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X11R7.4 - man page for twm (x11r4 section 1)

TWM(1)				     General Commands Manual				   TWM(1)

NAME
       twm - Tab Window Manager for the X Window System

SYNTAX
       twm [ -display dpy ] [ -s ] [ -f initfile ] [ -v ]

DESCRIPTION
       Twm  is	a window manager for the X Window System.  It provides titlebars, shaped windows,
       several forms of icon management, user-defined macro functions, click-to-type and pointer-
       driven keyboard focus, and user-specified key and pointer button bindings.

       This  program  is  usually  started by the user's session manager or startup script.  When
       used from xdm(1) or xinit(1) without a session manager, twm is frequently executed in  the
       foreground  as  the  last client.  When run this way, exiting twm causes the session to be
       terminated (i.e., logged out).

       By default, application windows are surrounded by a ``frame'' with a titlebar at  the  top
       and  a  special border around the window.  The titlebar contains the window's name, a rec-
       tangle that is lit when the window is receiving keyboard input, and function  boxes  known
       as ``titlebuttons'' at the left and right edges of the titlebar.

       Pressing  pointer  Button1  (usually  the left-most button unless it has been changed with
       xmodmap) on a titlebutton will invoke the function associated with  the	button.   In  the
       default	interface,  windows  are  iconified  by  clicking  (pressing and then immediately
       releasing) the left titlebutton	(which	looks  like  a	Dot).	Conversely,  windows  are
       deiconified  by clicking in the associated icon or entry in the icon manager (see descrip-
       tion of the variable ShowIconManager and of the function f.showiconmgr).

       Windows are resized by pressing the right titlebutton (which resembles a group  of  nested
       squares),  dragging  the  pointer over edge that is to be moved, and releasing the pointer
       when the outline of the window is the desired  size.   Similarly,  windows  are	moved  by
       pressing  in the title or highlight region, dragging a window outline to the new location,
       and then releasing when the outline is in the desired  position.   Just	clicking  in  the
       title or highlight region raises the window without moving it.

       When  new  windows are created, twm will honor any size and location information requested
       by the user (usually through -geometry command line argument or resources for the individ-
       ual  applications).  Otherwise, an outline of the window's default size, its titlebar, and
       lines dividing the window into a 3x3 grid that track the pointer are displayed.	 Clicking
       pointer	Button1  will position the window at the current position and give it the default
       size.  Pressing pointer Button2 (usually the middle pointer button) and dragging the  out-
       line  will  give  the  window  its  current  position but allow the sides to be resized as
       described above.  Clicking pointer Button3 (usually the right pointer  button)  will  give
       the window its current position but attempt to make it long enough to touch the bottom the
       screen.

OPTIONS
       Twm accepts the following command line options:

       -display dpy
	       This option specifies the X server to use.

       -s      This option indicates that only the default screen (as specified by -display or by
	       the DISPLAY environment variable) should be managed.  By default, twm will attempt
	       to manage all screens on the display.

       -f filename
	       This option specifies the name of the startup file to use.  By default,	twm  will
	       look  in  the  user's  home  directory  for files named .twmrc.num (where num is a
	       screen number) or .twmrc.

       -v      This option indicates that twm should print error messages whenever an  unexpected
	       X Error event is received.  This can be useful when debugging applications but can
	       be distracting in regular use.

CUSTOMIZATION
       Much of twm's appearance and behavior can be controlled by providing a startup file in one
       of  the	following  locations  (searched  in  order for each screen being managed when twm
       begins):

       $HOME/.twmrc.screennumber
	       The screennumber is a small positive number (e.g. 0, 1,	etc.)	representing  the
	       screen  number (e.g. the last number in the DISPLAY environment variable host:dis-
	       playnum.screennum) that would be used to contact that screen of the display.  This
	       is intended for displays with multiple screens of differing visual types.

       $HOME/.twmrc
	       This is the usual name for an individual user's startup file.

       /usr/local/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc
	       If  neither  of	the  preceding	files are found, twm will look in this file for a
	       default configuration.  This is often tailored by the site administrator  to  pro-
	       vide convenient menus or familiar bindings for novice users.

       If  no  startup	files are found, twm will use the built-in defaults described above.  The
       only resource used by twm is bitmapFilePath for a colon-separated list of  directories  to
       search  when looking for bitmap files (for more information, see the Athena Widgets manual
       and xrdb(1)).

       Twm startup files are logically broken up into three types of specifications:   Variables,
       Bindings, Menus.  The Variables section must come first and is used to describe the fonts,
       colors, cursors, border widths, icon and window placement, highlighting, autoraising, lay-
       out  of titles, warping, use of the icon manager.  The Bindings section usually comes sec-
       ond and is used to specify the functions that should be to be invoked  when  keyboard  and
       pointer	buttons  are  pressed  in  windows, icons, titles, and frames.	The Menus section
       gives any user-defined menus (containing functions to be invoked or commands  to  be  exe-
       cuted).

       Variable  names	and  keywords are case-insensitive.  Strings must be surrounded by double
       quote characters (e.g. "blue") and are case-sensitive.  A pound	sign  (#)  outside  of	a
       string  causes the remainder of the line in which the character appears to be treated as a
       comment.

VARIABLES
       Many of the aspects of twm's user interface are controlled by variables that may be set in
       the  user's startup file.  Some of the options are enabled or disabled simply by the pres-
       ence of a particular keyword.  Other options require keywords, numbers, strings, or  lists
       of all of these.

       Lists  are surrounded by braces and are usually separated by whitespace or a newline.  For
       example:
       AutoRaise { "emacs" "XTerm" "Xmh" }
       or
       AutoRaise
       {
	    "emacs"
	    "XTerm"
	    "Xmh"
       }
       When a variable containing a list of strings representing windows  is  searched	(e.g.  to
       determine  whether  or not to enable autoraise as shown above), a string must be an exact,
       case-sensitive match to the window's name (given by the WM_NAME window property), resource
       name  or  class	name (both given by the WM_CLASS window property).  The preceding example
       would enable autoraise on windows named ``emacs'' as well as any xterm (since they are  of
       class ``XTerm'') or xmh windows (which are of class ``Xmh'').

       String  arguments that are interpreted as filenames (see the Pixmaps, Cursors, and IconDi-
       rectory below) will prepend the user's directory (specified by the HOME environment  vari-
       able)  if the first character is a tilde (~).  If, instead, the first character is a colon
       (:), the name is assumed to refer to one of the internal bitmaps that are used  to  create
       the  default  titlebars	symbols:   :xlogo  or :delete (both refer to the X logo), :dot or
       :iconify (both refer to the dot), :resize (the nested squares used by the resize  button),
       :menu  (a  page with lines), and :question (the question mark used for non-existent bitmap
       files).

       The following variables may be specified at the top of a twm startup file.  Lists of  Win-
       dow name prefix strings are indicated by win-list.  Optional arguments are shown in square
       brackets:

       AutoRaise { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows  that	should	automatically  be  raised
	       whenever  the pointer enters the window.  This action can be interactively enabled
	       or disabled on individual windows using the function f.autoraise.

       AutoRelativeResize
	       This variable indicates that dragging out a window  size  (either  when	initially
	       sizing  the window with pointer Button2 or when resizing it) should not wait until
	       the pointer has crossed the window edges.  Instead, moving the  pointer	automati-
	       cally  causes  the  nearest edge or edges to move by the same amount.  This allows
	       the resizing of windows that extend off the edge of the screen.	If the pointer is
	       in  the center of the window, or if the resize is begun by pressing a titlebutton,
	       twm will still wait for the pointer to cross a window edge (to prevent accidents).
	       This  option  is  particularly  useful  for people who like the press-drag-release
	       method of sweeping out window sizes.

       BorderColor string [{ wincolorlist }]
	       This variable specifies the default color of the border to be  placed  around  all
	       non-iconified  windows,	and  may only be given within a Color, Grayscale or Mono-
	       chrome list.  The optional wincolorlist specifies a list of window and color  name
	       pairs for specifying particular border colors for different types of windows.  For
	       example:
	       BorderColor "gray50"
	       {
		    "XTerm"   "red"
		    "xmh"     "green"
	       }
	       The default is "black".

       BorderTileBackground string [{ wincolorlist }]
	       This variable specifies the default background color in the gray pattern  used  in
	       unhighlighted borders (only if NoHighlight hasn't been set), and may only be given
	       within a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The  optional  wincolorlist  allows
	       per-window colors to be specified.  The default	is "white".

       BorderTileForeground string [{ wincolorlist }]
	       This  variable  specifies the default foreground color in the gray pattern used in
	       unhighlighted borders (only if NoHighlight hasn't been set), and may only be given
	       within  a  Color,  Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional wincolorlist allows
	       per-window colors to be specified.  The default is "black".

       BorderWidth pixels
	       This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border surrounding  all  client
	       window  frames  if  ClientBorderWidth  has not been specified.  This value is also
	       used to set the border size of windows created by twm (such as the icon	manager).
	       The default is 2.

       ButtonIndent pixels
	       This variable specifies the amount by which titlebuttons should be indented on all
	       sides.  Positive values cause the buttons to be smaller than the window	text  and
	       highlight  area	so  that they stand out.  Setting this and the TitleButtonBorder-
	       Width variables to 0 makes titlebuttons be as tall  and	wide  as  possible.   The
	       default is 1.

       ClientBorderWidth
	       This variable indicates that border width of a window's frame should be set to the
	       initial border width of the window, rather than to the value of BorderWidth.

       Color { colors-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of color assignments to be made if the default dis-
	       play  is  capable of displaying more than simple black and white.  The colors-list
	       is made up of the following color variables and their  values:  DefaultBackground,
	       DefaultForeground, MenuBackground, MenuForeground, MenuTitleBackground, MenuTitle-
	       Foreground, MenuShadowColor, MenuBorderColor, PointerForeground, and  PointerBack-
	       ground.	 The  following  color	variables  may also be given a list of window and
	       color name pairs to allow per-window colors to be specified (see  BorderColor  for
	       details):  BorderColor,	IconManagerHighlight, BorderTitleBackground, BorderTitle-
	       Foreground,  TitleBackground,  TitleForeground,	IconBackground,   IconForeground,
	       IconBorderColor, IconManagerBackground, and IconManagerForeground.  For example:
	       Color
	       {
		    MenuBackground	"gray50"
		    MenuForeground	"blue"
		    BorderColor 	     "red" { "XTerm" "yellow" }
		    TitleForeground	     "yellow"
		    TitleBackground	     "blue"
	       }
	       All  of	these  color variables may also be specified for the Monochrome variable,
	       allowing the same initialization file to be used on both color and monochrome dis-
	       plays.

       ConstrainedMoveTime milliseconds
	       This variable specifies the length of time between button clicks needed to begin a
	       constrained move operation.  Double clicking  within  this  amount  of  time  when
	       invoking f.move will cause the window to be moved only in a horizontal or vertical
	       direction.  Setting this value to 0 will disable constrained moves.   The  default
	       is 400 milliseconds.

       Cursors { cursor-list }
	       This  variable  specifies  the glyphs that twm should use for various pointer cur-
	       sors.  Each cursor may be defined either from the cursor font or from  two  bitmap
	       files.  Shapes from the cursor font may be specified directly as:
		    cursorname	   "string"
	       where  cursorname  is one of the cursor names listed below, and string is the name
	       of a glyph as found in the file /usr/local/include/X11/cursorfont.h  (without  the
	       ``XC_''	prefix).  If the cursor is to be defined from bitmap files, the following
	       syntax is used instead:
		    cursorname	   "image"   "mask"
	       The image and mask strings specify the names of files containing the  glyph  image
	       and  mask  in  bitmap(1) form.  The bitmap files are located in the same manner as
	       icon bitmap files.  The following example shows the default cursor definitions:
	       Cursors
	       {
		    Frame	   "top_left_arrow"
		    Title	   "top_left_arrow"
		    Icon      "top_left_arrow"
		    IconMgr   "top_left_arrow"
		    Move      "fleur"
		    Resize	   "fleur"
		    Menu      "sb_left_arrow"
		    Button	   "hand2"
		    Wait      "watch"
		    Select	   "dot"
		    Destroy   "pirate"
	       }

       DecorateTransients
	       This variable indicates	that  transient  windows  (those  containing  a  WM_TRAN-
	       SIENT_FOR  property) should have titlebars.  By default, transients are not repar-
	       ented.

       DefaultBackground string
	       This variable specifies the background color to be used for sizing and information
	       windows.  The default is "white".

       DefaultForeground string
	       This variable specifies the foreground color to be used for sizing and information
	       windows.  The default is "black".

       DontIconifyByUnmapping { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows that should not be iconified  by  simply
	       unmapping  the  window  (as would be the case if IconifyByUnmapping had been set).
	       This is frequently used to force some windows to be treated as icons  while  other
	       windows are handled by the icon manager.

       DontMoveOff
	       This  variable  indicates  that	windows should not be allowed to be moved off the
	       screen.	It can be overridden by the f.forcemove function.

       DontSqueezeTitle [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that titlebars should not be  squeezed  to  their  minimum
	       size  as  described under SqueezeTitle below.  If the optional window list is sup-
	       plied, only those windows will be prevented from being squeezed.

       ForceIcons
	       This variable indicates that icon pixmaps specified in the Icons  variable  should
	       override any client-supplied pixmaps.

       FramePadding pixels
	       This  variable specifies the distance between the titlebar decorations (the button
	       and text) and the window frame.	The default is 2 pixels.

       Grayscale { colors }
	       This variable specifies a list of color assignments that should	be  made  if  the
	       screen has a GrayScale default visual.  See the description of Colors.

       IconBackground string [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  specifies the background color of icons, and may only be specified
	       inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a  list
	       of  window  names  and colors so that per-window colors may be specified.  See the
	       BorderColor variable for a complete description of the win-list.  The  default  is
	       "white".

       IconBorderColor string [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  specifies  the  color of the border used for icon windows, and may
	       only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.   The  optional
	       win-list  is  a	list  of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be
	       specified.  See the BorderColor variable for a complete description  of	the  win-
	       list.  The default is "black".

       IconBorderWidth pixels
	       This  variable  specifies  the width in pixels of the border surrounding icon win-
	       dows.  The default is 2.

       IconDirectory string
	       This variable specifies the directory that should be searched if if a bitmap  file
	       cannot be found in any of the directories in the bitmapFilePath resource.

       IconFont string
	       This  variable  specifies  the font to be used to display icon names within icons.
	       The default is "variable".

       IconForeground string [{ win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the foreground color to be used when displaying icons, and
	       may  only  be  specified  inside  of  a	Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The
	       optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that  per-window  colors
	       may  be specified.  See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the
	       win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconifyByUnmapping [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that windows should be iconified by being unmapped without
	       trying to map any icons.  This assumes that the user will remap the window through
	       the icon manager, the f.warpto function, or the TwmWindows menu.  If the  optional
	       win-list  is  provided,	only those windows will be iconified by simply unmapping.
	       Windows that have both this and the IconManagerDontShow options	set  may  not  be
	       accessible if no binding to the TwmWindows menu is set in the user's startup file.

       IconManagerBackground string [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable specifies the background color to use for icon manager entries, and
	       may only be specified inside of	a  Color,  Grayscale  or  Monochrome  list.   The
	       optional  win-list  is a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors
	       may be specified.  See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of  the
	       win-list.  The default is "white".

       IconManagerDontShow [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable indicates that the icon manager should not display any windows.  If
	       the optional win-list is given, only those windows will not  be	displayed.   This
	       variable  is  used to prevent windows that are rarely iconified (such as xclock or
	       xload) from taking up space in the icon manager.

       IconManagerFont string
	       This variable specifies the font to be used when displaying icon manager  entries.
	       The default is "variable".

       IconManagerForeground string [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable specifies the foreground color to be used when displaying icon man-
	       ager entries, and may only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome
	       list.  The optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that per-win-
	       dow colors may be specified.  See the BorderColor variable for a complete descrip-
	       tion of the win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconManagerGeometry string [ columns ]
	       This variable specifies the geometry of the icon manager window.  The string argu-
	       ment is standard geometry specification that indicates the initial  full  size  of
	       the  icon manager.  The icon manager window is then broken into columns pieces and
	       scaled according to the number of entries in the icon manager.  Extra entries  are
	       wrapped to form additional rows.  The default number of columns is 1.

       IconManagerHighlight string [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  specifies  the  border color to be used when highlighting the icon
	       manager entry that currently has the focus, and can only be specified inside of	a
	       Color,  Grayscale  or  Monochrome list.	The optional win-list is a list of window
	       names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified.  See the  BorderColor
	       variable for a complete description of the win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconManagers { iconmgr-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of icon managers to create.  Each item in the icon-
	       mgr-list has the following format:
		    "winname" ["iconname"]   "geometry" columns
	       where winname is the name of the windows that should be put into  this  icon  man-
	       ager, iconname is the name of that icon manager window's icon, geometry is a stan-
	       dard geometry specification, and columns is the number of  columns  in  this  icon
	       manager as described in IconManagerGeometry.  For example:
	       IconManagers
	       {
		    "XTerm"   "=300x5+800+5" 5
		    "myhost"  "=400x5+100+5" 2
	       }
	       Clients	whose  name  or  class	is  ``XTerm''  will  have an entry created in the
	       ``XTerm'' icon manager.	Clients whose name was ``myhost'' would be put	into  the
	       ``myhost'' icon manager.

       IconManagerShow { win-list }
	       This  variable specifies a list of windows that should appear in the icon manager.
	       When used in conjunction with the IconManagerDontShow variable, only  the  windows
	       in this list will be shown in the icon manager.

       IconRegion geomstring vgrav hgrav gridwidth gridheight
	       This variable specifies an area on the root window in which icons are placed if no
	       specific icon location is provided by the client.   The	geomstring  is	a  quoted
	       string  containing a standard geometry specification.  If more than one IconRegion
	       lines are given, icons will be put into the succeeding icon regions when the first
	       is  full.   The	vgrav argument should be either North or South and control and is
	       used to control whether icons are first filled in from the top or  bottom  of  the
	       icon  region.   Similarly, the hgrav argument should be either East or West and is
	       used to control whether icons should be filled in from left from the right.  Icons
	       are  laid  out  within  the  region in a grid with cells gridwidth pixels wide and
	       gridheight pixels high.

       Icons { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of window  names	and  the  bitmap  filenames  that
	       should be used as their icons.  For example:
	       Icons
	       {
		    "XTerm"   "xterm.icon"
		    "xfd"	   "xfd_icon"
	       }
	       Windows	that  match  ``XTerm'' and would not be iconified by unmapping, and would
	       try to use the icon bitmap in the file ``xterm.icon''.  If  ForceIcons  is  speci-
	       fied,  this  bitmap  will  be  used  even if the client has requested its own icon
	       pixmap.

       InterpolateMenuColors
	       This variable indicates that menu entry	colors	should	be  interpolated  between
	       entry specified colors.	In the example below:
	       Menu "mymenu"
	       {
		    "Title"	   ("black":"red")	    f.title
		    "entry1"		     f.nop
		    "entry2"		     f.nop
		    "entry3"  ("white":"green")   f.nop
		    "entry4"		     f.nop
		    "entry5"  ("red":"white")	       f.nop
	       }
	       the  foreground	colors for ``entry1'' and ``entry2'' will be interpolated between
	       black and white, and the background colors between red and green.  Similarly,  the
	       foreground  for	``entry4''  will be half-way between white and red, and the back-
	       ground will be half-way between green and white.

       MakeTitle { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows on which a titlebar should be placed and
	       is used to request titles on specific windows when NoTitle has been set.

       MaxWindowSize string
	       This  variable specifies a geometry in which the width and height give the maximum
	       size for a given window.  This is typically used to restrict windows to	the  size
	       of  the screen.	The default width is 32767 - screen width.  The default height is
	       32767 - screen height.

       MenuBackground string
	       This variable specifies the background color used for menus, and can only be spec-
	       ified inside of a Color or Monochrome list.  The default is "white".

       MenuBorderColor string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  color of the menu border and can only be specified
	       inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is "black".

       MenuBorderWidth pixels
	       This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border  surrounding  menu  win-
	       dows.  The default is 2.

       MenuFont string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  font to use when displaying menus.  The default is
	       "variable".

       MenuForeground string
	       This variable specifies the foreground color used for menus, and can only be spec-
	       ified inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is "black".

       MenuShadowColor string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  color of the shadow behind pull-down menus and can
	       only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is
	       "black".

       MenuTitleBackground string
	       This variable specifies the background color for f.title entries in menus, and can
	       only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is
	       "white".

       MenuTitleForeground string
	       This  variable specifies the foreground color for f.title entries in menus and can
	       only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list.	The default is "black".

       Monochrome { colors }
	       This variable specifies a list of color assignments that should	be  made  if  the
	       screen has a depth of 1.  See the description of Colors.

       MoveDelta pixels
	       This  variable  specifies  the  number  of pixels the pointer must move before the
	       f.move function starts working.	Also see the f.deltastop function.   The  default
	       is zero pixels.

       NoBackingStore
	       This variable indicates that twm's menus should not request backing store to mini-
	       mize repainting of menus.  This is typically used with servers  that  can  repaint
	       faster than they can handle backing store.

       NoCaseSensitive
	       This  variable indicates that case should be ignored when sorting icon names in an
	       icon manager.  This option is typically used with applications that capitalize the
	       first letter of their icon name.

       NoDefaults
	       This  variable  indicates  that twm should not supply the default titlebuttons and
	       bindings.  This option should only be used if the startup  file	contains  a  com-
	       pletely new set of bindings and definitions.

       NoGrabServer
	       This  variable indicates that twm should not grab the server when popping up menus
	       and moving opaque windows.

       NoHighlight [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that borders should not be highlighted to track the  loca-
	       tion of the pointer.  If the optional win-list is given, highlighting will only be
	       disabled for those windows.  When the border is highlighted, it will be	drawn  in
	       the  current BorderColor.  When the border is not highlighted, it will be stippled
	       with a gray pattern using the  current  BorderTileForeground  and  BorderTileBack-
	       ground colors.

       NoIconManagers
	       This variable indicates that no icon manager should be created.

       NoMenuShadows
	       This variable indicates that menus should not have drop shadows drawn behind them.
	       This is typically used with slower servers since it speeds up menu drawing at  the
	       expense of making the menu slightly harder to read.

       NoRaiseOnDeiconify
	       This variable indicates that windows that are deiconified should not be raised.

       NoRaiseOnMove
	       This  variable  indicates  that	windows should not be raised when moved.  This is
	       typically used to allow windows to slide underneath each other.

       NoRaiseOnResize
	       This variable indicates that windows should not be raised when resized.	 This  is
	       typically used to allow windows to be resized underneath each other.

       NoRaiseOnWarp
	       This  variable  indicates  that	windows  should not be raised when the pointer is
	       warped into them with the f.warpto function.  If this option is set, warping to an
	       occluded  window  may  result  in  the  pointer	ending up in the occluding window
	       instead the desired window (which causes unexpected behavior with f.warpring).

       NoSaveUnders
	       This variable indicates that menus should not request save-unders to minimize win-
	       dow  repainting following menu selection.  It is typically used with displays that
	       can repaint faster than they can handle save-unders.

       NoStackMode [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that client  window  requests  to  change  stacking  order
	       should be ignored.  If the optional win-list is given, only requests on those win-
	       dows will be ignored.  This is typically used to prevent applications from relent-
	       lessly popping themselves to the front of the window stack.

       NoTitle [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  indicates that windows should not have titlebars.  If the optional
	       win-list is given, only those windows will not have titlebars.  MakeTitle  may  be
	       used with this option to force titlebars to be put on specific windows.

       NoTitleFocus
	       This  variable indicates that twm should not set keyboard input focus to each win-
	       dow as it is entered.  Normally, twm sets the focus so that focus and  key  events
	       from  the  titlebar  and  icon  managers are delivered to the application.  If the
	       pointer is moved quickly and twm is slow to respond, input can be directed to  the
	       old  window  instead  of  the  new.  This option is typically used to prevent this
	       ``input lag'' and to work around bugs in older  applications  that  have  problems
	       with focus events.

       NoTitleHighlight [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable indicates that the highlight area of the titlebar, which is used to
	       indicate the window that currently has the input focus, should not  be  displayed.
	       If  the	optional  win-list  is	given, only those windows will not have highlight
	       areas.  This and the SqueezeTitle options can be set to substantially  reduce  the
	       amount of screen space required by titlebars.

       OpaqueMove
	       This  variable  indicates that the f.move function should actually move the window
	       instead of just an outline so that the user can immediately see	what  the  window
	       will  look  like  in the new position.  This option is typically used on fast dis-
	       plays (particularly if NoGrabServer is set).

       Pixmaps { pixmaps }
	       This variable specifies a list of pixmaps that define the  appearance  of  various
	       images.	 Each  entry  is  a  keyword  indicating the pixmap to set, followed by a
	       string giving the name of the bitmap file.  The following pixmaps  may  be  speci-
	       fied:
	       Pixmaps
	       {
		    TitleHighlight "gray1"
	       }
	       The default for TitleHighlight is to use an even stipple pattern.

       Priority priority
	       This  variable sets twm's priority.  priority should be an unquoted, signed number
	       (e.g. 999).  This variable has an effect only if  the  server  supports	the  SYNC
	       extension.

       RandomPlacement
	       This  variable  indicates that windows with no specified geometry should be placed
	       in a pseudo-random location instead of having the user drag out an outline.

       ResizeFont string
	       This variable specifies the font to be used for	in  the  dimensions  window  when
	       resizing windows.  The default is "fixed".

       RestartPreviousState
	       This  variable  indicates  that twm should attempt to use the WM_STATE property on
	       client windows to tell which windows should be iconified and which should be  left
	       visible.   This	is  typically used to try to regenerate the state that the screen
	       was in before the previous window manager was shutdown.

       SaveColor { colors-list }
	       This variable indicates a list of color assignments to be stored as  pixel  values
	       in  the	root window property _MIT_PRIORITY_COLORS.  Clients may elect to preserve
	       these values when installing their own colormap.  Note that use of this	mechanism
	       is  a  way  an  for application to avoid the "technicolor" problem, whereby useful
	       screen objects such as window borders and titlebars disappear when a programs cus-
	       tom colors are installed by the window manager.	For example:
	       SaveColor
	       {
		       BorderColor
		       TitleBackground
		       TitleForeground
		       "red"
		       "green"
		       "blue"
	       }
	       This  would  place on the root window 3 pixel values for borders and titlebars, as
	       well as the three color strings, all taken from the default colormap.

       ShowIconManager
	       This variable indicates that the icon manager window should be displayed when  twm
	       is started.  It can always be brought up using the f.showiconmgr function.

       SortIconManager
	       This  variable  indicates that entries in the icon manager should be sorted alpha-
	       betically rather than by simply appending new windows to the end.

       SqueezeTitle [{ squeeze-list }]
	       This variable indicates that twm should attempt to use the SHAPE extension to make
	       titlebars occupy only as much screen space as they need, rather than extending all
	       the way across the top of the window.  The optional squeeze-list may  be  used  to
	       control	the  location  of  the squeezed titlebar along the top of the window.  It
	       contains entries of the form:
		    "name"	   justification  num  denom
	       where name is a window name, justification is either left, center, or  right,  and
	       num  and  denom	are numbers specifying a ratio giving the relative position about
	       which the titlebar is justified.  The ratio is measured from left to right if  the
	       numerator  is  positive,  and right to left if negative.  A denominator of 0 indi-
	       cates that the numerator should be measured in pixels.  For convenience, the ratio
	       0/0 is the same as 1/2 for center and -1/1 for right.  For example:
	       SqueezeTitle
	       {
		    "XTerm"   left	0    0
		    "xterm1"  left	1    3
		    "xterm2"  left	2    3
		    "oclock"  center	     0	  0
		    "emacs"   right	     0	  0
	       }
	       The DontSqueezeTitle list can be used to turn off squeezing on certain titles.

       StartIconified [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  indicates  that	client	windows should initially be left as icons
	       until explicitly deiconified by the user.  If the optional win-list is given, only
	       those  windows  will  be  started iconic.  This is useful for programs that do not
	       support an -iconic command line option or resource.

       TitleBackground string [{ win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the background color used in titlebars, and  may  only  be
	       specified  inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional win-list
	       is a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may  be  specified.
	       The default is "white".

       TitleButtonBorderWidth pixels
	       This  variable  specifies  the width in pixels of the border surrounding titlebut-
	       tons.  This is typically set to 0 to allow titlebuttons to take up as  much  space
	       as possible and to not have a border.  The default is 1.

       TitleFont string
	       This  variable specifies the font to be used for displaying window names in title-
	       bars.  The default is "variable".

       TitleForeground string [{ win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the foreground color used in titlebars, and  may  only  be
	       specified  inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional win-list
	       is a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may  be  specified.
	       The default is "black".

       TitlePadding pixels
	       This  variable specifies the distance between the various buttons, text, and high-
	       light areas in the titlebar.  The default is 8 pixels.

       UnknownIcon string
	       This variable specifies the filename of a bitmap file to be used  as  the  default
	       icon.  This bitmap will be used as the icon of all clients which do not provide an
	       icon bitmap and are not listed in the Icons list.

       UsePPosition string
	       This variable specifies whether or not twm should  honor  program-requested  loca-
	       tions (given by the PPosition flag in the WM_NORMAL_HINTS property) in the absence
	       of a user-specified position.  The argument string may have one of  three  values:
	       "off"  (the  default) indicating that twm should ignore the program-supplied posi-
	       tion, "on" indicating that the position should be used, and "non-zero"  indicating
	       that the position should used if it is other than (0,0).  The latter option is for
	       working around a bug in older toolkits.

       WarpCursor [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that the pointer should be warped into windows  when  they
	       are  deiconified.   If  the  optional  win-list is given, the pointer will only be
	       warped when those windows are deiconified.

       WindowRing { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows  along  which	the  f.warpring  function
	       cycles.

       WarpUnmapped
	       This  variable indicates that the f.warpto function should deiconify any iconified
	       windows it encounters.  This is typically used to make a key binding that will pop
	       a  particular  window  (such  as  xmh), no matter where it is.  The default is for
	       f.warpto to ignore iconified windows.

       XorValue number
	       This variable specifies the value to use when drawing window outlines  for  moving
	       and  resizing.	This should be set to a value that will result in a variety of of
	       distinguishable colors when exclusive-or'ed with the contents of the user's  typi-
	       cal  screen.  Setting this variable to 1 often gives nice results if adjacent col-
	       ors in the default colormap are distinct.  By default, twm will attempt	to  cause
	       temporary lines to appear at the opposite end of the colormap from the graphics.

       Zoom [ count ]
	       This  variable indicates that outlines suggesting movement of a window to and from
	       its iconified state should be displayed whenever a window is iconified or deiconi-
	       fied.   The  optional count argument specifies the number of outlines to be drawn.
	       The default count is 8.

       The following variables must be set after the fonts have been assigned, so it  is  usually
       best to put them at the end of the variables or beginning of the bindings sections:

       DefaultFunction function
	       This  variable specifies the function to be executed when a key or button event is
	       received for which no binding is provided.  This  is  typically	bound  to  f.nop,
	       f.beep, or a menu containing window operations.

       WindowFunction function
	       This variable specifies the function to execute when a window is selected from the
	       TwmWindows menu.  If this variable is not set, the window will be deiconified  and
	       raised.

BINDINGS
       After  the desired variables have been set, functions may be attached titlebuttons and key
       and pointer buttons.  Titlebuttons may be added from the left or right side and appear  in
       the  titlebar  from left-to-right according to the order in which they are specified.  Key
       and pointer button bindings may be given in any order.

       Titlebuttons specifications must include the name of the pixmap to use in the  button  box
       and the function to be invoked when a pointer button is pressed within them:
       LeftTitleButton "bitmapname"  = function
       or
       RightTitleButton "bitmapname" = function
       The bitmapname may refer to one of the  built-in bitmaps (which are scaled to match Title-
       Font) by using the appropriate colon-prefixed name described above.

       Key and pointer button specifications must give the modifiers that must be  pressed,  over
       which  parts  of the screen the pointer must be, and what function is to be invoked.  Keys
       are given as strings containing the appropriate keysym name; buttons are given as the key-
       words Button1-Button5:
       "FP1"	      = modlist : context : function
       Button1	 = modlist : context : function
       The  modlist  is  any  combination of the modifier names shift, control, lock, meta, mod1,
       mod2, mod3, mod4, or mod5 (which may be abbreviated as s, c, l, m, m1,  m2,  m3,  m4,  m5,
       respectively)  separated by a vertical bar (|).	Similarly, the context is any combination
       of window, title, icon, root, frame, iconmgr, their first letters (iconmgr abbreviation is
       m),  or	all,  separated  by  a	vertical  bar.	 The  function is any of the f.  keywords
       described below.  For example, the default startup file contains the following bindings:
       Button1	 =    : root	     : f.menu "TwmWindows"
       Button1	 = m  : window | icon	  : f.function "move-or-lower"
       Button2	 = m  : window | icon	  : f.iconify
       Button3	 = m  : window | icon	  : f.function "move-or-raise"
       Button1	 =    : title	     : f.function "move-or-raise"
       Button2	 =    : title	     : f.raiselower
       Button1	 =    : icon	     : f.function "move-or-iconify"
       Button2	 =    : icon	     : f.iconify
       Button1	 =    : iconmgr : f.iconify
       Button2	 =    : iconmgr : f.iconify
       A user who wanted to be able to manipulate windows from the keyboard could use the follow-
       ing bindings:
       "F1" =	 : all		: f.iconify
       "F2" =	 : all		: f.raiselower
       "F3" =	 : all		: f.warpring "next"
       "F4" =	 : all		: f.warpto "xmh"
       "F5" =	 : all		: f.warpto "emacs"
       "F6" =	 : all		: f.colormap "next"
       "F7" =	 : all		: f.colormap "default"
       "F20"	 =    : all	     : f.warptoscreen "next"
       "Left"	 = m  : all	     : f.backiconmgr
       "Right"	 = m | s   : all	  : f.forwiconmgr
       "Up" = m  : all		: f.upiconmgr
       "Down"	 = m | s   : all	  : f.downiconmgr
       Twm provides many more window manipulation primitives than can be conveniently stored in a
       titlebar, menu, or set of key bindings.	Although a small set  of  defaults  are  supplied
       (unless the NoDefaults is specified), most users will want to have their most common oper-
       ations bound to key and button strokes.	To do this, twm associates names with each of the
       primitives  and	provides  user-defined functions for building higher level primitives and
       menus for interactively selecting among groups of functions.

       User-defined functions contain the name by which they are referenced in calls  to  f.func-
       tion and a list of other functions to execute.  For example:
       Function "move-or-lower" { f.move f.deltastop f.lower }
       Function "move-or-raise" { f.move f.deltastop f.raise }
       Function "move-or-iconify"    { f.move f.deltastop f.iconify }
       Function "restore-colormap"   { f.colormap "default" f.lower }
       The  function name must be used in f.function exactly as it appears in the function speci-
       fication.

       In the descriptions below, if the function is said to operate on the selected window,  but
       is  invoked from a root menu, the cursor will be changed to the Select cursor and the next
       window to receive a button press will be chosen:

       ! string
	       This is an abbreviation for f.exec string.

       f.autoraise
	       This function toggles whether or  not  the  selected  window  is  raised  whenever
	       entered by the pointer.	See the description of the variable AutoRaise.

       f.backiconmgr
	       This  function  warps  the pointer to the previous column in the current icon man-
	       ager, wrapping back to the previous row if necessary.

       f.beep  This function sounds the keyboard bell.

       f.bottomzoom
	       This function is similar to the f.fullzoom function, but  resizes  the  window  to
	       fill only the bottom half of the screen.

       f.circledown
	       This function lowers the top-most window that occludes another window.

       f.circleup
	       This function raises the bottom-most window that is occluded by another window.

       f.colormap string
	       This  function  rotates the colormaps (obtained from the WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS prop-
	       erty on the window) that twm will display when the pointer is in this window.  The
	       argument  string  may  have  one  of  the  following  values:  "next", "prev", and
	       "default".  It should be noted here that in general,  the  installed  colormap  is
	       determined by keyboard focus.  A pointer driven keyboard focus will install a pri-
	       vate colormap upon entry of the window owning the colormap.  Using  the	click  to
	       type model, private colormaps will not be installed until the user presses a mouse
	       button on the target window.

       f.deiconify
	       This function deiconifies the selected window.  If the window is not an icon, this
	       function does nothing.

       f.delete
	       This  function  sends  the  WM_DELETE_WINDOW message to the selected window if the
	       client application has requested it through the WM_PROTOCOLS window property.  The
	       application  is	supposed to respond to the message by removing the indicated win-
	       dow.  If the window has not requested WM_DELETE_WINDOW messages, the keyboard bell
	       will  be  rung indicating that the user should choose an alternative method.  Note
	       this is very different from f.destroy.  The intent here is to delete a single win-
	       dow,  not necessarily the entire application.

       f.deltastop
	       This function allows a user-defined function to be aborted if the pointer has been
	       moved more than MoveDelta pixels.  See the example definition given  for  Function
	       "move-or-raise" at the beginning of the section.

       f.destroy
	       This function instructs the X server to close the display connection of the client
	       that created the selected window.  This should only be used as a last  resort  for
	       shutting down runaway clients.  See also f.delete.

       f.downiconmgr
	       This  function warps the pointer to the next row in the current icon manger, wrap-
	       ping to the beginning of the next column if necessary.

       f.exec string
	       This function passes the argument string to /bin/sh for execution.  In multiscreen
	       mode,  if  string  starts  a  new  X client without giving a display argument, the
	       client will appear on the screen from which this function was invoked.

       f.focus This function toggles the keyboard focus of the server  to  the	selected  window,
	       changing  the focus rule from pointer-driven if necessary.  If the selected window
	       already was focused, this function executes an f.unfocus.

       f.forcemove
	       This function is like f.move except that it ignores the DontMoveOff variable.

       f.forwiconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the next column in the  current  icon  manager,
	       wrapping to the beginning of the next row if necessary.

       f.fullzoom
	       This  function resizes the selected window to the full size of the display or else
	       restores the original size if the window was already zoomed.

       f.function string
	       This function executes the user-defined function whose name is  specified  by  the
	       argument string.

       f.hbzoom
	       This function is a synonym for f.bottomzoom.

       f.hideiconmgr
	       This function unmaps the current icon manager.

       f.horizoom
	       This variable is similar to the f.zoom function except that the selected window is
	       resized to the full width of the display.

       f.htzoom
	       This function is a synonym for f.topzoom.

       f.hzoom This function is a synonym for f.horizoom.

       f.iconify
	       This function iconifies or deiconifies the selected window or icon, respectively.

       f.identify
	       This function displays a summary of the name and geometry of the selected  window.
	       If  the	server supports the SYNC extension, the priority of the client owning the
	       window is also displayed.  Clicking the pointer or pressing a key  in  the  window
	       will dismiss it.

       f.lefticonmgr
	       This function similar to f.backiconmgr except that wrapping does not change rows.

       f.leftzoom
	       This variable is similar to the f.bottomzoom function but causes the selected win-
	       dow is only resized to the left half of the display.

       f.lower This function lowers the selected window.

       f.menu string
	       This function invokes the menu specified by the argument string.   Cascaded  menus
	       may be built by nesting calls to f.menu.

       f.move  This function drags an outline of the selected window (or the window itself if the
	       OpaqueMove variable is set) until the invoking pointer button is released.  Double
	       clicking  within the number of milliseconds given by ConstrainedMoveTime warps the
	       pointer to the center of the window and constrains the move to be either  horizon-
	       tal  or	vertical depending on which grid line is crossed.  To abort a move, press
	       another button before releasing the first button.

       f.nexticonmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the next icon manager containing any windows on
	       the current or any succeeding screen.

       f.nop   This  function does nothing and is typically used with the DefaultFunction or Win-
	       dowFunction variables or to introduce blank lines in menus.

       f.previconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the previous icon manager containing	any  win-
	       dows on the current or preceding screens.

       f.priority string
	       This  function  sets  the priority of the client owning the selected window to the
	       numeric value of the argument string, which should be a signed integer  in  double
	       quotes (e.g. "999" ).  This function has an effect only if the server supports the
	       SYNC extension.

       f.quit  This function causes twm to restore the window's borders and exit.  If twm is  the
	       first client invoked from xdm, this will result in a server reset.

       f.raise This function raises the selected window.

       f.raiselower
	       This function raises the selected window to the top of the stacking order if it is
	       occluded by any windows, otherwise the window will be lowered.

       f.refresh
	       This function causes all windows to be refreshed.

       f.resize
	       This function displays an outline of the selected window.  Crossing a  border  (or
	       setting	AutoRelativeResize)  will cause the outline to begin to rubber band until
	       the invoking button is released.  To abort a resize, press another  button  before
	       releasing the first button.

       f.restart
	       This function kills and restarts twm.

       f.startwm string
	       This function kills twm and starts another window manager, as specified by string.

       f.righticonmgr
	       This  function  is  similar  to f.nexticonmgr except that wrapping does not change
	       rows.

       f.rightzoom
	       This variable is similar to the f.bottomzoom function  except  that  the  selected
	       window is only resized to the right half of the display.

       f.saveyourself
	       This  function  sends  a  WM_SAVEYOURSELF message to the selected window if it has
	       requested the message in its WM_PROTOCOLS window property.   Clients  that  accept
	       this  message  are supposed to checkpoint all state associated with the window and
	       update the WM_COMMAND property as specified in the ICCCM.  If the selected  window
	       has not selected for this message, the keyboard bell will be rung.

       f.showiconmgr
	       This function maps the current icon manager.

       f.sorticonmgr
	       This  function  sorts the entries in the current icon manager alphabetically.  See
	       the variable SortIconManager.

       f.title This function provides a centered, unselectable item in	a  menu  definition.   It
	       should not be used in any other context.

       f.topzoom
	       This  variable  is  similar  to the f.bottomzoom function except that the selected
	       window is only resized to the top half of the display.

       f.unfocus
	       This function resets the focus back to pointer-driven.  This should be used when a
	       focused window is no longer desired.

       f.upiconmgr
	       This  function  warps the pointer to the previous row in the current icon manager,
	       wrapping to the last row in the same column if necessary.

       f.vlzoom
	       This function is a synonym for f.leftzoom.

       f.vrzoom
	       This function is a synonym for f.rightzoom.

       f.warpring string
	       This function warps the pointer to the next or previous window  (as  indicated  by
	       the  argument  string,  which may be "next" or "prev") specified in the WindowRing
	       variable.

       f.warpto string
	       This function warps the pointer to the window which  has  a  name  or  class  that
	       matches	string.   If the window is iconified, it will be deiconified if the vari-
	       able WarpUnmapped is set or else ignored.

       f.warptoiconmgr string
	       This function warps the pointer to the icon manager entry associated with the win-
	       dow  containing	the pointer in the icon manager specified by the argument string.
	       If string is empty (i.e. ""), the current icon manager is chosen.

       f.warptoscreen string
	       This function warps the pointer to the screen specified by  the	argument  string.
	       String  may be a number (e.g. "0" or "1"), the word "next" (indicating the current
	       screen plus 1, skipping over any unmanaged screens), the word  "back"  (indicating
	       the  current  screen  minus  1,	skipping over any unmanaged screens), or the word
	       "prev" (indicating the last screen visited.

       f.winrefresh
	       This function is similar to the f.refresh function except that only  the  selected
	       window is refreshed.

       f.zoom  This  function  is  similar  to	the f.fullzoom function, except that the only the
	       height of the selected window is changed.

MENUS
       Functions may be grouped and interactively selected using pop-up (when bound to a  pointer
       button)	or pull-down (when associated with a titlebutton) menus.  Each menu specification
       contains the name of the menu as it will be referred to by f.menu, optional default  fore-
       ground and background colors, the list of item names and the functions they should invoke,
       and optional foreground and background colors for individual items:
       Menu "menuname" [ ("deffore":"defback") ]
       {
	    string1   [ ("fore1":"backn")]     function1
	    string2   [ ("fore2":"backn")]     function2
		 .
		 .
		 .
	    stringN   [ ("foreN":"backN")]     functionN
       }

       The menuname is case-sensitive.	The optional deffore and defback  arguments  specify  the
       foreground  and	background colors used on a color display to highlight menu entries.  The
       string portion of each menu entry will be the text which will appear  in  the  menu.   The
       optional  fore and back arguments specify the foreground and background colors of the menu
       entry when the pointer is not in the entry.  These colors will only be  used  on  a  color
       display.   The  default is to use the colors specified by the MenuForeground and MenuBack-
       ground variables.  The function portion of the menu entry is one of the functions, includ-
       ing any user-defined functions, or additional menus.

       There is a special menu named TwmWindows which contains the names of all of the client and
       twm-supplied windows.  Selecting an entry will cause the WindowFunction to be executed  on
       that  window.   If  WindowFunction  hasn't  been  set,  the window will be deiconified and
       raised.

ICONS
       Twm supports several different ways of manipulating iconified windows.  The common pixmap-
       and-text style may be laid out by hand or automatically arranged as described by the Icon-
       Region variable.  In addition, a terse grid of icon names, called an  icon  manager,  pro-
       vides  a  more efficient use of screen space as well as the ability to navigate among win-
       dows from the keyboard.

       An icon manager is a window that contains names of selected or all  windows  currently  on
       the  display.   In  addition  to the window name, a small button using the default iconify
       symbol will be displayed to the left of	the  name  when  the  window  is  iconified.   By
       default,  clicking  on  an  entry  in  the icon manager performs f.iconify.  To change the
       actions taken in the icon manager, use the the iconmgr context when specifying button  and
       keyboard bindings.

       Moving the pointer into the icon manager also directs keyboard focus to the indicated win-
       dow (setting the focus explicitly or else sending synthetic events NoTitleFocus	is  set).
       Using  the  f.upiconmgr,  f.downiconmgr	f.lefticonmgr,	and f.righticonmgr functions, the
       input focus can be changed between windows directly from the keyboard.

BUGS
       The resource manager should have been used instead of all of the window lists.

       The IconRegion variable should take a list.

       Double clicking very fast to get the constrained move function will  sometimes  cause  the
       window to move, even though the pointer is not moved.

       If  IconifyByUnmapping is on and windows are listed in IconManagerDontShow but not in Don-
       tIconifyByUnmapping, they may be lost if they are iconified  and  no  bindings  to  f.menu
       "TwmWindows" or f.warpto are setup.

FILES
       $HOME/.twmrc.<screen number>
       $HOME/.twmrc
       /usr/local/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       DISPLAY This  variable  is used to determine which X server to use.  It is also set during
	       f.exec so that programs come up on the proper screen.

       HOME    This variable is used as the prefix for files that begin  with  a  tilde  and  for
	       locating the twm startup file.

SEE ALSO
       X(7), Xserver(1), xdm(1), xrdb(1)

AUTHORS
       Tom  LaStrange, Solbourne Computer; Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium; Steve Pitschke, Stardent
       Computer; Keith Packard, MIT X Consortium; Dave Sternlicht, MIT X Consortium; Dave  Payne,
       Apple Computer.

X Version 11				    twm 1.0.4					   TWM(1)


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