PI(1) General Commands Manual PI(1)NAME
pi - Pascal interpreter code translator
pi [ -blnpstuwz ] [ -i name ... ] name.p
Pi translates the program in the file name.p leaving interpreter code in the file obj in the current directory. The interpreter code can
be executed using px. Pix performs the functions of pi and px for `load and go' Pascal.
The following flags are interpreted by pi; the associated options can also be controlled in comments within the program as described in the
Berkeley Pascal User's Manual.
-b Block buffer the file output.
-i Enable the listing for any specified procedures and functions and while processing any specified include files.
-l Make a program listing during translation.
-n Begin each listed include file on a new page with a banner line.
-p Suppress the post-mortem control flow backtrace if an error occurs; suppress statement limit counting.
-s Accept standard Pascal only; non-standard constructs cause warning diagnostics.
-t Suppress runtime tests of subrange variables and treat assert statements as comments.
-u Card image mode; only the first 72 characters of input lines are used.
-w Suppress warning diagnostics.
-z Allow execution profiling with pxp by generating statement counters, and arranging for the creation of the profile data file pmon.out
when the resulting object is executed.
file.p input file
file.i include file(s)
/usr/share/pascal/pi_stringstext of the error messages
/usr/share/pascal/how_pi*basic usage explanation
obj interpreter code output
Berkeley Pascal User's Manual
pcc(1), pix(1), px(1), pxp(1), pxref(1)DIAGNOSTICS
For a basic explanation do
In the diagnostic output of the translator, lines containing syntax errors are listed with a flag indicating the point of error. Diagnos-
tic messages indicate the action which the recovery mechanism took in order to be able to continue parsing. Some diagnostics indicate only
that the input is `malformed.' This occurs if the recovery can find no simple correction to make the input syntactically valid.
Semantic error diagnostics indicate a line in the source text near the point of error. Some errors evoke more than one diagnostic to help
pinpoint the error; the follow-up messages begin with an ellipsis `...'.
The first character of each error message indicates its class:
EFatal error; no code will be generated.
wWarning - a potential problem.
sNon-standard Pascal construct warning.
If a severe error occurs which inhibits further processing, the translator will give a diagnostic and then `QUIT'.
Charles B. Haley, William N. Joy, and Ken Thompson
Formal parameters which are procedures and functions are not supported.
The keyword packed and the function dispose are recognized but have no effect.
For clarity, semantic errors should be flagged at an appropriate place in the source text, and multiple instances of the `same' semantic
error should be summarized at the end of a procedure or function rather than evoking many diagnostics.
When include files are present, diagnostics relating to the last procedure in one file may appear after the beginning of the listing of the
3rd Berkeley DistributionPI(1)
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CTAGS(1) General Commands Manual CTAGS(1)NAME
ctags - create a tags file
ctags [ -BFatuwvx ] [ -f tagsfile ] name ...
Ctags makes a tags file for ex(1) from the specified C, Pascal, Fortran, YACC, lex, and lisp sources. A tags file gives the locations of
specified objects (in this case functions and typedefs) in a group of files. Each line of the tags file contains the object name, the file
in which it is defined, and an address specification for the object definition. Functions are searched with a pattern, typedefs with a line
number. Specifiers are given in separate fields on the line, separated by blanks or tabs. Using the tags file, ex can quickly find these
If the -x flag is given, ctags produces a list of object names, the line number and file name on which each is defined, as well as the text
of that line and prints this on the standard output. This is a simple index which can be printed out as an off-line readable function
If the -v flag is given, an index of the form expected by vgrind(1) is produced on the standard output. This listing contains the function
name, file name, and page number (assuming 64 line pages). Since the output will be sorted into lexicographic order, it may be desired to
run the output through sort -f. Sample use:
ctags -v files | sort -f > index
vgrind -x index
Normally ctags places the tag descriptions in a file called tags; this may be overridden with the -f option.
Files whose names end in .c or .h are assumed to be C source files and are searched for C routine and macro definitions. Files whose names
end in .y are assumed to be YACC source files. Files whose names end in .l are assumed to be either lisp files if their first non-blank
character is `;', `(', or `[', or lex files otherwise. Other files are first examined to see if they contain any Pascal or Fortran routine
definitions; if not, they are processed again looking for C definitions.
Other options are:
-F use forward searching patterns (/.../) (default).
-B use backward searching patterns (?...?).
-a append to tags file.
-t create tags for typedefs.
-w suppressing warning diagnostics.
-u causing the specified files to be updated in tags, that is, all references to them are deleted, and the new values are appended to the
file. (Beware: this option is implemented in a way which is rather slow; it is usually faster to simply rebuild the tags file.)
The tag main is treated specially in C programs. The tag formed is created by prepending M to the name of the file, with a trailing .c
removed, if any, and leading pathname components also removed. This makes use of ctags practical in directories with more than one pro-
tags output tags file
SEE ALSO ex(1), vi(1)AUTHOR
Ken Arnold; FORTRAN added by Jim Kleckner; Bill Joy added Pascal and -x, replacing cxref; C typedefs added by Ed Pelegri-Llopart.
Recognition of functions, subroutines and procedures for FORTRAN and Pascal is done is a very simpleminded way. No attempt is made to deal
with block structure; if you have two Pascal procedures in different blocks with the same name you lose.
The method of deciding whether to look for C or Pascal and FORTRAN functions is a hack.
Does not know about #ifdefs.
Should know about Pascal types. Relies on the input being well formed to detect typedefs. Use of -tx shows only the last line of type-
4th Berkeley Distribution May 30, 1985 CTAGS(1)