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X11R7.4 - man page for xcalc (x11r4 section 1)

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XCALC(1)										 XCALC(1)

NAME
       xcalc - scientific calculator for X

SYNOPSIS
       xcalc [-stipple] [-rpn] [-toolkitoption...]

DESCRIPTION
       xcalc is a scientific calculator desktop accessory that can emulate a TI-30 or an HP-10C.

OPTIONS
       xcalc  accepts  all of the standard toolkit command line options along with two additional
       options:

       -stipple
	       This option indicates that the background of the calculator should be drawn  using
	       a  stipple  of  the  foreground	and  background  colors.   On monochrome displays
	       improves the appearance.

       -rpn    This option indicates that Reverse Polish Notation should be used.  In  this  mode
	       the  calculator	will  look and behave like an HP-10C.  Without this flag, it will
	       emulate a TI-30.

OPERATION
       Pointer Usage: Operations may be performed with pointer button 1, or in some  cases,  with
       the  keyboard.	Many  common  calculator operations have keyboard accelerators.  To quit,
       press pointer button 3 on the AC key of the TI calculator, or the ON key of the HP  calcu-
       lator.

       Calculator  Key Usage (TI mode): The numbered keys, the +/- key, and the +, -, *, /, and =
       keys all do exactly what you would expect them to.  It should be noted that the	operators
       obey the standard rules of precedence.  Thus, entering "3+4*5=" results in "23", not "35".
       The parentheses can be used to override this.  For example, "(1+2+3)*(4+5+6)=" results  in
       "6*15=90".

       The  entire number in the calculator display can be selected, in order to paste the result
       of a calculation into text.

       The action procedures associated with each function are given below.  These are useful  if
       you are interested in defining a custom calculator.  The action used for all digit keys is
       digit(n), where n is the corresponding digit, 0..9.

       1/x	 Replaces the number in the  display  with  its  reciprocal.   The  corresponding
		 action procedure is reciprocal().

       x^2	 Squares  the  number  in  the	display.   The	corresponding action procedure is
		 square().

       SQRT	 Takes the square root of the number in the display.   The  corresponding  action
		 procedure is squareRoot().

       CE/C	 When  pressed	once, clears the number in the display without clearing the state
		 of the machine.  Allows you to re-enter a number if you make a mistake.   Press-
		 ing  it twice clears the state, also.	The corresponding action procedure for TI
		 mode is clear().

       AC	 Clears the display, the state, and the  memory.   Pressing  it  with  the  third
		 pointer  button  turns  off  the  calculator, in that it exits the program.  The
		 action procedure to clear the state is off(); to quit, quit().

       INV	 Invert function.  See the individual function keys for details.  The correspond-
		 ing action procedure is inverse().

       sin	 Computes  the	sine  of the number in the display, as interpreted by the current
		 DRG mode (see DRG, below).  If inverted, it computes the  arcsine.   The  corre-
		 sponding action procedure is sine().

       cos	 Computes  the cosine, or arccosine when inverted.  The corresponding action pro-
		 cedure is cosine().

       tan	 Computes the tangent, or arctangent when  inverted.   The  corresponding  action
		 procedure is tangent().

       DRG	 Changes  the  DRG mode, as indicated by 'DEG', 'RAD', or 'GRAD' at the bottom of
		 of the calculator ``liquid crystal'' display.	When in 'DEG'  mode,  numbers  in
		 the  display are taken as being degrees.  In 'RAD' mode, numbers are in radians,
		 and in 'GRAD' mode, numbers are in grads.  When inverted, the DRG key has a fea-
		 ture  of  converting  degrees to radians to grads and vice-versa.  Example:  put
		 the calculator into 'DEG' mode, and enter "45 INV DRG".  The display should  now
		 show  something  along  the lines of ".785398", which is 45 degrees converted to
		 radians.  The corresponding action procedure is degree().

       e	 The constant 'e'.  (2.7182818...).  The corresponding action procedure is e().

       EE	 Used for entering exponential numbers.  For  example,	to  get  "-2.3E-4"  you'd
		 enter "2 . 3 +/- EE 4 +/-".  The corresponding action procedure is scientific().

       log	 Calculates  the  log  (base 10) of the number in the display.	When inverted, it
		 raises "10.0" to the number in the display.  For example, entering "3	INV  log"
		 should result in "1000".  The corresponding action procedure is logarithm().

       ln	 Calculates  the  log  (base  e) of the number in the display.	When inverted, it
		 raises "e" to the number in the display.  For example, entering  "e  ln"  should
		 result in "1".  The corresponding action procedure is naturalLog().

       y^x	 Raises  the  number  on  the  left to the power of the number on the right.  For
		 example "2 y^x 3 =" results in "8",  which  is  2^3.	For  a	further  example,
		 "(1+2+3)  y^x	(1+2)  =" equals "6 y^x 3" which equals "216".	The corresponding
		 action procedure is power().

       PI	 The constant 'pi'.  (3.1415927....)  The corresponding action procedure is pi().

       x!	 Computes the factorial of the number in the display.  The number in the  display
		 must  be  an integer in the range 0-500, though, depending on your math library,
		 it might overflow long before that.  The corresponding action procedure is  fac-
		 torial().

       (	 Left  parenthesis.   The  corresponding  action  procedure for TI calculators is
		 leftParen().

       )	 Right parenthesis.  The corresponding action procedure  for  TI  calculators  is
		 rightParen().

       /	 Division.  The corresponding action procedure is divide().

       *	 Multiplication.  The corresponding action procedure is multiply().

       -	 Subtraction.  The corresponding action procedure is subtract().

       +	 Addition.  The corresponding action procedure is add().

       =	 Perform calculation.  The TI-specific action procedure is equal().

       STO	 Copies  the  number  in  the  display to the memory location.	The corresponding
		 action procedure is store().

       RCL	 Copies the number from the memory location to the  display.   The  corresponding
		 action procedure is recall().

       SUM	 Adds the number in the display to the number in the memory location.  The corre-
		 sponding action procedure is sum().

       EXC	 Swaps the number in the display with the number in  the  memory  location.   The
		 corresponding action procedure for the TI calculator is exchange().

       +/-	 Negate; change sign.  The corresponding action procedure is negate().

       .	 Decimal point.  The action procedure is decimal().

       Calculator  Key Usage (RPN mode): The number keys, CHS (change sign), +, -, *, /, and ENTR
       keys all do exactly what you would expect them to do.  Many of the remaining keys are  the
       same  as  in  TI  mode.	The differences are detailed below.  The action procedure for the
       ENTR key is enter().

       <-	 This is a backspace key that can be used if you make a mistake while entering	a
		 number.   It will erase digits from the display.  (See BUGS).	Inverse backspace
		 will clear the X register.  The corresponding action procedure is back().

       ON	 Clears the display, the state, and the  memory.   Pressing  it  with  the  third
		 pointer button turns off the calculator, in that it exits the program.  To clear
		 state, the action procedure is off; to quit, quit().

       INV	 Inverts the meaning of the function keys.  This would be the  f  key  on  an  HP
		 calculator,  but  xcalc  does not display multiple legends on each key.  See the
		 individual function keys for details.

       10^x	 Raises "10.0" to the number in the top of the stack.  When inverted,  it  calcu-
		 lates	the log (base 10) of the number in the display.  The corresponding action
		 procedure is tenpower().

       e^x	 Raises "e" to the number in the top of the stack.  When inverted, it  calculates
		 the  log  (base  e)  of  the  number  in  the	display.  The action procedure is
		 epower().

       STO	 Copies the number in the top of the stack to a memory location.   There  are  10
		 memory  locations.  The desired memory is specified by following this key with a
		 digit key.

       RCL	 Pushes the number from the specified memory location onto the stack.

       SUM	 Adds the number on top of the stack to the number in the specified memory  loca-
		 tion.

       x:y	 Exchanges  the  numbers  in  the top two stack positions, the X and Y registers.
		 The corresponding action procedure is XexchangeY().

       R v	 Rolls the stack downward.  When inverted, it rolls the stack upward.  The corre-
		 sponding action procedure is roll().

       blank	 These keys were used for programming functions on the HP-10C.	Their functional-
		 ity has not been duplicated in xcalc.

       Finally, there are two additional action procedures: bell(), which  rings  the  bell;  and
       selection(),  which performs a cut on the entire number in the calculator's ``liquid crys-
       tal'' display.

ACCELERATORS
       Accelerators are shortcuts for entering commands.  xcalc  provides  some  sample  keyboard
       accelerators; also users can customize accelerators.  The numeric keypad accelerators pro-
       vided by xcalc should be intuitively correct.  The accelerators defined by  xcalc  on  the
       main keyboard are given below:

	    TI Key    HP Key	Keyboard Accelerator	 TI Function	HP Function

	    SQRT SQRT r 	     squareRoot()   squareRoot()
	    AC	 ON   space		  clear()	 clear()
	    AC	 <-   Delete		  clear()	 back()
	    AC	 <-   Backspace      clear()	    back()
	    AC	 <-   Control-H      clear()	    back()
	    AC	      Clear		  clear()
	    AC	 ON   q 	     quit()	    quit()
	    AC	 ON   Control-C      quit()	    quit()

	    INV  i    i 	     inverse()	    inverse()
	    sin  s    s 	     sine()	    sine()
	    cos  c    c 	     cosine()	    cosine()
	    tan  t    t 	     tangent() tangent()
	    DRG  DRG  d 	     degree()	    degree()

	    e	      e 	     e()
	    ln	 ln   l 	     naturalLog()   naturalLog()
	    y^x  y^x  ^ 	     power()	    power()

	    PI	 PI   p 	     pi()      pi()
	    x!	 x!   ! 	     factorial()    factorial()
	    (	      ( 	     leftParen()
	    )	      ) 	     rightParen()

	    /	 /    / 	     divide()	    divide()
	    *	 *    * 	     multiply()     multiply()
	    -	 -    - 	     subtract()     subtract()
	    +	 +    + 	     add()	    add()
	    =	      = 	     equal()

	    0..9 0..9 0..9	     digit()	    digit()
	    .	 .    . 	     decimal() decimal()
	    +/-  CHS  n 	     negate()	    negate()

		 x:y  x 		       XexchangeY()
		 ENTR Return			    enter()
		 ENTR Linefeed			    enter()

CUSTOMIZATION
       The application class name is XCalc.

       xcalc  has  an enormous application defaults file which specifies the position, label, and
       function of each key on the calculator.	It also gives translations to serve  as  keyboard
       accelerators.   Because these resources are not specified in the source code, you can cre-
       ate a customized calculator by writing a private  application  defaults	file,  using  the
       Athena  Command and Form widget resources to specify the size and position of buttons, the
       label for each button, and the function of each button.

       The foreground and background colors of each calculator key can be individually specified.
       For the TI calculator, a classical color resource specification might be:

       XCalc.ti.Command.background:  gray50
       XCalc.ti.Command.foreground:  white

       For each of buttons 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, specify:
       XCalc.ti.button20.background: black
       XCalc.ti.button20.foreground: white

       For each of buttons 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38, and 39:
       XCalc.ti.button22.background: white
       XCalc.ti.button22.foreground: black

WIDGET HIERARCHY
       In  order  to  specify  resources, it is useful to know the hierarchy of the widgets which
       compose xcalc.  In the notation below, indentation indicates hierarchical structure.   The
       widget class name is given first, followed by the widget instance name.

       XCalc xcalc
	    Form  ti  or  hp	(the name depends on the mode)
		 Form  bevel
		      Form  screen
			   Label  M
			   Toggle  LCD
			   Label  INV
			   Label  DEG
			   Label  RAD
			   Label  GRAD
			   Label  P
		 Command  button1
		 Command  button2
		 Command  button3
       and so on, ...
		 Command  button38
		 Command  button39
		 Command  button40

APPLICATION RESOURCES
       rpn (Class Rpn)
	       Specifies that the rpn mode should be used.  The default is TI mode.

       stipple (Class Stipple)
	       Indicates that the background should be stippled.  The default is ``on'' for mono-
	       chrome displays, and ``off'' for color displays.

       cursor (Class Cursor)
	       The name of the symbol used to represent the pointer.  The default is ``hand2''.

COLORS
       If you would like xcalc to use its ti colors, include the following in  the  #ifdef  COLOR
       section of the file you read with xrdb:

       *customization:		       -color

       This  will cause xcalc to pick up the colors in the app-defaults color customization file:
       /usr/local/share/X11/app-defaults/XCalc-color.

SEE ALSO
       X(7), xrdb(1), the Athena Widget Set

BUGS
       HP mode is not completely debugged.  In particular, the	stack  is  not	handled  properly
       after errors.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright 1994 X Consortium
       See X(7) for a full statement of rights and permissions.

AUTHORS
       John Bradley, University of Pennsylvania
       Mark Rosenstein, MIT Project Athena
       Donna Converse, MIT X Consortium

X Version 11				   xcalc 1.0.2					 XCALC(1)
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