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Test Your Knowledge in Computers #244
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Networking research in the early 1970s by Robert E. Kahn and Vint Cerf let to the formulation of the Transmission Control Program (TCP), and its specification in December 1974 in RFC 699.
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les(8) [xfree86 man page]

LES(8)							       Maintenance Commands							    LES(8)

NAME
les, bus - ATM LAN Emulation service demons SYNOPSIS
les [-d module] [-m module] [-f configuration_file] bus [-d module] [-m module] [-f configuration_file] DESCRIPTION
LE Service consists of three components: LAN Emulation Configuration Server (lecs(8)), LAN Emulation Server (les) and Broadcast and Unknown Server (bus). Les performs the control coordination function for the emulated LAN. LE clients register MAC addresses and/or route descriptors they rep- resent to les, and later query it when they want to resolve MAC addresses/route descriptors into ATM addresses. Other LE control messages which are to be distributed to every client in ELAN are also sent to les. Les forwards these messages using Control Distribute VCC which it has set up to every client in ELAN. Bus handles data sent by clients to broadcast and multicast MAC addresses and some of the data directed to unicast addresses. LE Client has a possibility to send data directed to some unicast address to the bus before target's ATM address has been resolved and the Data Direct VCC has been established. Configuration file example for les and bus: [main] memdebug=True debug=True [load] #memdebug=True #debug=True [conn] debug=True #S1, LE Server's ATM address #S1=:47:00:23:00:00:00:03:00:00:01:00:02:01:00:20:ea:00:05:aa:00 S1=:47:00:23:00:00:00:03:03:00:01:00:02:01:00:20:ea:00:0a:e9:01 #S2, LAN Type S2="802.3" #S3, Maximum Frame Size S3=1516 #S4, Join Timeout, s S4=15 #S5, Maximum Frame Age, s S5=6 #S6, BUS Atm address S6=:47:00:23:00:00:00:03:03:00:01:00:02:01:00:20:ea:00:0a:e9:02 #viulu #S6=0,0,170 #ELANNAME="asdf" The configuration file contains each modules name in brackets followed by variable definitions for that module. The definitions are of form variable=value, where value can be either an integer, a truth value (True/False), a string enclosed in double quotes ("string") or an ATM address in hexadecimal format. Variables that can be set are the debug/memdebug for each module and variables S1-S6 as defined in LE speci- fication. S1=Address of the LES. This address is used in ATM signalling. S2=Type of the emulated LAN. Valid values is "802.3". S3=Maximum frame size. Valid value is 1516. S4=Join Timeout. Time in seconds which LES waits for LE_JOIN_REQUEST before tearing down a connection. S5=Maximum frame Age. Currently not used. S6=Address of the BUS. This address is used in ATM signalling. ELANNAME= Name of the emulated LAN SIGHUP causes restart of the server. All resources are released and server is started. SIGUSR1 causes the server to dump its internal state. SIGUSR2 shuts down the server (hopefully) gracefully. OPTIONS
-d module Set debugging messages on for a module. "All" sets debugging on for all modules. -m module Set memory debugging messages on for a module. "All" sets debugging on for all modules. -f configuration_file Use the specified configuration file instead of .lanevars. FILES
.lanevars configuration file BUGS
Servers don't establish point-to-multipoint connections to LE clients as the specification states, which means that some LE clients won't work with these servers. Supports only IEEE 802.3 / Ethernet type of ELANs. This manual page is confusing. AUTHOR
Marko Kiiskila, TUT <carnil@cs.tut.fi> SEE ALSO
lecs(8), atmsigd(8), zeppelin(8) Linux Sep 11, 1996 LES(8)

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LES(8)							       Maintenance Commands							    LES(8)

NAME
les, bus - ATM LAN Emulation service demons SYNOPSIS
les [-d module] [-m module] [-f configuration_file] bus [-d module] [-m module] [-f configuration_file] DESCRIPTION
LE Service consists of three components: LAN Emulation Configuration Server (lecs(8)), LAN Emulation Server (les) and Broadcast and Unknown Server (bus). Les performs the control coordination function for the emulated LAN. LE clients register MAC addresses and/or route descriptors they rep- resent to les, and later query it when they want to resolve MAC addresses/route descriptors into ATM addresses. Other LE control messages which are to be distributed to every client in ELAN are also sent to les. Les forwards these messages using Control Distribute VCC which it has set up to every client in ELAN. Bus handles data sent by clients to broadcast and multicast MAC addresses and some of the data directed to unicast addresses. LE Client has a possibility to send data directed to some unicast address to the bus before target's ATM address has been resolved and the Data Direct VCC has been established. Configuration file example for les and bus: [main] memdebug=True debug=True [load] #memdebug=True #debug=True [conn] debug=True #S1, LE Server's ATM address #S1=:47:00:23:00:00:00:03:00:00:01:00:02:01:00:20:ea:00:05:aa:00 S1=:47:00:23:00:00:00:03:03:00:01:00:02:01:00:20:ea:00:0a:e9:01 #S2, LAN Type S2="802.3" #S3, Maximum Frame Size S3=1516 #S4, Join Timeout, s S4=15 #S5, Maximum Frame Age, s S5=6 #S6, BUS Atm address S6=:47:00:23:00:00:00:03:03:00:01:00:02:01:00:20:ea:00:0a:e9:02 #viulu #S6=0,0,170 #ELANNAME="asdf" The configuration file contains each modules name in brackets followed by variable definitions for that module. The definitions are of form variable=value, where value can be either an integer, a truth value (True/False), a string enclosed in double quotes ("string") or an ATM address in hexadecimal format. Variables that can be set are the debug/memdebug for each module and variables S1-S6 as defined in LE speci- fication. S1=Address of the LES. This address is used in ATM signalling. S2=Type of the emulated LAN. Valid values is "802.3". S3=Maximum frame size. Valid value is 1516. S4=Join Timeout. Time in seconds which LES waits for LE_JOIN_REQUEST before tearing down a connection. S5=Maximum frame Age. Currently not used. S6=Address of the BUS. This address is used in ATM signalling. ELANNAME= Name of the emulated LAN SIGHUP causes restart of the server. All resources are released and server is started. SIGUSR1 causes the server to dump its internal state. SIGUSR2 shuts down the server (hopefully) gracefully. OPTIONS
-d module Set debugging messages on for a module. "All" sets debugging on for all modules. -m module Set memory debugging messages on for a module. "All" sets debugging on for all modules. -f configuration_file Use the specified configuration file instead of .lanevars. FILES
.lanevars configuration file BUGS
Servers don't establish point-to-multipoint connections to LE clients as the specification states, which means that some LE clients won't work with these servers. Supports only IEEE 802.3 / Ethernet type of ELANs. This manual page is confusing. AUTHOR
Marko Kiiskila, TUT <carnil@cs.tut.fi> SEE ALSO
lecs(8), atmsigd(8), zeppelin(8) Linux Sep 11, 1996 LES(8)

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