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BSD 2.11 - man page for dc (bsd section 1)

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DC(1)											    DC(1)

NAME
       dc - desk calculator

SYNOPSIS
       dc [ file ]

DESCRIPTION
       Dc  is an arbitrary precision arithmetic package.  Ordinarily it operates on decimal inte-
       gers, but one may specify an input base, output base, and a number of fractional digits to
       be maintained.  The overall structure of dc is a stacking (reverse Polish) calculator.  If
       an argument is given, input is taken from that file until its end, then from the  standard
       input.  The following constructions are recognized:

       number
	     The  value  of the number is pushed on the stack.	A number is an unbroken string of
	     the digits 0-9.  It may be preceded by an underscore _ to input a	negative  number.
	     Numbers may contain decimal points.

       +  - /  *  %  ^
	     The  top  two  values  on	the  stack are added (+), subtracted (-), multiplied (*),
	     divided (/), remaindered (%), or exponentiated (^).  The two entries are popped  off
	     the stack; the result is pushed on the stack in their place.  Any fractional part of
	     an exponent is ignored.

       sx    The top of the stack is popped and stored into a register named x, where  x  may  be
	     any  character.   If  the s is capitalized, x is treated as a stack and the value is
	     pushed on it.

       lx    The value in register x is pushed on the stack.  The register x is not altered.  All
	     registers	start with zero value.	If the l is capitalized, register x is treated as
	     a stack and its top value is popped onto the main stack.

       d     The top value on the stack is duplicated.

       p     The top value on the stack is printed.  The top value remains unchanged.	P  inter-
	     prets the top of the stack as an ascii string, removes it, and prints it.

       f     All values on the stack and in registers are printed.

       q     exits the program.  If executing a string, the recursion level is popped by two.  If
	     q is capitalized, the top value on the stack is  popped  and  the	string	execution
	     level is popped by that value.

       x     treats  the  top  element	of  the  stack as a character string and executes it as a
	     string of dc commands.

       X     replaces the number on the top of the stack with its scale factor.

       [ ... ]
	     puts the bracketed ascii string onto the top of the stack.

       <x  >x  =x
	     The top two elements of the stack are popped and compared.  Register x  is  executed
	     if they obey the stated relation.

       v     replaces  the  top element on the stack by its square root.  Any existing fractional
	     part of the argument is taken into  account,  but	otherwise  the	scale  factor  is
	     ignored.

       !     interprets the rest of the line as a UNIX command.

       c     All values on the stack are popped.

       i     The top value on the stack is popped and used as the number radix for further input.
	     I pushes the input base on the top of the stack.

       o     The top value on the stack is popped and used as the number radix for  further  out-
	     put.

       O     pushes the output base on the top of the stack.

       k     the  top of the stack is popped, and that value is used as a non-negative scale fac-
	     tor: the appropriate number of places are printed on output, and  maintained  during
	     multiplication,  division,  and  exponentiation.	The  interaction of scale factor,
	     input base, and output base will be reasonable if all are changed together.

       z     The stack level is pushed onto the stack.

       Z     replaces the number on the top of the stack with its length.

       ?     A line of input is taken from the input source (usually the terminal) and executed.

       ; :   are used by bc for array operations.

       An example which prints the first ten values of n! is

	  [la1+dsa*pla10>y]sy
	  0sa1
	  lyx

SEE ALSO
       bc(1), which is a preprocessor for dc providing infix notation and a C-like  syntax  which
       implements functions and reasonable control structures for programs.

DIAGNOSTICS
       `x is unimplemented' where x is an octal number.
       `stack empty' for not enough elements on the stack to do what was asked.
       `Out of space' when the free list is exhausted (too many digits).
       `Out of headers' for too many numbers being kept around.
       `Out of pushdown' for too many items on the stack.
       `Nesting Depth' for too many levels of nested execution.

7th Edition				  April 29, 1985				    DC(1)
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