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man(1)					  User Commands 				   man(1)

NAME
       man - find and display reference manual pages

SYNOPSIS
       man [-] [-adFlrt] [-M path] [-T macro-package] [-s section] name...

       man [-M path] -k keyword...

       man [-M path] -f file...

DESCRIPTION
       The man command displays information from the reference manuals. It displays complete man-
       ual pages that you select by name, or one-line summaries selected either by keyword  (-k),
       or  by  the  name  of an associated file (-f). If no manual page is located, man prints an
       error message.

   Source Format
       Reference Manual pages are marked up with either nroff (see nroff(1))  or  SGML	(Standard
       Generalized  Markup  Language)  tags (see sgml(5)). The man command recognizes the type of
       markup and processes the file accordingly. The various source files are kept  in  separate
       directories depending on the type of markup.

   Location of Manual Pages
       The online Reference Manual page directories are conventionally located in /usr/share/man.
       The nroff sources are located in the /usr/share/man/man* directories. The SGML sources are
       located	in  the /usr/share/man/sman* directories. Each directory corresponds to a section
       of the manual. Since these directories are optionally installed, they might not reside  on
       your host. You might have to mount /usr/share/man from a host on which they do reside.

       If  there are preformatted, up-to-date versions in the corresponding cat* or fmt* directo-
       ries, man simply displays or prints those versions. If the preformatted version of  inter-
       est is out of date or missing, man reformats it prior to display and stores the preformat-
       ted version if cat* or fmt* is writable. The windex database  is  not  updated.	See  cat-
       man(1M).  If  directories  for the preformatted versions are not provided, man reformats a
       page whenever it is requested. man uses a temporary file to store the formatted text  dur-
       ing display.

       If  the standard output is not a terminal, or if the `-' flag is given, man pipes its out-
       put through cat(1). Otherwise, man pipes its output through more(1) to handle  paging  and
       underlining on the screen.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -a		   Shows  all  manual pages matching name within the MANPATH search path.
			   Manual pages are displayed in the order found.

       -d		   Debugs. Displays what a section-specifier evaluates	to,  method  used
			   for searching, and paths searched by man.

       -f file ...	   man attempts to locate manual pages related to any of the given files.
			   It strips the leading path name components from each  file,	and  then
			   prints  one-line summaries containing the resulting basename or names.
			   This option also uses the windex database.

       -F		   Forces man to search all  directories  specified  by  MANPATH  or  the
			   man.cf file, rather than using the windex lookup database. This option
			   is useful if the database is not up to date and it has been	made  the
			   default  behavior  of  the  man command. The option therefore does not
			   have to be invoked and is documented here for reference only.

       -k keyword ...	   Prints out one-line summaries from the windex database (table of  con-
			   tents)  that contain any of the given keywords. The windex database is
			   created using catman(1M).

       -l		   Lists all manual pages found matching name within the search path.

       -M path		   Specifies an alternate search path for manual pages. path is a  colon-
			   separated  list of directories that contain manual page directory sub-
			   trees. For example,	if  path  is  /usr/share/man:/usr/local/man,  man
			   searches  for  name in the standard location, and then /usr/local/man.
			   When used with the -k or -f options, the -M option must appear  first.
			   Each directory in the path is assumed to contain subdirectories of the
			   form man* or sman* , one for each section. This option  overrides  the
			   MANPATH environment variable.

       -r		   Reformats  the manual page, but does not display it. This replaces the
			   man - -t name combination.

       -s section ...	   Specifies sections of the manual for man to	search.  The  directories
			   searched  for  name are limited to those specified by section. section
			   can be a numerical digit, perhaps followed by one or more  letters  to
			   match the desired section of the manual, for example, "3libucb". Also,
			   section can be a word, for example, local, new, old,  public.  section
			   can also be a letter. To specify multiple sections, separate each sec-
			   tion with a comma. This option overrides the MANPATH environment vari-
			   able  and the man.cf file. See Search Path below for an explanation of
			   how man conducts its search.

       -t		   man arranges for the specified manual pages to be troffed to  a  suit-
			   able  raster  output device (see troff(1)). If both the - and -t flags
			   are given, man updates the troffed versions of  each  named	name  (if
			   necessary), but does not display them.

       -T macro-package    Formats manual pages using macro-package rather than the standard -man
			   macros defined in /usr/share/lib/tmac/an. See Search Path under  USAGE
			   for a complete explanation of the default search path order.

OPERANDS
       The following operand is supported:

       name    The name of a standard utility or a keyword.

USAGE
       The usage of man is described below:

   Manual Page Sections
       Entries in the reference manuals are organized into sections. A section name consists of a
       major section name, typically a single digit, optionally followed by  a	subsection  name,
       typically one or more letters. An unadorned major section name, for example, "9", does not
       act as an abbreviation for the subsections of that name, such as "9e", "9f", or "9s". That
       is,  each subsection must be searched separately by man -s. Each section contains descrip-
       tions apropos to a particular reference category, with subsections refining these distinc-
       tions.  See  the  intro manual pages for an explanation of the classification used in this
       release.

   Search Path
       Before searching for a given name, man constructs a list of candidate directories and sec-
       tions. man searches for name in the directories specified by the MANPATH environment vari-
       able.

       In the absence of MANPATH, man constructs its search path based upon the PATH  environment
       variable,  primarily  by substituting man for the last component of the PATH element. Spe-
       cial provisions are added to account for unique characteristics	of  directories  such  as
       /sbin,  /usr/ucb,  /usr/xpg4/bin, and others. If the file argument contains a / character,
       the dirname portion of the argument is used in place of PATH  elements  to  construct  the
       search path.

       Within  the  manual page directories, man confines its search to the sections specified in
       the following order:

	   o	  sections specified on the command line with the -s option

	   o	  sections embedded in the MANPATH environment variable

	   o	  sections specified in the man.cf file for each directory specified in the  MAN-
		  PATH environment variable

       If  none of the above exist, man searches each directory in the manual page path, and dis-
       plays the first matching manual page found.

       The man.cf file has the following format:

	 MANSECTS=section[,section]...

       Lines beginning with `#' and blank lines are considered comments, and  are  ignored.  Each
       directory  specified  in  MANPATH can contain a manual page configuration file, specifying
       the default search order for that directory.

FORMATTING MANUAL PAGES
       Manual pages are marked up in nroff(1) or sgml(5). Nroff manual	pages  are  processed  by
       nroff(1)  or  troff(1) with the -man macro package. Please refer to man(5) for information
       on macro usage. SGML--tagged manual pages are processed by an SGML parser  and  passed  to
       the formatter.

   Preprocessing Nroff Manual Pages
       When  formatting an nroff manual page, man examines the first line to determine whether it
       requires special processing. If the first line is a string of the form:

	 '\" X

       where X is separated from the `"' by a single SPACE and consists  of  any  combination  of
       characters  in the following list, man pipes its input to troff(1) or nroff(1) through the
       corresponding preprocessors.

       e    eqn(1), or neqn for nroff

       r    refer(1)

       t    tbl(1)

       v    vgrind(1)

       If eqn or neqn is invoked, it automatically reads  the  file  /usr/pub/eqnchar  (see  eqn-
       char(5)). If nroff(1) is invoked, col(1) is automatically used.

   Referring to Other nroff Manual Pages
       If  the	first  line  of the nroff manual page is a reference to another manual page entry
       fitting the pattern:

	 .so man*/sourcefile

       man processes the indicated file in place of  the  current  one.  The  reference  must  be
       expressed as a path name relative to the root of the manual page directory subtree.

       When  the  second  or  any  subsequent  line  starts with .so, man ignores it; troff(1) or
       nroff(1) processes the request in the usual manner.

   Processing SGML Manual Pages
       Manual pages are identified as being marked up in SGML  by  the	presence  of  the  string
       <!DOCTYPE.  If  the  file also contains the string SHADOW_PAGE, the file refers to another
       manual page for the content. The reference is made with a file  entity  reference  to  the
       manual page that contains the text. This is similar to the .so mechanism used in the nroff
       formatted man pages.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables	that  affect  the
       execution of man: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

       MANPATH	  A  colon-separated  list  of	directories;  each directory can be followed by a
		  comma-separated list of sections. If set, its value overrides /usr/share/man as
		  the  default	directory search path, and the man.cf file as the default section
		  search path. The -M and -s flags, in turn, override these values.)

       PAGER	  A program to use for interactively delivering man's output to  the  screen.  If
		  not set, `more -s' is used. See more(1).

       TCAT	  The name of the program to use to display troffed manual pages.

       TROFF	  The  name  of  the  formatter  to  use  when	the -t flag is given. If not set,
		  troff(1) is used.

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Creating a PostScript Version of a man page

       The following example creates the pipe(2) man page in postscript for csh, tcsh, ksh and sh
       users:

	      % env TCAT=/usr/lib/lp/postscript/dpost man -t -s 2 pipe > pipe.ps

       This  is  an alternative to using man -t, which sends the man page to the default printer,
       if the user wants a postscript file version of the man page.

       Example 2 Creating a Text Version of a man page

       The following example creates the pipe(2) man page in ascii text:

	 man pipe.2 | col -x -b > pipe.text

       This is an alternative to using man -t, which sends the man page to the	default  printer,
       if the user wants a text file version of the man page.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0     Successful completion.

       >0    An error occurred.

FILES
       /usr/share/man

	   Root of the standard manual page directory subtree

       /usr/share/man/man?/*

	   Unformatted nroff manual entries

       /usr/share/man/sman?/*

	   Unformatted SGML manual entries

       /usr/share/man/cat?/*

	   nroffed manual entries

       /usr/share/man/fmt?/*

	   troffed manual entries

       /usr/share/man/windex

	   Table of contents and keyword database

       /usr/share/lib/tmac/an

	   Standard -man macro package

       /usr/share/lib/sgml/locale/C/dtd/*

	   SGML document type definition files

       /usr/share/lib/sgml/locale/C/solbook/*

	   SGML style sheet and entity definitions directories

       /usr/share/lib/pub/eqnchar

	   Standard definitions for eqn and neqn

       man.cf

	   Default search order by section

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWdoc			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled, see NOTES.	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Committed 		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Standard		     |See standards(5). 	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       apropos(1),  cat(1),  col(1),  dpost(1),  eqn(1),  more(1),  nroff(1),  refer(1),  tbl(1),
       troff(1), vgrind(1), whatis(1), catman(1M), attributes(5), environ(5), eqnchar(5), man(5),
       sgml(5), standards(5)

NOTES
       The -f and -k options use the windex database, which is created by catman(1M).

       The  man  command  is  CSI-capable.  However,  some  utilities invoked by the man command,
       namely, troff, eqn, neqn, refer, tbl, and vgrind, are  not  verified  to  be  CSI-capable.
       Because	of  this,  the	man command with the -t option can not handle non-EUC data. Also,
       using the man command to display man pages that require special	processing  through  eqn,
       neqn, refer, tbl, or vgrind can not be CSI-capable.

BUGS
       The  manual is supposed to be reproducible either on a phototypesetter or on an ASCII ter-
       minal. However, on a terminal some information (indicated by font changes,  for	instance)
       is lost.

       Some  dumb  terminals  cannot  process the vertical motions produced by the e (see eqn(1))
       preprocessing flag. To prevent garbled output on these terminals, when you use e, also use
       t, to invoke col(1) implicitly. This workaround has the disadvantage of eliminating super-
       scripts and subscripts, even on those terminals that can display them. Control-q clears	a
       terminal that gets confused by eqn(1) output.

SunOS 5.11				    8 May 2008					   man(1)
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