# bc(1) [bsd man page]

BC(1) General Commands Manual BC(1)NAME

bc - arbitrary-precision arithmetic languageSYNOPSIS

bc [] [-c] [ file ... ]-lDESCRIPTION

Bc is an interactive processor for a language which resembles C but provides unlimited precision arithmetic. It takes input from any files given, then reads the standard input. Theargument stands for the name of an arbitrary precision math library. The syntax for bc pro- grams is as follows; L means letter a-z, E means expression, S means statement. Comments are enclosed in /* and */. Names simple variables: L array elements: L [ E ] The words `ibase', `obase', and `scale' Other operands arbitrarily long numbers with optional sign and decimal point. ( E ) sqrt ( E ) length ( E ) number of significant decimal digits scale ( E ) number of digits right of decimal point L ( E , ... , E ) Operators + - * / % ^ (% is remainder; ^ is power) ++-l(prefix and postfix; apply to names) == <= >= != < > = +=--*= /= %= ^= Statements E { S ; ... ; S } if ( E ) S while ( E ) S for ( E ; E ; E ) S null statement break quit Function definitions define L ( L ,..., L ) { auto L, ... , L S; ... S return ( E ) } Functions in-=math library s(x) sine c(x) cosine e(x) exponential l(x) log a(x) arctangent j(n,x) Bessel function All function arguments are passed by value. The value of a statement that is an expression is printed unless the main operator is an assignment. Either semicolons or newlines may separate statements. Assignment to scale influences the number of digits to be retained on arithmetic operations in the manner of dc(1). Assignments to ibase or obase set the input and output number radix respectively. The same letter may be used as an array, a function, and a simple variable simultaneously. All variables are global to the program. `Auto' variables are pushed down during function calls. When using arrays as function arguments or defining them as automatic variables empty square brackets must follow the array name. For example scale = 20 define e(x){ auto a, b, c, i, s a = 1 b = 1 s = 1 for(i=1; 1==1; i++){ a = a*x b = b*i c = a/b if(c == 0) return(s) s = s+c } } defines a function to compute an approximate value of the exponential function and for(i=1; i<=10; i++) e(i) prints approximate values of the exponential function of the first ten integers. Bc is actually a preprocessor for dc(1), which it invokes automatically, unless the-l(compile only) option is present. In this case the dc input is sent to the standard output instead.-cFILES

/usr/share/misc/lib.b mathematical library dc(1) desk calculator properSEE ALSO

dc(1) L. L. Cherry and R. Morris, BC - An arbitrary precision desk-calculator languageBUGS

No &&, ||, or ! operators. For statement must have all three E's. Quit is interpreted when read, not when executed.7th EditionOctober 21, 1996 BC(1)

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BC(1) General Commands Manual BC(1)NAME

bc - arbitrary-precision arithmetic languageSYNOPSIS

bc [] [-c] [ file ... ]-lDESCRIPTION

Bc is an interactive processor for a language that resembles C but provides arithmetic on numbers of arbitrary length with up to 100 digits right of the decimal point. It takes input from any files given, then reads the standard input. Theargument stands for the name of an arbitrary precision math library. The following syntax for bc programs is like that of C; L means letter a-z, E means expression, S means statement. Lexical comments are enclosed in /* */ newlines end statements Names simple variables: L array elements: L[E] The words ibase, obase, and scale Other operands arbitrarily long numbers with optional sign and decimal point. (E) sqrt(E) length(E) number of significant decimal digits scale(E) number of digits right of decimal point L(E,...,E) function call Operators + - * / % ^ (% is remainder; ^ is power) ++-l== <= >= != < > = +=--*= /= %= ^= Statements E { S ; ... ; S } print E if ( E ) S while ( E ) S for ( E ; E ; E ) S null statement break quit "text" Function definitions define L ( L , ... , L ){ auto L , ... , L S ; ... ; S return E } Functions in-=math library s(x) sine c(x) cosine e(x) exponential l(x) log a(x) arctangent j(n, x) Bessel function All function arguments are passed by value. The value of an expression at the top level is printed unless the main operator is an assignment. Text in quotes, which may include new- lines, is also printed. Either semicolons or newlines may separate statements. Assignment to scale influences the number of digits to be retained on arithmetic operations in the manner of dc(1). Assignments to ibase or obase set the input and output number radix respec- tively. The same letter may be used as an array, a function, and a simple variable simultaneously. All variables are global to the program. Auto- matic variables are pushed down during function calls. In a declaration of an array as a function argument or automatic variable empty square brackets must follow the array name. Bc is actually a preprocessor for dc(1), which it invokes automatically, unless the-l(compile only) option is present. In this case the dc input is sent to the standard output instead.-cEXAMPLE

Define a function to compute an approximate value of the exponential. Use it to print 10 values. (The exponential function in the library gives better answers.) scale = 20 define e(x) { auto a, b, c, i, s a = 1 b = 1 s = 1 for(i=1; 1; i++) { a *= x b *= i c = a/b if(c == 0) return s s += c } } for(i=1; i<=10; i++) print e(i)FILES

/sys/lib/bclib mathematical librarySOURCE

/sys/src/cmd/bc.ySEE ALSO

dc(1), hoc(1)BUGS

No or operators. A statement must have all three A is interpreted when read, not when executed. BC(1)