these libraries. Again, these error messages are con-
sumed entirely by error.
nullify Error messages from lint(1) can be nullified if they refer to a specific function, which is known to generate diagnostics which
are not interesting. Nullified error messages are not inserted into the source file, but are written to the standard output.
The names of functions to ignore are taken from either the file named .errorrc in the user's home directory, or from the file
named by the -I option. If the file does not exist, no error messages are nullified. If the file does exist, there must be one
function name per line.
not file specific
Error messages that can't be intuited are grouped together, and written to the standard output before any files are touched.
They will not be inserted into any source file.
Error message that refer to a specific file, but to no specific line, are written to the standard output when that file is
true errors Error messages that can be intuited are candidates for insertion into the file to which they refer.
Only true error messages are candidates for inserting into the file they refer to. Other error messages are consumed entirely by error or
are written to the standard output. error inserts the error messages into the source file on the line preceding the line the language pro-
cessor found in error.
Each error message is turned into a one line comment for the language, and is internally flagged with the string ``###'' at the beginning of
the error, and ``%%%'' at the end of the error. This makes pattern searching for errors easier with an editor, and allows the messages to be
easily removed. In addition, each error message contains the source line number for the line the message refers to.
A reasonably formatted source program can be recompiled with the error messages still in it, without having the error messages themselves
cause future errors. For poorly formatted source programs in free format languages, such as C or Pascal, it is possible to insert a comment
into another comment, which can wreak havoc with a future compilation. To avoid this, programs with comments and source on the same line
should be formatted so that language statements appear before comments.
error catches interrupt and terminate signals, and if in the insertion phase, will orderly terminate what it is doing.
as(1), cc(1), ccom(1), cpp(1), lint(1), make(1)
~/.errorrc function names to ignore for lint(1) error messages
/dev/tty user's teletype
The error command appeared in 4.0BSD.
Opens the teletype directly to do user querying.
Source files with links make a new copy of the file with only one link to it.
Changing a language processor's format of error messages may cause error to not understand the error message.
error, since it is purely mechanical, will not filter out subsequent errors caused by `floodgating' initiated by one syntactically trivial
error. Humans are still much better at discarding these related errors.
Pascal error messages belong after the lines affected (error puts them before). The alignment of the `' marking the point of error is also
disturbed by error.
error was designed for work on CRT's at reasonably high speed. It is less pleasant on slow speed terminals, and has never been used on hard-
4th Berkeley Distribution June 6, 1993 4th Berkeley Distribution