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pi(1) [bsd man page]

PI(1)							      General Commands Manual							     PI(1)

pi - Pascal interpreter code translator SYNOPSIS
pi [ -blnpstuwz ] [ -i name ... ] name.p DESCRIPTION
Pi translates the program in the file name.p leaving interpreter code in the file obj in the current directory. The interpreter code can be executed using px. Pix performs the functions of pi and px for `load and go' Pascal. The following flags are interpreted by pi; the associated options can also be controlled in comments within the program as described in the Berkeley Pascal User's Manual. -b Block buffer the file output. -i Enable the listing for any specified procedures and functions and while processing any specified include files. -l Make a program listing during translation. -n Begin each listed include file on a new page with a banner line. -p Suppress the post-mortem control flow backtrace if an error occurs; suppress statement limit counting. -s Accept standard Pascal only; non-standard constructs cause warning diagnostics. -t Suppress runtime tests of subrange variables and treat assert statements as comments. -u Card image mode; only the first 72 characters of input lines are used. -w Suppress warning diagnostics. -z Allow execution profiling with pxp by generating statement counters, and arranging for the creation of the profile data file pmon.out when the resulting object is executed. FILES
file.p input file file.i include file(s) /usr/share/pascal/pi_stringstext of the error messages /usr/share/pascal/how_pi*basic usage explanation obj interpreter code output SEE ALSO
Berkeley Pascal User's Manual pcc(1), pix(1), px(1), pxp(1), pxref(1) DIAGNOSTICS
For a basic explanation do pi In the diagnostic output of the translator, lines containing syntax errors are listed with a flag indicating the point of error. Diagnos- tic messages indicate the action which the recovery mechanism took in order to be able to continue parsing. Some diagnostics indicate only that the input is `malformed.' This occurs if the recovery can find no simple correction to make the input syntactically valid. Semantic error diagnostics indicate a line in the source text near the point of error. Some errors evoke more than one diagnostic to help pinpoint the error; the follow-up messages begin with an ellipsis `...'. The first character of each error message indicates its class: EFatal error; no code will be generated. eNon-fatal error. wWarning - a potential problem. sNon-standard Pascal construct warning. If a severe error occurs which inhibits further processing, the translator will give a diagnostic and then `QUIT'. AUTHORS
Charles B. Haley, William N. Joy, and Ken Thompson BUGS
Formal parameters which are procedures and functions are not supported. The keyword packed and the function dispose are recognized but have no effect. For clarity, semantic errors should be flagged at an appropriate place in the source text, and multiple instances of the `same' semantic error should be summarized at the end of a procedure or function rather than evoking many diagnostics. When include files are present, diagnostics relating to the last procedure in one file may appear after the beginning of the listing of the next. 3rd Berkeley Distribution PI(1)

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CTAGS(1)						    BSD General Commands Manual 						  CTAGS(1)

ctags -- create a tags file SYNOPSIS
ctags [-BFadtuwvx] [-f tags_file] name ... DESCRIPTION
ctags makes a tags file for ex(1) from the specified C, Pascal, Fortran, YACC, lex, and lisp sources. A tags file gives the locations of specified objects in a group of files. Each line of the tags file contains the object name, the file in which it is defined, and a search pattern for the object definition, separated by white-space. Using the tags file, ex(1) can quickly locate these object definitions. Depending upon the options provided to ctags, objects will consist of subroutines, typedefs, defines, structs, enums, and unions. -a append to tags file. -B use backward searching patterns (?...?). -d create tags for #defines that don't take arguments; #defines that take arguments are tagged automatically. -F use forward searching patterns (/.../) (the default). -f Places the tag descriptions in a file called tags_file. The default behavior is to place them in a file called tags. -t create tags for typedefs, structs, unions, and enums. -u update the specified files in the tags file, that is, all references to them are deleted, and the new values are appended to the file. (Beware: this option is implemented in a way which is rather slow; it is usually faster to simply rebuild the tags file.) -v An index of the form expected by vgrind(1) is produced on the standard output. This listing contains the object name, file name, and page number (assuming 64-line pages). Because the output will be sorted into lexicographic order, it may be desirable to run the output through sort(1). Sample use: ctags -v files | sort -f > index vgrind -x index -w suppress warning diagnostics. -x ctags produces a list of object names, the line number and file name on which each is defined, as well as the text of that line and prints this on the standard output. This is a simple function index which can be printed out for reading off-line. Files whose names end in '.c' or '.h' are assumed to be C source files and are searched for C style routine and macro definitions. Files whose names end in '.y' are assumed to be YACC source files. Files whose names end in '.l' are assumed to be lisp files if their first non- blank character is `;', `(', or `[', otherwise, they are treated as lex files. Other files are first examined to see if they contain any Pascal or Fortran routine definitions; if not, they are searched for C-style definitions. The tag main is treated specially in C programs. The tag formed is created by prepending M to the name of the file, with the trailing '.c' and any leading pathname components removed. This makes use of ctags practical in directories with more than one program. Yacc and lex files each have a special tag. Yyparse is the start of the second section of the yacc file, and yylex is the start of the sec- ond section of the lex file. FILES
tags default output tags file DIAGNOSTICS
ctags exits with a value of 1 if an error occurred, 0 otherwise. Duplicate objects are not considered to be errors. SEE ALSO
cc(1), ex(1), lex(1), sort(1), vgrind(1), vi(1), yacc(1) BUGS
Recognition of functions, subroutines, and procedures for FORTRAN and Pascal is done in a very simple-minded way. No attempt is made to deal with block structure; if you have Pascal procedures with the same name in different blocks, you lose. ctags doesn't understand about Pascal types. The method of deciding whether to look for C, Pascal, or FORTRAN functions is a hack. ctags relies on the input being well formed, so any syntactical errors will completely confuse it. It also finds some legal syntax to be confusing; for example, because it doesn't understand #ifdef's (incidentally, that's a feature, not a bug), any code with unbalanced braces inside #ifdef's will cause it to become somewhat disoriented. In a similar fashion, multiple line changes within a definition will cause it to enter the last line of the object, rather than the first, as the searching pattern. The last line of multiple line typedef's will simi- larly be noted. HISTORY
The ctags command appeared in 3.0BSD. 4th Berkeley Distribution June 6, 1993 4th Berkeley Distribution
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