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Old 05-06-2005
Pid=0

What OS does not use PID=0? is it FreeBSD?

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timer(3erl)						     Erlang Module Definition						       timer(3erl)

NAME
timer - Timer Functions DESCRIPTION
This module provides useful functions related to time. Unless otherwise stated, time is always measured in milliseconds . All timer func- tions return immediately, regardless of work carried out by another process. Successful evaluations of the timer functions yield return values containing a timer reference, denoted TRef below. By using cancel/1 , the returned reference can be used to cancel any requested action. A TRef is an Erlang term, the contents of which must not be altered. The timeouts are not exact, but should be at least as long as requested. EXPORTS
start() -> ok Starts the timer server. Normally, the server does not need to be started explicitly. It is started dynamically if it is needed. This is useful during development, but in a target system the server should be started explicitly. Use configuration parameters for kernel for this. apply_after(Time, Module, Function, Arguments) -> {ok, Tref} | {error, Reason} Types Time = integer() in Milliseconds Module = Function = atom() Arguments = [term()] Evaluates apply(M, F, A) after Time amount of time has elapsed. Returns {ok, TRef} , or {error, Reason} . send_after(Time, Pid, Message) -> {ok, TRef} | {error,Reason} send_after(Time, Message) -> {ok, TRef} | {error,Reason} Types Time = integer() in Milliseconds Pid = pid() | atom() Message = term() Result = {ok, TRef} | {error, Reason} send_after/3 : Evaluates Pid ! Message after Time amount of time has elapsed. ( Pid can also be an atom of a registered name.) Returns {ok, TRef} , or {error, Reason} . send_after/2 : Same as send_after(Time, self(), Message) . exit_after(Time, Pid, Reason1) -> {ok, TRef} | {error,Reason2} exit_after(Time, Reason1) -> {ok, TRef} | {error,Reason2} kill_after(Time, Pid)-> {ok, TRef} | {error,Reason2} kill_after(Time) -> {ok, TRef} | {error,Reason2} Types Time = integer() in milliseconds Pid = pid() | atom() Reason1 = Reason2 = term() exit_after/3 : Send an exit signal with reason Reason1 to Pid Pid . Returns {ok, TRef} , or {error, Reason2} . exit_after/2 : Same as exit_after(Time, self(), Reason1) . kill_after/2 : Same as exit_after(Time, Pid, kill) . kill_after/1 : Same as exit_after(Time, self(), kill) . apply_interval(Time, Module, Function, Arguments) -> {ok, TRef} | {error, Reason} Types Time = integer() in milliseconds Module = Function = atom() Arguments = [term()] Evaluates apply(Module, Function, Arguments) repeatedly at intervals of Time . Returns {ok, TRef} , or {error, Reason} . send_interval(Time, Pid, Message) -> {ok, TRef} | {error, Reason} send_interval(Time, Message) -> {ok, TRef} | {error, Reason} Types Time = integer() in milliseconds Pid = pid() | atom() Message = term() Reason = term() send_interval/3 : Evaluates Pid ! Message repeatedly after Time amount of time has elapsed. ( Pid can also be an atom of a registered name.) Returns {ok, TRef} or {error, Reason} . send_interval/2 : Same as send_interval(Time, self(), Message) . cancel(TRef) -> {ok, cancel} | {error, Reason} Cancels a previously requested timeout. TRef is a unique timer reference returned by the timer function in question. Returns {ok, cancel} , or {error, Reason} when TRef is not a timer reference. sleep(Time) -> ok Types Time = integer() in milliseconds or the atom infinity Suspends the process calling this function for Time amount of milliseconds and then returns ok , or suspend the process forever if Time is the atom infinity . Naturally, this function does not return immediately. tc(Module, Function, Arguments) -> {Time, Value} tc(Fun, Arguments) -> {Time, Value} Types Module = Function = atom() Fun = fun() Arguments = [term()] Time = integer() in microseconds Value = term() tc/3 : Evaluates apply(Module, Function, Arguments) and measures the elapsed real time as reported by now/0 . Returns {Time, Value} , where Time is the elapsed real time in microseconds , and Value is what is returned from the apply. tc/2 : Evaluates apply(Fun, Arguments) . Otherwise works like tc/3 . now_diff(T2, T1) -> Tdiff Types T1 = T2 = {MegaSecs, Secs, MicroSecs} Tdiff = MegaSecs = Secs = MicroSecs = integer() Calculates the time difference Tdiff = T2 - T1 in microseconds , where T1 and T2 probably are timestamp tuples returned from erlang:now/0 . seconds(Seconds) -> Milliseconds Returns the number of milliseconds in Seconds . minutes(Minutes) -> Milliseconds Return the number of milliseconds in Minutes . hours(Hours) -> Milliseconds Returns the number of milliseconds in Hours . hms(Hours, Minutes, Seconds) -> Milliseconds Returns the number of milliseconds in Hours + Minutes + Seconds . EXAMPLES
This example illustrates how to print out "Hello World!" in 5 seconds: 1> timer:apply_after(5000, io, format, ["~nHello World!~n", []]). {ok,TRef} Hello World! The following coding example illustrates a process which performs a certain action and if this action is not completed within a certain limit, then the process is killed. Pid = spawn(mod, fun, [foo, bar]), %% If pid is not finished in 10 seconds, kill him {ok, R} = timer:kill_after(timer:seconds(10), Pid), ... %% We change our mind... timer:cancel(R), ... WARNING
A timer can always be removed by calling cancel/1 . An interval timer, i.e. a timer created by evaluating any of the functions apply_interval/4 , send_interval/3 , and send_interval/2 , is linked to the process towards which the timer performs its task. A one-shot timer, i.e. a timer created by evaluating any of the functions apply_after/4 , send_after/3 , send_after/2 , exit_after/3 , exit_after/2 , kill_after/2 , and kill_after/1 is not linked to any process. Hence, such a timer is removed only when it reaches its time- out, or if it is explicitly removed by a call to cancel/1 . Ericsson AB stdlib 1.17.3 timer(3erl)

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