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Unix Version 7 - man page for stdio (v7 section 3S)

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STDIO(3S)										STDIO(3S)

       stdio - standard buffered input/output package

       #include <stdio.h>

       FILE *stdin;
       FILE *stdout;
       FILE *stderr;

       The  functions  described  in  Sections	3S  constitute	an efficient user-level buffering
       scheme.	The in-line macros getc and putc(3) handle characters quickly.	The higher  level
       routines  gets,	fgets, scanf, fscanf, fread, puts, fputs, printf, fprintf, fwrite all use
       getc and putc; they can be freely intermixed.

       A file with associated buffering is called a stream, and is declared to be a pointer to	a
       defined	type  FILE.  Fopen(3) creates certain descriptive data for a stream and returns a
       pointer to designate the stream in all further transactions.   There  are  three  normally
       open  streams  with constant pointers declared in the include file and associated with the
       standard open files:

       stdin	 standard input file
       stdout	 standard output file
       stderr	 standard error file

       A constant `pointer' NULL(0) designates no stream at all.

       An integer constant EOF (-1) is returned upon end of file or error  by  integer	functions
       that deal with streams.

       Any  routine  that  uses  the  standard	input/output package must include the header file
       <stdio.h> of pertinent macro definitions.  The functions and constants mentioned  in  sec-
       tions  labeled  3S  are declared in the include file and need no further declaration.  The
       constants, and the following `functions' are implemented as macros; redeclaration of these
       names is perilous: getc, getchar, putc, putchar, feof, ferror, fileno.

       open(2), close(2), read(2), write(2)

       The  value EOF is returned uniformly to indicate that a FILE pointer has not been initial-
       ized with fopen, input (output) has been attempted on an output (input) stream, or a  FILE
       pointer designates corrupt or otherwise unintelligible FILE data.

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