Linux and UNIX Man Pages

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages

wpa_passphrase(8) [xfree86 man page]


wpa_passphrase - Generate a WPA PSK from an ASCII passphrase for a SSID SYNOPSIS
wpa_passphrase [ ssid ] [ passphrase ] OVERVIEW
wpa_passphrase pre-computes PSK entries for network configuration blocks of a wpa_supplicant.conf file. An ASCII passphrase and SSID are used to generate a 256-bit PSK. OPTIONS
ssid The SSID whose passphrase should be derived. passphrase The passphrase to use. If not included on the command line, passphrase will be read from standard input. SEE ALSO
wpa_supplicant.conf(5) wpa_supplicant(8) LEGAL
wpa_supplicant is copyright (c) 2003-2007, Jouni Malinen <> and contributors. All Rights Reserved. This program is dual-licensed under both the GPL version 2 and BSD license. Either license may be used at your option. 07 November 2012 WPA_PASSPHRASE(8)

Check Out this Related Man Page


wpa_supplicant.conf - configuration file for wpa_supplicant OVERVIEW
wpa_supplicant is configured using a text file that lists all accepted networks and security policies, including pre-shared keys. See the example configuration file, probably in /usr/share/doc/wpa_supplicant/, for detailed information about the configuration format and sup- ported fields. All file paths in this configuration file should use full (absolute, not relative to working directory) path in order to allow working directory to be changed. This can happen if wpa_supplicant is run in the background. Changes to configuration file can be reloaded be sending SIGHUP signal to wpa_supplicant ('killall -HUP wpa_supplicant'). Similarly, reloading can be triggered with the wpa_cli reconfigure command. Configuration file can include one or more network blocks, e.g., one for each used SSID. wpa_supplicant will automatically select the best network based on the order of network blocks in the configuration file, network security level (WPA/WPA2 is preferred), and signal strength. QUICK EXAMPLES
1. WPA-Personal (PSK) as home network and WPA-Enterprise with EAP-TLS as work network. # allow frontend (e.g., wpa_cli) to be used by all users in 'wheel' group ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=wheel # # home network; allow all valid ciphers network={ ssid="home" scan_ssid=1 key_mgmt=WPA-PSK psk="very secret passphrase" } # # work network; use EAP-TLS with WPA; allow only CCMP and TKIP ciphers network={ ssid="work" scan_ssid=1 key_mgmt=WPA-EAP pairwise=CCMP TKIP group=CCMP TKIP eap=TLS identity="" ca_cert="/etc/cert/ca.pem" client_cert="/etc/cert/user.pem" private_key="/etc/cert/user.prv" private_key_passwd="password" } 2. WPA-RADIUS/EAP-PEAP/MSCHAPv2 with RADIUS servers that use old peaplabel (e.g., Funk Odyssey and SBR, Meetinghouse Aegis, Interlink RAD- Series) ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=wheel network={ ssid="example" scan_ssid=1 key_mgmt=WPA-EAP eap=PEAP identity="" password="foobar" ca_cert="/etc/cert/ca.pem" phase1="peaplabel=0" phase2="auth=MSCHAPV2" } 3. EAP-TTLS/EAP-MD5-Challenge configuration with anonymous identity for the unencrypted use. Real identity is sent only within an encrypted TLS tunnel. ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=wheel network={ ssid="example" scan_ssid=1 key_mgmt=WPA-EAP eap=TTLS identity="" anonymous_identity="" password="foobar" ca_cert="/etc/cert/ca.pem" phase2="auth=MD5" } 4. IEEE 802.1X (i.e., no WPA) with dynamic WEP keys (require both unicast and broadcast); use EAP-TLS for authentication ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=wheel network={ ssid="1x-test" scan_ssid=1 key_mgmt=IEEE8021X eap=TLS identity="" ca_cert="/etc/cert/ca.pem" client_cert="/etc/cert/user.pem" private_key="/etc/cert/user.prv" private_key_passwd="password" eapol_flags=3 } 5. Catch all example that allows more or less all configuration modes. The configuration options are used based on what security policy is used in the selected SSID. This is mostly for testing and is not recommended for normal use. ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=wheel network={ ssid="example" scan_ssid=1 key_mgmt=WPA-EAP WPA-PSK IEEE8021X NONE pairwise=CCMP TKIP group=CCMP TKIP WEP104 WEP40 psk="very secret passphrase" eap=TTLS PEAP TLS identity="" password="foobar" ca_cert="/etc/cert/ca.pem" client_cert="/etc/cert/user.pem" private_key="/etc/cert/user.prv" private_key_passwd="password" phase1="peaplabel=0" ca_cert2="/etc/cert/ca2.pem" client_cert2="/etc/cer/user.pem" private_key2="/etc/cer/user.prv" private_key2_passwd="password" } 6. Authentication for wired Ethernet. This can be used with wired or roboswitch interface (-Dwired or -Droboswitch on command line). ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=wheel ap_scan=0 network={ key_mgmt=IEEE8021X eap=MD5 identity="user" password="password" eapol_flags=0 } CERTIFICATES
Some EAP authentication methods require use of certificates. EAP-TLS uses both server side and client certificates whereas EAP-PEAP and EAP-TTLS only require the server side certificate. When client certificate is used, a matching private key file has to also be included in configuration. If the private key uses a passphrase, this has to be configured in wpa_supplicant.conf ("private_key_passwd"). wpa_supplicant supports X.509 certificates in PEM and DER formats. User certificate and private key can be included in the same file. If the user certificate and private key is received in PKCS#12/PFX format, they need to be converted to suitable PEM/DER format for wpa_supplicant. This can be done, e.g., with following commands: # convert client certificate and private key to PEM format openssl pkcs12 -in example.pfx -out user.pem -clcerts # convert CA certificate (if included in PFX file) to PEM format openssl pkcs12 -in example.pfx -out ca.pem -cacerts -nokeys SEE ALSO
wpa_supplicant(8) openssl(1) 07 November 2012 WPA_SUPPLICANT.CONF(5)
Man Page