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PERLMACOSX(1)			 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		    PERLMACOSX(1)

NAME
       README.macosx - Perl under Mac OS X

SYNOPSIS
       This document briefly describes perl under Mac OS X.

DESCRIPTION
       The latest Perl release (5.8.8 as of this writing) builds without changes under Mac OS X.
       Under 10.3 "Panther" and newer OS versions, all self-tests pass, and all standard features
       are supported.

       Earlier Mac OS X releases (10.2 "Jaguar" and older) did not include a completely thread-
       safe libc, so threading is not fully supported. Also, earlier releases included a buggy
       libdb, so some of the DB_File tests are known to fail on those releases.

       Installation Prefix

       The default installation location for this release uses the traditional UNIX directory
       layout under /usr/local. This is the recommended location for most users, and will leave
       the Apple-supplied Perl and its modules undisturbed.

       Using an installation prefix of '/usr' will result in a directory layout that mirrors that
       of Apple's default Perl, with core modules stored in '/System/Library/Perl/${version}',
       CPAN modules stored in '/Library/Perl/${version}', and the addition of '/Net-
       work/Library/Perl/${version}' to @INC for modules that are stored on a file server and
       used by many Macs.

       SDK support

       First, export the path to the SDK into the build environment:

	   export SDK=/Developer/SDKs/MacOSX10.3.9.sdk

       Use an SDK by exporting some additions to Perl's 'ccflags' and '..flags' config variables:

	   ./Configure -Accflags="-nostdinc -B$SDK/usr/include/gcc \
				  -B$SDK/usr/lib/gcc -isystem$SDK/usr/include \
				  -F$SDK/System/Library/Frameworks" \
		       -Aldflags="-Wl,-syslibroot,$SDK" \
		       -de

       Universal Binary support

       To compile perl as a universal binary (built for both ppc and intel), export the SDK vari-
       able as above, selecting the 10.4u SDK:

	   export SDK=/Developer/SDKs/MacOSX10.4u.sdk

       In addition to the compiler flags used to select the SDK, also add the flags for creating
       a universal binary:

	   ./Configure -Accflags="-arch i686 -arch ppc -nostdinc -B$SDK/usr/include/gcc \
				  -B$SDK/usr/lib/gcc -isystem$SDK/usr/include \
				  -F$SDK/System/Library/Frameworks" \
		       -Aldflags="-arch i686 -arch ppc -Wl,-syslibroot,$SDK" \
		       -de

       Keep in mind that these compiler and linker settings will also be used when building CPAN
       modules. For XS modules to be compiled as a universal binary, any libraries it links to
       must also be universal binaries. The system libraries that Apple includes with the 10.4u
       SDK are all universal, but user-installed libraries may need to be re-installed as univer-
       sal binaries.

       64-bit PPC support

       Follow the instructions in INSTALL to build perl with support for 64-bit integers
       ("use64bitint") or both 64-bit integers and 64-bit addressing ("use64bitall"). In the lat-
       ter case, the resulting binary will run only on G5-based hosts.

       Support for 64-bit addressing is experimental: some aspects of Perl may be omitted or
       buggy. Note the messages output by Configure for further information. Please use "perlbug"
       to submit a problem report in the event that you encounter difficulties.

       When building 64-bit modules, it is your responsiblity to ensure that linked external
       libraries and frameworks provide 64-bit support: if they do not, module building may
       appear to succeed, but attempts to use the module will result in run-time dynamic linking
       errors, and subsequent test failures.  You can use "file" to discover the architectures
       supported by a library:

	   $ file libgdbm.3.0.0.dylib
	   libgdbm.3.0.0.dylib: Mach-O fat file with 2 architectures
	   libgdbm.3.0.0.dylib (for architecture ppc):	    Mach-O dynamically linked shared library ppc
	   libgdbm.3.0.0.dylib (for architecture ppc64):    Mach-O 64-bit dynamically linked shared library ppc64

       Note that this issue precludes the building of many Macintosh-specific CPAN modules
       ("Mac::*"), as the required Apple frameworks do not provide PPC64 support. Similarly,
       downloads from Fink or Darwinports are unlikely to provide 64-bit support; the libraries
       must be rebuilt from source with the appropriate compiler and linker flags. For further
       information, see Apple's 64-Bit Transition Guide at <http://developer.apple.com/documenta-
       tion/Darwin/Conceptual/64bitPorting/index.html>.

       libperl and Prebinding

       Mac OS X ships with a dynamically-loaded libperl, but the default for this release is to
       compile a static libperl. The reason for this is pre-binding. Dynamic libraries can be
       pre-bound to a specific address in memory in order to decrease load time. To do this, one
       needs to be aware of the location and size of all previously-loaded libraries. Apple col-
       lects this information as part of their overall OS build process, and thus has easy access
       to it when building Perl, but ordinary users would need to go to a great deal of effort to
       obtain the information needed for pre-binding.

       You can override the default and build a shared libperl if you wish (Configure ... -Duse-
       shrlib), but the load time on pre-10.4 OS releases will be greater than either the static
       library, or Apple's pre-bound dynamic library.

       With 10.4 "Tiger" and newer, Apple has all but eliminated the performance penalty for non-
       prebound libraries.

       Updating Apple's Perl

       In a word - don't, at least without a *very* good reason. Your scripts can just as easily
       begin with "#!/usr/local/bin/perl" as with "#!/usr/bin/perl". Scripts supplied by Apple
       and other third parties as part of installation packages and such have generally only been
       tested with the /usr/bin/perl that's installed by Apple.

       If you find that you do need to update the system Perl, one issue worth keeping in mind is
       the question of static vs. dynamic libraries. If you upgrade using the default static
       libperl, you will find that the dynamic libperl supplied by Apple will not be deleted. If
       both libraries are present when an application that links against libperl is built, ld
       will link against the dynamic library by default. So, if you need to replace Apple's
       dynamic libperl with a static libperl, you need to be sure to delete the older dynamic
       library after you've installed the update.

       Known problems

       If you have installed extra libraries such as GDBM through Fink (in other words, you have
       libraries under /sw/lib), or libdlcompat to /usr/local/lib, you may need to be extra care-
       ful when running Configure to not to confuse Configure and Perl about which libraries to
       use.  Being confused will show up for example as "dyld" errors about symbol problems, for
       example during "make test". The safest bet is to run Configure as

	   Configure ... -Uloclibpth -Dlibpth=/usr/lib

       to make Configure look only into the system libraries.  If you have some extra library
       directories that you really want to use (such as newer Berkeley DB libraries in pre-Pan-
       ther systems), add those to the libpth:

	   Configure ... -Uloclibpth -Dlibpth='/usr/lib /opt/lib'

       The default of building Perl statically may cause problems with complex applications like
       Tk: in that case consider building shared Perl

	   Configure ... -Duseshrplib

       but remember that there's a startup cost to pay in that case (see above "libperl and Pre-
       binding").

       Starting with Tiger (Mac OS X 10.4), Apple shipped broken locale files for the eu_ES
       locale (Basque-Spain).  In previous releases of Perl, this resulted in failures in the
       "lib/locale" test. These failures have been supressed in the current release of Perl by
       making the test ignore the broken locale.  If you need to use the eu_ES locale, you should
       contact Apple support.

       MacPerl

       Quite a bit has been written about MacPerl, the Perl distribution for "Classic MacOS" -
       that is, versions 9 and earlier of MacOS. Because it runs in environment that's very dif-
       ferent from that of UNIX, many things are done differently in MacPerl. Modules are
       installed using a different procedure, Perl itself is built differently, path names are
       different, etc.

       From the perspective of a Perl programmer, Mac OS X is more like a traditional UNIX than
       Classic MacOS. If you find documentation that refers to a special procedure that's needed
       for MacOS that's drastically different from the instructions provided for UNIX, the MacOS
       instructions are quite often intended for MacPerl on Classic MacOS. In that case, the cor-
       rect procedure on Mac OS X is usually to follow the UNIX instructions, rather than the
       MacPerl instructions.

       Carbon

       MacPerl ships with a number of modules that are used to access the classic MacOS toolbox.
       Many of these modules have been updated to use Mac OS X's newer "Carbon" toolbox, and are
       available from CPAN in the "Mac::Carbon" module.

       Cocoa

       There are two ways to use Cocoa from Perl. Apple's PerlObjCBridge module, included with
       Mac OS X, can be used by standalone scripts to access Foundation (i.e. non-GUI) classes
       and objects.

       An alternative is CamelBones, a framework that allows access to both Foundation and AppKit
       classes and objects, so that full GUI applications can be built in Perl. CamelBones can be
       found on SourceForge, at <http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/camelbones/>.

Starting From Scratch
       Unfortunately it is not that difficult somehow manage to break one's Mac OS X Perl rather
       severely.  If all else fails and you want to really, REALLY, start from scratch and remove
       even your Apple Perl installation (which has become corrupted somehow), the following
       instructions should do it.  Please think twice before following these instructions: they
       are much like conducting brain surgery to yourself.  Without anesthesia.  We will not come
       to fix your system if you do this.

       First, get rid of the libperl.dylib:

	   # cd /System/Library/Perl/darwin/CORE
	   # rm libperl.dylib

       Then delete every .bundle file found anywhere in the folders:

	   /System/Library/Perl
	   /Library/Perl

       You can find them for example by

	   # find /System/Library/Perl /Library/Perl -name '*.bundle' -print

       After this you can either copy Perl from your operating system media (you will need at
       least the /System/Library/Perl and /usr/bin/perl), or rebuild Perl from the source code
       with "Configure -Dprefix=/usr -Dusershrplib" NOTE: the "-Dprefix=/usr" to replace the sys-
       tem Perl works much better with Perl 5.8.1 and later, in Perl 5.8.0 the settings were not
       quite right.

       "Pacifist" from CharlesSoft (<http://www.charlessoft.com/>) is a nice way to extract the
       Perl binaries from the OS media, without having to reinstall the entire OS.

AUTHOR
       This README was written by Sherm Pendley <sherm@dot-app.org>, and subsequently updated by
       Dominic Dunlop <domo@computer.org>.  The "Starting From Scratch" recipe was contributed by
       John Montbriand <montbriand@apple.com>.

DATE
       Last modified 2006-02-24.

perl v5.8.9				    2007-11-17				    PERLMACOSX(1)
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