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X11R7.4 - man page for perlcygwin (x11r4 section 1)

PERLCYGWIN(1)			 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		    PERLCYGWIN(1)

       README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin

       This document will help you configure, make, test and install Perl on Cygwin.  This docu-
       ment also describes features of Cygwin that will affect how Perl behaves at runtime.

       NOTE: There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cygwin and a version of Perl is pro-
       vided in the normal Cygwin install.  If you do not need to customize the configuration,
       consider using one of those packages.

       Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)

       The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development tools for Win32 platforms.  They
       run thanks to the Cygwin library which provides the UNIX system calls and environment
       these programs expect.  More information about this project can be found at:


       A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.

       At the time this document was last updated, Cygwin 1.5.25 was current.

       Cygwin Configuration

       While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your Cygwin setup so that Perl builds
       cleanly.  These changes are not required for normal Perl usage.

       NOTE: The binaries that are built will run on all Win32 versions.  They do not depend on
       your host system (Win9x/WinME, WinNT/Win2K) or your Cygwin configuration (ntsec,
       binary/text mounts).  The only dependencies come from hard-coded pathnames like
       "/usr/local".  However, your host system and Cygwin configuration will affect Perl's run-
       time behavior (see "TEST").

       * "PATH"
	   Set the "PATH" environment variable so that Configure finds the Cygwin versions of
	   programs.  Any Windows directories should be removed or moved to the end of your

       * nroff
	   If you do not have nroff (which is part of the groff package), Configure will not
	   prompt you to install man pages.

       * Permissions
	   On WinNT with the default ntsec "CYGWIN" settings, directory and file permissions may
	   not be set correctly.  Since the build process creates directories and files, to be
	   safe you may want to run a "chmod -R u+w *" on the entire Perl source tree.

	   Also, it is a well known WinNT "feature" that files created by a login that is a mem-
	   ber of the Administrators group will be owned by the Administrators group.  Depending
	   on your umask, you may find that you can not write to files that you just created
	   (because you are no longer the owner).  When using the default ntsec "CYGWIN" setting,
	   this is not an issue because it "corrects" the ownership to what you would expect on a
	   UNIX system.

       The default options gathered by Configure with the assistance of hints/cygwin.sh will
       build a Perl that supports dynamic loading which requires a shared cygperl5_8_x.dll and
       the import library libperl.dll.a.

       This will run Configure and keep a record:

	 ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure

       If you are willing to accept all the defaults run Configure with -de.  However, several
       useful customizations are available.

       Stripping Perl Binaries on Cygwin

       It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the build process.	The resulting
       binaries will be significantly smaller. If you want the binaries to be stripped, you can
       either add a -s option when Configure prompts you,

	 Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
	 Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic linking? [none] -s
	 Any special flags to pass to ld2 to create a dynamically loaded library?
	 [none] -s

       or you can edit hints/cygwin.sh and uncomment the relevant variables near the end of the

       Optional Libraries for Perl on Cygwin

       Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence of some optional libraries.
       Configure will find them if they are installed in one of the directories listed as being
       used for library searches.  Pre-built packages for most of these are available from the
       Cygwin installer.

       * "-lcrypt"
	   The crypt package distributed with Cygwin is a Linux compatible 56-bit DES crypt port
	   by Corinna Vinschen.

	   Alternatively, the crypt libraries in GNU libc have been ported to Cygwin.

	   The DES based Ultra Fast Crypt port was done by Alexey Truhan:


	   NOTE: There are various export restrictions on DES implementations, see the glibc
	   README for more details.

	   The MD5 port was done by Andy Piper:


       * "-lgdbm" ("use GDBM_File")
	   GDBM is available for Cygwin.

	   NOTE: The GDBM library only works on NTFS partitions.

       * "-ldb" ("use DB_File")
	   BerkeleyDB is available for Cygwin.

	   NOTE: The BerkeleyDB library only completely works on NTFS partitions and db-4.3 is

       * "cygserver" ("use IPC::SysV")
	   A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin.

	   NOTE: This has not been extensively tested.	In particular, "d_semctl_semun" is unde-
	   fined because it fails a Configure test and on Win9x the shm*() functions seem to
	   hang.  It also creates a compile time dependency because perl.h includes <sys/ipc.h>
	   and <sys/sem.h> (which will be required in the future when compiling CPAN modules).
	   CURRENTLY NOT SUPPORTED!  As with all "cygserver" functions this requires the environ-
	   ment variable CYGWIN to contain the magic string server.

       * "-lutil"
	   Included with the standard Cygwin netrelease is the inetutils package which includes

       Configure-time Options for Perl on Cygwin

       The INSTALL document describes several Configure-time options.  Some of these will work
       with Cygwin, others are not yet possible.  Also, some of these are experimental.  You can
       either select an option when Configure prompts you or you can define (undefine) symbols on
       the command line.

       * "-Uusedl"
	   Undefining this symbol forces Perl to be compiled statically.

       * "-Uusemymalloc"
	   By default Perl uses the "malloc()" included with the Perl source.  If you want to
	   force Perl to build with the system "malloc()" undefine this symbol.

       * "-Uuseperlio"
	   Undefining this symbol disables the PerlIO abstraction.  PerlIO is now the default; it
	   is not recommended to disable PerlIO.

       * "-Dusemultiplicity"
	   Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C program and using more than one
	   interpreter instance.  This works with the Cygwin port.

       * "-Duse64bitint"
	   By default Perl uses 32 bit integers.  If you want to use larger 64 bit integers,
	   define this symbol. This is now the default.

       * "-Duselongdouble"
	   gcc supports long doubles (12 bytes).  However, several additional long double math
	   functions are necessary to use them within Perl ({atan2, cos, exp, floor, fmod, frexp,
	   isnan, log, modf, pow, sin, sqrt}l, strtold).  These are not yet available with Cyg-

       * "-Dusethreads"
	   POSIX threads are implemented in Cygwin, define this symbol if you want a threaded

       * "-Duselargefiles"
	   Cygwin uses 64-bit integers for internal size and position calculations, this will be
	   correctly detected and defined by Configure.

       * "-Dmksymlinks"
	   Use this to build perl outside of the source tree.  This works with Cygwin.	Details
	   can be found in the INSTALL document.  This is the recommended way to build perl from

       Suspicious Warnings on Cygwin

       You may see some messages during Configure that seem suspicious.

       * Win9x and "d_eofnblk"
	   Win9x does not correctly report "EOF" with a non-blocking read on a closed pipe.  You
	   will see the following messages:

	     But it also returns -1 to signal EOF, so be careful!
	     WARNING: you can't distinguish between EOF and no data!

	     *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
		 The recommended value for $d_eofnblk on this machine was "define"!
		 Keep the recommended value? [y]

	   At least for consistency with WinNT, you should keep the recommended value.

       * Compiler/Preprocessor defines
	   The following error occurs because of the Cygwin "#define" of "_LONG_DOUBLE":

	     Guessing which symbols your C compiler and preprocessor define...
	     try.c:<line#>: missing binary operator

	   This failure does not seem to cause any problems.  With older gcc versions, "parse
	   error" is reported instead of "missing binary operator".

       Simply run make and wait:

	 make 2>&1 | tee log.make

       Errors on Cygwin

       Errors like these are normal:

	 make: [extra.pods] Error 1 (ignored)
	 make: [extras.make] Error 1 (ignored)

       There are two steps to running the test suite:

	 make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test

	 cd t; ./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness

       The same tests are run both times, but more information is provided when running as
       "./perl harness".

       Test results vary depending on your host system and your Cygwin configuration.  If a test
       can pass in some Cygwin setup, it is always attempted and explainable test failures are
       documented.  It is possible for Perl to pass all the tests, but it is more likely that
       some tests will fail for one of the reasons listed below.

       It is recommended to run the tests with CYGWIN=server PERLIO=perlio.

       File Permissions on Cygwin

       UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for {read,write,execute} for each
       {user,group,other}.  By default Cygwin only tracks the Win32 read-only attribute repre-
       sented as the UNIX file user write bit (files are always readable, files are executable if
       they have a .{com,bat,exe} extension or begin with "#!", directories are always readable
       and executable).  On Win95 on FAT with the default ntea "CYGWIN" setting, the additional
       mode bits are stored as extended file attributes.  On WinNT with the default ntsec "CYG-
       WIN" setting, permissions use the standard WinNT security descriptors and access control
       lists. Without one of these options, these tests will fail (listing not updated yet):

	 Failed Test	       List of failed
	 io/fs.t	       5, 7, 9-10
	 lib/anydbm.t	       2
	 lib/db-btree.t        20
	 lib/db-hash.t	       16
	 lib/db-recno.t        18
	 lib/gdbm.t	       2
	 lib/ndbm.t	       2
	 lib/odbm.t	       2
	 lib/sdbm.t	       2
	 op/stat.t	       9, 20 (.tmp not an executable extension)

       NDBM_File and ODBM_File do not work on FAT filesystems

       Do not use NDBM_File or ODBM_File on FAT filesystem.  They can be built on a FAT filesys-
       tem, but many tests will fail:

	../ext/NDBM_File/ndbm.t       13  3328	  71   59  83.10%  1-2 4 16-71
	../ext/ODBM_File/odbm.t      255 65280	  ??   ??	%  ??
	../lib/AnyDBM_File.t	       2   512	  12	2  16.67%  1 4
	../lib/Memoize/t/errors.t      0   139	  11	5  45.45%  7-11
	../lib/Memoize/t/tie_ndbm.t   13  3328	   4	4 100.00%  1-4
	run/fresh_perl.t			  97	1   1.03%  91

       If you intend to run only on FAT (or if using AnyDBM_File on FAT), run Configure with the
       -Ui_ndbm and -Ui_dbm options to prevent NDBM_File and ODBM_File being built.

       With NTFS (and no CYGWIN=nontsec), there should be no problems even if perl was built on

       "fork()" failures in io_* tests

       A "fork()" failure may result in the following tests failing:


       See comment on fork in Miscellaneous below.

Specific features of the Cygwin port
       Script Portability on Cygwin

       Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like semantics on top of Win32 systems.
       However, in addition to the items noted above, there are some differences that you should
       know about.  This is a very brief guide to portability, more information can be found in
       the Cygwin documentation.

       * Pathnames
	   Cygwin pathnames can be separated by forward (/) or backward (\\) slashes.  They may
	   also begin with drive letters (C:) or Universal Naming Codes (//UNC).  DOS device
	   names (aux, con, prn, com*, lpt?, nul) are invalid as base filenames.  However, they
	   can be used in extensions (e.g., hello.aux).  Names may contain all printable charac-
	   ters except these:

	     : * ? " < > |

	   File names are case insensitive, but case preserving.  A pathname that contains a
	   backslash or drive letter is a Win32 pathname (and not subject to the translations
	   applied to POSIX style pathnames).

	   For conversion we have "Cygwin::win_to_posix_path()" and "Cyg-

	   Pathnames may not contain Unicode characters. "Cygwin" still uses the ANSI API calls
	   and no Wide API calls because of newlib deficiencies.  Cygwin 1.7 will support wide
	   characters in pathnames.

       * Text/Binary
	   When a file is opened it is in either text or binary mode.  In text mode a file is
	   subject to CR/LF/Ctrl-Z translations.  With Cygwin, the default mode for an "open()"
	   is determined by the mode of the mount that underlies the file. See "Cygwin::is_bin-
	   mount()". Perl provides a "binmode()" function to set binary mode on files that other-
	   wise would be treated as text.  "sysopen()" with the "O_TEXT" flag sets text mode on
	   files that otherwise would be treated as binary:

	       sysopen(FOO, "bar", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TEXT)

	   "lseek()", "tell()" and "sysseek()" only work with files opened in binary mode.

	   The text/binary issue is covered at length in the Cygwin documentation.

       * PerlIO
	   PerlIO overrides the default Cygwin Text/Binary behaviour.  A file will always treated
	   as binary, regardless which mode of the mount it lives on, just like it is in UNIX.
	   So CR/LF translation needs to be requested in either the "open()" call like this:

	     open(FH, ">:crlf", "out.txt");

	   which will do conversion from LF to CR/LF on the output, or in the environment set-
	   tings (add this to your .bashrc):

	     export PERLIO=crlf

	   which will pull in the crlf PerlIO layer which does LF -> CRLF conversion on every
	   output generated by perl.

       * .exe
	   The Cygwin "stat()", "lstat()" and "readlink()" functions make the .exe extension
	   transparent by looking for foo.exe when you ask for foo (unless a foo also exists).
	   Cygwin does not require a .exe extension, but gcc adds it automatically when building
	   a program.  However, when accessing an executable as a normal file (e.g., cp in a
	   makefile) the .exe is not transparent.  The install included with Cygwin automatically
	   appends a .exe when necessary.

       * cygwin vs. windows process ids
	   Cygwin processes have their own pid, which is different from the underlying windows
	   pid.  Most posix compliant Proc functions expect the cygwin pid, but several
	   Win32::Process functions expect the winpid. E.g. $$ is the cygwin pid of
	   /usr/bin/perl, which is not the winpid.  Use "Cygwin::winpid_to_pid()" and "Cyg-
	   win::winpid_to_pid()" to translate between them.

       * "chown()"
	   On WinNT "chown()" can change a file's user and group IDs.  On Win9x "chown()" is a
	   no-op, although this is appropriate since there is no security model.

       * Miscellaneous
	   File locking using the "F_GETLK" command to "fcntl()" is a stub that returns "ENOSYS".

	   Win9x can not "rename()" an open file (although WinNT can).

	   The Cygwin "chroot()" implementation has holes (it can not restrict file access by
	   native Win32 programs).

	   Inplace editing "perl -i" of files doesn't work without doing a backup of the file
	   being edited "perl -i.bak" because of windowish restrictions, therefore Perl adds the
	   suffix ".bak" automatically if you use "perl -i" without specifying a backup exten-

	   Using "fork()" after loading multiple dlls may fail with an internal cygwin error like
	   the following:

	     C:\CYGWIN\BIN\PERL.EXE: *** couldn't allocate memory 0x10000(4128768) for 'C:\CYGWIN\LIB\PERL5\5.6.1\CYGWIN-MULTI\AUTO\SOCKET\SOCKET.DLL' alignment, Win32 error 8

	       200 [main] perl 377147 sync_with_child: child -395691(0xB8) died before initialization with status code 0x1
	      1370 [main] perl 377147 sync_with_child: *** child state child loading dlls

	   Use the rebase utility to resolve the conflicting dll addresses.  The rebase package
	   is included in the Cygwin netrelease.  Use setup.exe from http://www.cygwin.com/set-
	   up.exe to install it and run rebaseall.

       Prebuilt methods:

	   Returns the current working directory.

	   Translates a cygwin pid to the corresponding Windows pid (which may or may not be the

	   Translates a Windows pid to the corresponding cygwin pid (if any).

	   Translates a Windows path to the corresponding cygwin path respecting the current
	   mount points. With a second non-null argument returns an absolute path. Double-byte
	   characters will not be translated.

	   Translates a cygwin path to the corresponding cygwin path respecting the current mount
	   points. With a second non-null argument returns an absolute path. Double-byte charac-
	   ters will not be translated.

	   Returns an array of [mnt_dir, mnt_fsname, mnt_type, mnt_opts].

	     perl -e 'for $i (Cygwin::mount_table) {print join(" ",@$i),"\n";}'
	     /bin c:\cygwin\bin system binmode,cygexec
	     /usr/bin c:\cygwin\bin system binmode
	     /usr/lib c:\cygwin\lib system binmode
	     / c:\cygwin system binmode
	     /cygdrive/c c: system binmode,noumount
	     /cygdrive/d d: system binmode,noumount
	     /cygdrive/e e: system binmode,noumount

	   Returns the mount type and flags for a specified mount point.  A comma-seperated
	   string of mntent->mnt_type (always "system" or "user"), then the mntent->mnt_opts,
	   where the first is always "binmode" or "textmode".


	   If the argument is "/cygdrive", then just the volume mount settings, and the cygdrive
	   mount prefix are returned.

	   User mounts override system mounts.

	     $ perl -e 'print Cygwin::mount_flags "/usr/bin"'
	     $ perl -e 'print Cygwin::mount_flags "/cygdrive"'

	   Returns true if the given cygwin path is binary mounted, false if the path is mounted
	   in textmode.

       This will install Perl, including man pages.

	 make install 2>&1 | tee log.make-install

       NOTE: If "STDERR" is redirected "make install" will not prompt you to install perl into

       You may need to be Administrator to run "make install".	If you are not, you must have
       write access to the directories in question.

       Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML format can be found in the
       INSTALL document.

       These are the files in the Perl release that contain references to Cygwin.  These very
       brief notes attempt to explain the reason for all conditional code.  Hopefully, keeping
       this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to be kept as clean as possible (listing not
       updated yet).

	     Changes Changes5.005 Changes5.004 Changes5.6
	     pod/perl.pod pod/perlport.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod
	     pod/perldelta.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod pod/perl56delta.pod
	     pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod perl/buildtoc pod/perltoc.pod

       Build, Configure, Make, Install
	     Configure		   - help finding hints from uname,
				     shared libperl required for dynamic loading
	     Makefile.SH	   - linklibperl
	     Porting/patchls	   - cygwin in port list
	     installman 	   - man pages with :: translated to .
	     installperl	   - install dll/ld2/perlld, install to pods
	     makedepend.SH	   - uwinfix

	     t/io/tell.t	   - binmode
	     t/lib/b.t		   - ignore Cwd from os_extras
	     t/lib/glob-basic.t    - Win32 directory list access differs from read mode
	     t/op/magic.t	   - $^X/symlink WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
	     t/op/stat.t	   - no /dev, skip Win32 ftCreationTime quirk
				     (cache manager sometimes preserves ctime of file
				     previously created and deleted), no -u (setuid)
	     t/lib/cygwin.t	   - builtin cygwin function tests

       Compiled Perl Source
	     EXTERN.h		   - __declspec(dllimport)
	     XSUB.h		   - __declspec(dllexport)
	     cygwin/cygwin.c	   - os_extras (getcwd, spawn, and several Cygwin:: functions)
	     perl.c		   - os_extras
	     perl.h		   - binmode
	     doio.c		   - win9x can not rename a file when it is open
	     pp_sys.c		   - do not define h_errno, pp_system with spawn
	     util.c		   - use setenv

       Compiled Module Source
	     ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs    - tzname defined externally
				   - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
				   - binary open

       Perl Modules/Scripts
	     lib/Cwd.pm 	   - hook to internal Cwd::cwd
				   - require MM_Cygwin.pm
				   - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
	     lib/File/Find.pm	   - on remote drives stat() always sets st_nlink to 1
	     lib/File/Spec/Cygwin.pm - case_tolerant
	     lib/File/Spec/Unix.pm - preserve //unc
	     lib/File/Temp.pm	   - no directory sticky bit
	     lib/perl5db.pl	   - use stdin not /dev/tty
	     utils/perldoc.PL	   - version comment

       Support for swapping real and effective user and group IDs is incomplete.  On WinNT Cygwin
       provides "setuid()", "seteuid()", "setgid()" and "setegid()".  However, additional Cygwin
       calls for manipulating WinNT access tokens and security contexts are required.

       Charles Wilson <cwilson@ece.gatech.edu>, Eric Fifer <egf7@columbia.edu>, alexander smish-
       lajev <als@turnhere.com>, Steven Morlock <newspost@morlock.net>, Sebastien Barre
       <Sebastien.Barre@utc.fr>, Teun Burgers <burgers@ecn.nl>, Gerrit P. Haase <gp@fami-
       liehaase.de>, Reini Urban <rurban@cpan.org>, Jan Dubois <jand@activestate.com>.

       Last updated: 2008-03-08

perl v5.8.9				    2007-11-17				    PERLCYGWIN(1)

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