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as(1) [bsd man page]

AS(1)							      General Commands Manual							     AS(1)

as - assembler SYNOPSIS
as [ -u ] [ -V ] [ -o objfile ] file ... DESCRIPTION
As assembles the concatenation of the named files. The options are: -u Treat all undefined symbols in the assembly as external globals. -V Produce an object suitable for loading into an automatic text overlaid program. -o Use objfil for the name of the resultant object. If this is omitted, a.out is used. If no errors occurred during the assembly and if there were no unresolved external references, it is made executable. The special file name -- serves two purposes. It signals the end of all options and causes stdin to be read for input. Thus it is now possible to pipe data to the assembler: /lib/cpp -E foo.s | sed -e ';^#;/;' | as -o foo.o -- The file name -- may be placed between normal files, when EOF is detected on stdin the next file in the argument list is opened and read. If no input files are specified then stdin is read. FILES
/tmp/atm1 temporary a.out object SEE ALSO
adb(1), ld(1), nm(1), a.out(5) UNIX Assembler Manual by D. M. Ritchie DIAGNOSTICS
When an input file cannot be read, its name followed by a question mark is typed and assembly ceases. When syntactic or semantic errors occur, a single-character diagnostic is typed out together with the line number and the file name in which it occurred. Errors in pass 1 cause cancellation of pass 2. The possible errors are: ) Parentheses error ] Parentheses error < String not terminated properly * Indirection used illegally . Illegal assignment to `.' a Error in address b Branch instruction is odd or too remote e Error in expression f Error in local (`f' or `b') type symbol g Garbage (unknown) character i End of file inside an if m Multiply defined symbol as label o Word quantity assembled at odd address p `.' different in pass 1 and 2 r Relocation error u Undefined symbol x Syntax error BUGS
Syntax errors can cause incorrect line numbers in following diagnostics. 3rd Berkeley Distribution AS(1)

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MACRO8X(1)						      General Commands Manual							MACRO8X(1)

macro8x - PDP8 macro assembler SYNOPSIS
macro8x [ -d -m -p -r -x ] inputfile inputfile... DESCRIPTION
This manual page documents briefly the macro8x command. This is a cross-assembler to for PDP/8 assembly language programs. It will pro- duce an output file in bin format, rim format, and using the appropriate pseudo-ops, a combination of rim and bin formats. A listing file is always produced and with an optional symbol table and/or a symbol cross-reference (concordance). The permanent symbol table can be out- put in a form that may be read back in so a customized permanent symbol table can be produced. Any detected errors are output to a sepa- rate file giving the filename in which they were detected along with the line number, column number and error message as well as marking the error in the listing file. The following file name extensions are used: .pal source code (input) .lst assembly listing (output) .bin assembly output in DEC's bin format (output) .rim assembly output in DEC's rim format (output) .err assembly errors detected (if any) (output) .prm permanent symbol table in form suitable for reading after the EXPUNGE pseudo-op. OPTIONS
-d Dump the symbol table at end of assembly -m Print macro expansions. -p Generate a file with the permanent symbols in it. (To get the current symbol table, assemble a file than has only a $ in it.) -r Produce output in rim format (default is bin format) -x Generate a cross-reference (concordance) of user symbols. DIAGNOSTICS
Assembler error diagnostics are output to an error file and inserted in the listing file. Each line in the error file has the form <filename>(<line>:<col>) : error: <message> at Loc = <loc> An example error message is: bintst.pal(17:9) : error: undefined symbol "UNDEF" at Loc = 07616 The error diagnostics put in the listing start with a two character error code (if appropriate) and a short message. A carat '^' is placed under the item in error if appropriate. An example error message is: 17 07616 3000 DCA UNDEF UD undefined ^ 18 07617 1777 TAD I DUMMY When an indirect is generated, an at character '@' is placed after the the instruction value in the listing as an indicator as follows: 14 03716 1777@ TAD OFFPAG Undefined symbols are marked in the symbol table listing by prepending a '?' to the symbol. Redefined symbols are marked in the symbol ta- ble listing by prepending a '#' to the symbol. Examples are: #REDEF 04567 SWITCH 07612 ?UNDEF 00000 Refer to the (source) code for the diagnostic messages generated. BUGS
Only a minimal effort has been made to keep the listing format anything like the PAL-8 listing format. The operation of the conditional assembly pseudo-ops may not function exactly as the DEC versions. I did not have any examples of these so the implementation is my inter- pretation of how they should work. The RIMPUNch and BINPUNch pseudo-ops do not change the binary output file type that was specified on startup. This was intentional and allows rim formatted data to be output prior to the actual binary formatted data. On UN*X style systems, the same effect can be achieved by using the "cat" command, but on DOS/Windows systems, doing this was a major chore. The floating point input does not generate values exactly as the DEC compiler does. I worked out several examples by hand and believe that this implementation is slightly more accurate. If I am mistaken, let me know and, if possible, a better method of generating the values. HISTORICAL NOTE
This assembler was written to support the fleet of PDP-8 systems used by the Bay Area Rapid Transit System. As of early 1997, this includes about 40 PDP-8/E systems driving the train destination signs in passenger stations. AUTHOR
Gary A. Messenbrink <> MACRO8X modifications: Bob Supnik < This manual page was written by Vince Mulhollon <>, for the Debian GNU/Linux system (but may be used by others). August 12, 2002 MACRO8X(1)

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