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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for eqn (opensolaris section 1)

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eqn(1)					  User Commands 				   eqn(1)

NAME
       eqn, neqn, checkeq - typeset mathematics test

SYNOPSIS
       eqn [-d xy] [ -f n] [-p n] [ -s n] [file]...

       neqn [file]...

       checkeq [file]...

DESCRIPTION
       eqn  and  neqn  are  language  processors to assist in describing equations. eqn is a pre-
       processor for troff(1) and is intended for devices that can print  troff's output. neqn is
       a  preprocessor	for  nroff(1)  and  is	intended for use with terminals.  Usage is almost
       always:

	 example% eqn file ... | troff
	 example% neqn file ... | nroff

       If no files are specified, eqn and neqn read from the standard  input.  A  line	beginning
       with .EQ marks the start of an equation. The end of an equation is marked by a line begin-
       ning with .EN. Neither of these lines is altered, so they may be defined in macro packages
       to  get	centering,  numbering,	and  so on.  It is also possible to set two characters as
       ``delimiters''; subsequent text between delimiters is also treated as eqn input.

       checkeq reports missing or unbalanced delimiters and .EQ/.EN pairs.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -dxy	Sets equation delimiters set to characters x and y with  the  command-line  argu-
		ment.  The  more  common way to do this is with delim xy between .EQ and .EN. The
		left and right delimiters may be identical. Delimiters are turned  off	by  delim
		off  appearing	in  the  text.	All  text  that is neither between delimiters nor
		between .EQ and .EN is passed through untouched.

       -fn	Changes font to n globally in the document. The font can also be changed globally
		in  the  body of the document by using the gfont n directive, where n is the font
		specification.

       -pn	Reduces subscripts and superscripts by n point sizes from the previous size.   In
		the  absence of the -p option, subscripts and superscripts are reduced by 3 point
		sizes from the previous size.

       -sn	Changes point size to n globally in the document. The  point  size  can  also  be
		changed  globally  in  the  body  of the document by using the gsize n directive,
		where  n is the point size.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       file	The nroff or troff file processed by eqn or neqn.

EQN LANGUAGE
       The nroff version of this description depicts the output of  neqn to the  terminal  screen
       exactly	as   neqn is able to display it. To see an accurate depiction of the output, view
       the printed version of this page.

       Tokens within eqn are separated by braces, double  quotes,  tildes,  circumflexes,  SPACE,
       TAB,  or NEWLINE characters. Braces {} are used for grouping. Generally speaking, anywhere
       a single character like x could appear, a complicated construction enclosed in braces  may
       be  used instead. A tilde (~) represents a full SPACE in the output; a circumflex (^) half
       as much.

       Subscripts and superscripts:

	   These are produced with the keywords sub and sup.

	   x sub i			makes xi

	   a sub i sup 2		produces ai

	   e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}	gives e^(x^2+y^2)

       Fractions:

	   Fractions are made with over.

	   a over b	yields _

       Square Roots:

	   These are made with sqrt

	   1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c}

	       results in _________

       Limits:

	   The keywords from and to introduce lower and upper limits on arbitrary things:

	   lim from {n-> inf } sum from 0 to n x sub i
			   _
		makes nlimo>xi
			   0

       Brackets and Braces:

	   Left and right brackets, braces, and the like, of the right height are made with  left
	   and right.

	   left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1

	       produces [x2+__]=1

	       The  right  clause is optional.	Legal characters after left and right are braces,
	       brackets, bars, c and f for ceiling and floor, and "" for nothing at  all  (useful
	       for a right-side-only bracket).

       Vertical piles:

	   Vertical piles of things are made with  pile, lpile, cpile, and rpile.
						 a
	   pile {a above b above c}

					produces b

						 c

				       There  can  be  an arbitrary number of elements in a pile.
				       lpile left-justifies, pile and cpile center, with  differ-
				       ent vertical spacing, and rpile right justifies.

       Matrices:

	   Matrices are made with matrix.

	   matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 } }
			xi 1

	       produces

			y2 2

	       In addition, there is rcol for a right-justified column.

       Diacritical marks:

	   Diacritical marks are made with dot, dotdot, hat, tilde, bar, vec, dyad, and under.

	   x dot = f(t) bar		is x=f(t)

	   y dotdot bar ~=~ n under	is y=n

	   x vec ~=~ y dyad	       is x>=<y>

       Sizes and Fonts:

	   Sizes  and  font can be changed with size n or size +-n, roman, italic, bold, and font
	   n. Size and fonts can be changed globally in a document by gsize n and gfont n, or  by
	   the command-line arguments -sn and -fn.

       Successive display arguments:

	   Successive  display	arguments  can be lined up.  Place mark before the desired lineup
	   point in the first equation; place lineup at the place that is to line  up  vertically
	   in subsequent equations.

       Shorthands:

	   Shorthands may be defined or existing keywords redefined with define:

	   define thing % replacement %

	       Defines a new token called thing which will be replaced by replacement whenever it
	       appears thereafter. The % may be any character that does not occur in replacement.

       Keywords and Shorthands:

	   Keywords like sum int inf and shorthands like >= -> and != are recognized.

       Greek letters:

	   Greek letters are spelled out in the desired case, as in alpha or GAMMA.

       Mathematical words:

	   Mathematical words like  sin, cos, and  log are made Roman automatically.

       troff(1) four-character escapes like o (o) can be used anywhere. Strings enclosed in  dou-
       ble  quotes  "..."  are	passed	through untouched; this permits keywords to be entered as
       text, and can be used to communicate with troff when all else fails.

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWdoc			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       nroff(1), tbl(1), troff(1), attributes(5), ms(5)

BUGS
       To embolden characters such as digits and parentheses, it  is necessary to quote them,  as
       in `bold "12.3"'.

SunOS 5.11				   12 Jul 2002					   eqn(1)
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