Doubt in ls command

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Old 01-06-2014
Let me tell you

When you just type

1. ls -d it just shows the present directory which is denoted by ' . '
2. If you try using
ls -d * it just lists all the files inside the current directory
ls -d * | wc -l would give you the count of total number of files

Man pages for ls would say as said below,

Displays only the information for the directory named. Directories are treated like files, which is helpful when using the -l flag to get the status of a directory.

Let me know if you need any further clarifications,

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bup-margin(1)						      General Commands Manual						     bup-margin(1)

bup-margin - figure out your deduplication safety margin SYNOPSIS
bup margin [options...] DESCRIPTION
bup margin iterates through all objects in your bup repository, calculating the largest number of prefix bits shared between any two entries. This number, n, identifies the longest subset of SHA-1 you could use and still encounter a collision between your object ids. For example, one system that was tested had a collection of 11 million objects (70 GB), and bup margin returned 45. That means a 46-bit hash would be sufficient to avoid all collisions among that set of objects; each object in that repository could be uniquely identified by its first 46 bits. The number of bits needed seems to increase by about 1 or 2 for every doubling of the number of objects. Since SHA-1 hashes have 160 bits, that leaves 115 bits of margin. Of course, because SHA-1 hashes are essentially random, it's theoretically possible to use many more bits with far fewer objects. If you're paranoid about the possibility of SHA-1 collisions, you can monitor your repository by running bup margin occasionally to see if you're getting dangerously close to 160 bits. OPTIONS
--predict Guess the offset into each index file where a particular object will appear, and report the maximum deviation of the correct answer from the guess. This is potentially useful for tuning an interpolation search algorithm. --ignore-midx don't use .midx files, use only .idx files. This is only really useful when used with --predict. EXAMPLE
$ bup margin Reading indexes: 100.00% (1612581/1612581), done. 40 40 matching prefix bits 1.94 bits per doubling 120 bits (61.86 doublings) remaining 4.19338e+18 times larger is possible Everyone on earth could have 625878182 data sets like yours, all in one repository, and we would expect 1 object collision. $ bup margin --predict PackIdxList: using 1 index. Reading indexes: 100.00% (1612581/1612581), done. 915 of 1612581 (0.057%) SEE ALSO
bup-midx(1), bup-save(1) BUP
Part of the bup(1) suite. AUTHORS
Avery Pennarun <>. Bup unknown- bup-margin(1)