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terminfo(5) [ultrix man page]

terminfo(5)							File Formats Manual						       terminfo(5)

       terminfo - terminal capability database


       The  database  describes  terminals by giving a set of capabilities which the terminals have, and by describing how the operations are per-
       formed by the terminals.  Padding requirements and initialization sequences are included in

       Entries in consist of a number of fields separated by commas (,) .  White space after each comma (,) is ignored.  The first entry for  each
       terminal provides the known name of the terminal, separated by vertical bars (|).  The first name given is the most common abbreviation for
       the terminal; the last name given should be a long name fully identifying the terminal.	All others are understood as synonyms for the ter-
       minal  name.  All names, with the exception of the last, should be in lowercase and cannot contain blanks; the last name can contain upper-
       case characters and blanks for readability.

       Terminal names, except for the last, should be chosen using the following conventions:

       o    The piece of hardware that makes up the terminal should have a root name chosen.  For example, hp2621.

       o    The root name cannot contain hyphens, but synonyms can be used that do not conflict with other names.

       o    Modes that the hardware can be in, or user preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and an indicator of the  mode.   For
	    example, a VT100 in 132 column mode would be vt100-w.

       o    The following suffixes should be used where possible:

						Suffix		       Meaning			Example
						-w	 Wide mode (more than 80 columns)	vt100-w
						-am	 With auto. margins (usually default)	vt100-am
						-nam	 Without automatic margins		vt100-nam
						-n	 Number of lines on the screen		aaa-60
						-na	 No arrow keys (leave them in local)	c100-na
						-np	 Number of pages of memory		c100-4p
						-rv	 Reverse video				c100-rv

       The following headers are used in the capabilities table:

       Variable booleans Variable is the name by which the programmer (at the terminfo level) accesses the capability.

       Capname		 Short name used in the text of the database, and is used by a person updating the database.

       I.code		 Two-letter internal code used in the compiled database, which always corresponds to the old capability name.

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of 5 characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs
       in the source file caps to line up nicely.  Whenever possible, names are chosen to be the same as, or similar to, the ANSI X3.64-1979 stan-
       dard.  Semantics are also intended to match those of the specification.	They are as follows:

       (P)     Indicates that padding may be specified.

       (G)     Indicates that the string is passed through tparm with parms as given (#i).

       (*)     Indicates that padding may be based on the number of lines affected

       (#i)    Indicates the ith parameter.

					     Variable		Cap-	 I.		   Description
					     Booleans		name	Code
				      auto_left_margin, 	bw	bw     cub1 wraps from column 0 to last

				      auto_right_margin,	am	am     Terminal has automatic margins
				      beehive_glitch,		xsb	xb     Beehive (f1=escape, f2=ctrl C)
				      ceol_standout_glitch,	xhp	xs     Standout not erased by over-
									       writing (hp)
				      eat_newline_glitch,	xenl	xn     Newline ignored after 80 cols
				      erase_overstrike, 	eo	eo     Can erase overstrikes with a
				      generic_type,		gn	gn     Generic line type (for ex., dialup,
				      hard_copy,		hc	hc     Hardcopy terminal
				      has_meta_key,		km	km     Has a meta key (shift, sets
									       parity bit)
				      has_status_line,		hs	hs     Has extra status line
				      insert_null_glitch,	in	in     Insert mode distinguishes nulls
				      memory_above,		da	da     Display may be retained above the
				      memory_below,		db	db     Display may be retained below the
				      move_insert_mode, 	mir	mi     Safe to move while in insert mode
				      move_standout_mode,	msgr	ms     Safe to move in standout modes
				      over_strike,		os	os     Terminal overstrikes
				      status_line_esc_ok,	eslok	es     Escape can be used on the status
				      teleray_glitch,		xt	xt     Tabs ruin, magic so char (Teleray
				      tilde_glitch,		hz	hz     Hazeltine; can not print tildes (~)s
				      transparent_underline,	ul	ul     underline character overstrikes
				      xon_xoff, 		xon	xo     Terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking

				      columns,			cols	co     Number of columns in a line
				      init_tabs,		it	it     Tabs initially every # spaces
				      lines,			lines	li     Number of lines on screen or page
				      lines_of_memory,		lm	lm     Lines of memory if > lines.  0
									       means varies
				      magic_cookie_glitch,	xmc	sg     Number of blank chars left by
									       smso or rmso
				      padding_baud_rate,	pb	pb     Lowest baud where cr/nl padding
									       is needed
				      virtual_terminal, 	vt	vt     Virtual terminal number (UNIX
				      width_status_line,	wsl	ws     Number of columns in status line

				      back_tab, 		cbt	bt     Back tab (P)
				      bell,			bel	bl     Audible signal (bell) (P)
				      carriage_return,		cr	cr     Carriage return (P*)
				      change_scroll_region,	csr	cs     Change to lines #1 through #2
									       (vt100) (PG)
				      clear_all_tabs,		tbc	ct     Clear all tab stops (P)
				      clear_screen,		clear	cl     Clear screen and home cursor (P*)
				      clr_eol,			el	ce     Clear to end of line (P)
				      clr_eos,			ed	cd     Clear to end of display (P*)
				      column_address,		hpa	ch     Set cursor column (PG)
				      command_character,	cmdch	CC     Term. settable cmd char in
				      cursor_address,		cup	cm     Screen rel. cursor motion row #1
									       col #2 (PG)
				      cursor_down,		cud1	do     Down one line
				      cursor_home,		home	ho     Home cursor (if no cup)
				      cursor_invisible, 	civis	vi     Make cursor invisible
				      cursor_left,		cub1	le     Move cursor left one space
				      cursor_mem_address,	mrcup	CM     Memory relative cursor addressing

				      cursor_normal,		cnorm	ve     Make cursor appear normal
									       (undo vs/vi)
				      cursor_right,		cuf1	nd     Nondestructive space (cursor
				      cursor_to_ll,		ll	ll     Last line, first column (if no cup)
				      cursor_up,		cuu1	up     Upline (cursor up)
				      cursor_visible,		cvvis	vs     Make cursor very visible
				      delete_character, 	dch1	dc     Delete character (P*)
				      delete_line,		dl1	dl     Delete line (P*)
				      dis_status_line,		dsl	ds     Disable status line
				      down_half_line,		hd	hd     Half-line down (forward 1/2
				      enter_alt_charset_mode,	smacs	as     Start alternate character set (P)
				      enter_blink_mode, 	blink	mb     Turn on blinking
				      enter_bold_mode,		bold	md     Turn on bold (extra bright) mode
				      enter_ca_mode,		smcup	ti     String to begin programs that use
				      enter_delete_mode,	smdc	dm     Delete mode (enter)
				      enter_dim_mode,		dim	mh     Turn on half-bright mode
				      enter_insert_mode,	smir	im     Insert mode (enter);
				      enter_protected_mode,	prot	mp     Turn on protected mode
				      enter_reverse_mode,	rev	mr     Turn on reverse video mode
				      enter_secure_mode,	invis	mk     Turn on blank mode (chars
				      enter_standout_mode,	smso	so     Begin stand out mode
				      enter_underline_mode,	smul	us     Start underscore mode
				      erase_chars		ech	ec     Erase #1 characters (PG)
				      exit_alt_charset_mode,	rmacs	ae     End alternate character set (P)
				      exit_attribute_mode,	sgr0	me     Turn off all attributes
				      exit_ca_mode,		rmcup	te     String to end programs that use cup
				      exit_delete_mode, 	rmdc	ed     End delete mode
				      exit_insert_mode, 	rmir	ei     End insert mode
				      exit_standout_mode,	rmso	se     End stand out mode
				      exit_underline_mode,	rmul	ue     End underscore mode
				      flash_screen,		flash	vb     Visible bell (may not move
				      form_feed,		ff	ff     Hardcopy terminal page eject (P*)
				      from_status_line, 	fsl	fs     Return from status line
				      init_1string,		is1	i1     Terminal initialization string
				      init_2string,		is2	i2     Terminal initialization string
				      init_3string,		is3	i3     Terminal initialization string
				      init_file,		if	if     Name of file containing is
				      insert_character, 	ich1	ic     Insert character (P)
				      insert_line,		il1	al     Add new blank line (P*)
				      insert_padding,		ip	ip     Insert pad after character
									       inserted (p*)
				      key_backspace,		kbs	kb     Sent by backspace key
				      key_catab,		ktbc	ka     Sent by clear-all-tabs key
				      key_clear,		kclr	kC     Sent by clear screen or erase key
				      key_ctab, 		kctab	kt     Sent by clear-tab key
				      key_dc,			kdch1	kD     Sent by delete character key
				      key_dl,			kdl1	kL     Sent by delete line key
				      key_down, 		kcud1	kd     Sent by terminal down arrow key
				      key_eic,			krmir	kM     Sent by rmir or smir in insert mode
				      key_eol,			kel	kE     Sent by clear-to-end-of-line key
				      key_eos,			ked	kS     Sent by clear-to-end-of-screen
				      key_f0,			kf0	k0     Sent by function key f0
				      key_f1,			kf1	k1     Sent by function key f1
				      key_f10,			kf10	ka     Sent by function key f10
				      key_f2,			kf2	k2     Sent by function key f2
				      key_f3,			kf3	k3     Sent by function key f3
				      key_f4,			kf4	k4     Sent by function key f4
				      key_f5,			kf5	k5     Sent by function key f5
				      key_f6,			kf6	k6     Sent by function key f6

				      key_f7,			kf7	k7     Sent by function key f7
				      key_f8,			kf8	k8     Sent by function key f8
				      key_f9,			kf9	k9     Sent by function key f9
				      key_home, 		khome	kh     Sent by home key
				      key_ic,			kich1	kI     Sent by ins char/enter ins mode key
				      key_il,			kil1	kA     Sent by insert line
				      key_left, 		kcub1	kl     Sent by terminal left arrow key
				      key_ll,			kll	kH     Sent by home-down key
				      key_npage,		knp	kN     Sent by next-page key
				      key_ppage,		kpp	kP     Sent by previous-page key
				      key_right,		kcuf1	kr     Sent by terminal right arrow key
				      key_sf,			kind	kF     Sent by scroll-forward/down key
				      key_sr,			kri	kR     Sent by scroll-backward/up key
				      key_stab, 		khts	kT     Sent by set-tab key
				      key_up,			kcuu1	ku     Sent by terminal up arrow key
				      keypad_local,		rmkx	ke     Out of "keypad transmit" mode
				      keypad_xmit,		smkx	ks     Put terminal in "keypad transmit"
				      lab_f0,			lf0	l0     Labels on function key f0 if not f0
				      lab_f1,			lf1	l1     Labels on function key f1 if not f1
				      lab_f10,			lf10	la     Labels on function key f10 if not
				      lab_f2,			lf2	l2     Labels on function key f2 if not f2
				      lab_f3,			lf3	l3     Labels on function key f3 if not f3
				      lab_f4,			lf4	l4     Labels on function key f4 if not f4
				      lab_f5,			lf5	l5     Labels on function key f5 if not f5
				      lab_f6,			lf6	l6     Labels on function key f6 if not f6
				      lab_f7,			lf7	l7     Labels on function key f7 if not f7
				      lab_f8,			lf8	l8     Labels on function key f8 if not f8
				      lab_f9,			lf9	l9     Labels on function key f9 if not f9
				      meta_on,			smm	mm     Turn on "meta mode" (8th bit)
				      meta_off, 		rmm	mo     Turn off "meta mode"
				      newline,			nel	nw     Newline (behaves like cr followed
									       by lf)
				      pad_char, 		pad	pc     Pad character (rather than null)
				      parm_dch, 		dch	DC     Delete #1 chars (PG*)
				      parm_delete_line, 	dl	DL     Delete #1 lines (PG*)
				      parm_down_cursor, 	cud	DO     Move cursor down #1 lines (PG*)
				      parm_ich, 		ich	IC     Insert #1 blank chars (PG*)
				      parm_index,		indn	SF     Scroll forward #1 lines (PG)
				      parm_insert_line, 	il	AL     Add #1 new blank lines (PG*)
				      parm_left_cursor, 	cub	LE     Move cursor left #1 spaces (PG)
				      parm_right_cursor,	cuf	RI     Move cursor right #1 spaces (PG*)
				      parm_rindex,		rin	SR     Scroll backward #1 lines (PG)
				      parm_up_cursor,		cuu	UP     Move cursor up #1 lines (PG*)
				      pkey_key, 		pfkey	pk     Prog funct key #1 to type string #2
				      pkey_local,		pfloc	pl     Prog funct key #1 to execute string
				      pkey_xmit,		pfx	px     Prog funct key #1 to xmit string #2
				      print_screen,		mc0	ps     Print contents of the screen
				      prtr_off, 		mc4	pf     Turn off the printer
				      prtr_on,			mc5	po     Turn on the printer
				      repeat_char,		rep	rp     Repeat char #1 #2 times.  (PG*)
				      reset_1string,		rs1	r1     Reset terminal completely to sane
				      reset_2string,		rs2	r2     Reset terminal completely to sane
				      reset_3string,		rs3	r3     Reset terminal completely to sane
				      reset_file,		rf	rf     Name of file containing reset
				      restore_cursor,		rc	rc     Restore cursor to position of
									       last sc
				      row_address,		vpa	cv     Vertical position absolute
									       (set row) (PG)

				      save_cursor,		sc	sc     Save cursor position (P)
				      scroll_forward,		ind	sf     Scroll text up (P)
				      scroll_reverse,		ri	sr     Scroll text down (P)
				      set_attributes,		sgr	sa     Define the video attributes (PG9)
				      set_tab,			hts	st     Set a tab in all rows, current
				      set_window,		wind	wi     Current window is lines #1-#2
									       cols #3-#4
				      tab,			ht	ta     Tab to next 8 space hardware tab
				      to_status_line,		tsl	ts     Go to status line, column #1
				      underline_char,		uc	uc     Underscore one char and move past
				      up_half_line,		hu	hu     Half-line up (reverse 1/2 linefeed)
				      init_prog,		iprog	iP     Path name of program for init
				      key_a1,			ka1	K1     Upper left of keypad
				      key_a3,			ka3	K3     Upper right of keypad
				      key_b2,			kb2	K2     Center of keypad
				      key_c1,			kc1	K4     Lower left of keypad
				      key_c3,			kc3	K5     Lower right of keypad
				      prtr_non, 		mc5p	pO     Turn on the printer for #1 bytes

       Sample Entry

       The following entry, which describes the Concept-100, is one of the more complex entries in the
       concept100|c100|concept|c104|c100-4p|concept 100,
	  am, bel=^G, blank=EH, blink=EC, clear=^L$<2*>, cnorm=Ew,
	  cols#80, cr=^M$<9>, cub1=^H, cud1=^J, cuf1=E=,
	  cup=Ea%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c,
	  cuu1=E;, cvvis=EW, db, dch1=E^A$<16*>, dim=EE, dl1=E^B$<3*>,
	  ed=E^C$<16*>, el=E^U$<16>, eo, flash=Ek$<20>EK, ht=	$<8>,
	  il1=E^R$<3*>, in, ind=^J, .ind=^J$<9>, ip=$<16*>,
	  kbs=^h, kcub1=E>, kcud1=E<, kcuf1=E=, kcuu1=E;,
	  kf1=E5, kf2=E6, kf3=E7, khome=E?,
	  lines#24, mir, pb#9600, prot=EI, rep=Er%p1%c%p2%' '%+%c$<.2*>,
	  rev=ED, rmcup=Ev	$<6>Ep
, rmir=E200, rmkx=Ex,
	  rmso=EdEe, rmul=Eg, rmul=Eg, sgr0=EN200,
	  smcup=EUEv	8pEp
, smir=E^P, smkx=EX, smso=EEED,
	  smul=EG, tabs, ul, vt#8, xenl,
       Entries	can continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at the beginning of each line, with the exception of the first line.  Com-
       ments can be included, as long as the comment is preceded by a number sign (#).	The following list describes terminal capabilities in more

       Types of Capabilities

       Boolean capabilities  Indicate that the terminal has some particular feature.  For example, the Concept-100 has automatic margins (an auto-
			     matic return and linefeed when the end-of-line is reached).  This is described in the Boolean capabilities column	as
			     an am.

       Numeric capabilities  Provide  the  size  of  the terminal or the size of particular delays.  Numeric capabilities are followed by a number
			     sign (#) and then the value.  Hence, the cols, which indicates the number of column the terminal  has,  provides  the
			     value 80 for the Concept.

       String capabilities   Provide  a  sequence  that  can be used to perform particular terminal operations.  Hence, string-valued capabilities
			     such as el (clear to the end-of-line sequence are described the 2-character code (an equal sign (=) and then a string
			     ending  at  the  next comma (,).  A delay in milliseconds can appear anywhere in such a capability, enclosed in $<..>
			     brackets, and padding characters are supplied by to provide this delay.

			     A delay can be either a number, such as 20, or a number followed by an asterisk (*), such as 3*.	The  asterisk  (*)
			     indicates	that the padding required is proportional to the number of lines affected by the operation, and the amount
			     given is the per-affected-unit padding required.  (In the case of the insert character, the factor is still the  num-
			     ber of lines affected.  This is always one, unless the terminal has xenl and the software uses it.)  When an asterisk
			     (*) is specified, it is sometimes useful to give a delay of the form 3.5, which indicates a delay per unit to  tenths
			     of milliseconds.  (Only one decimal place is allowed.)

       Escape  sequences  are  provided  in the string-valued capabilities for easy encoding of characters there.  Both E and e map to an ESCAPE
       character, ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and the sequences 
 	  f s give  a	newline,  linefeed,  return,  tab,
       backspace, formfeed, and space.	Other escapes include ^ for ^, \ for , , for comma, : for :, and  for null.  ( will produce 200,
       which does not terminate a string but behaves as a null character on most terminals.)  Finally, characters may be given as three octal dig-
       its after a .

       Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To do this, put a period before the capability name.  For example, see the second
       ind in the previous Sample Entry.

       Preparing Descriptions

       This section describes how to prepare a description of a terminal.  The most effective way to prepare a terminal description is by  imitat-
       ing  the  description of a similar terminal in and to build up a description gradually.	A very unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in
       the ability of the file to describe the terminal.

       To test a new terminal description, set the environment variable TERMINFO to a pathname of a directory containing the compiled  description
       you are working on.  The programs can search this directory rather than search /usr/lib/terminfo.  To get the padding for insert line right
       (if the terminal manufacturer did not document it), edit /etc/passwd at 9600 baud, delete 16 or so lines from the  middle  of  the  screen,
       then  type the character u several times quickly.  If the terminal behaves erratically, more padding is usually needed.	A similar test can
       be used for the insert character.

       Basic Capabilities

       The number of columns on each line for the terminal is specified by the cols numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then the number
       of  lines  on  the screen is given by the lines capability.  If the terminal wraps around to the beginning of the next line when it reaches
       the right margin, then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal can clear its screen, leaving the cursor in  the  home  position,
       then this is given by the clear string capability.  If the terminal overstrikes (rather than clearing a position when a character is struck
       over), then it should have the os capability.  If the terminal is a printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os
       applies to storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there is a code to move the
       cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as cr.  (Normally this will be carriage return, control M.)  If there is  a  code	to
       produce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc), give this as bel.

       If  there  is  a  code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as backspace) that capability should be given as cub1.	Similarly,
       codes to move to the right, up, and down should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and cud1.  These local cursor motions should  not  alter  the  text
       they  pass over; for example, you would not normally use `cuf1= ' because the space would erase the character moved over.  The local cursor
       motions encoded in are undefined at the left and top edges of a CRT terminal.  Programs should never attempt to backspace around  the  left
       edge, unless bw is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In order to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left
       corner of the screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To scroll text down, a program goes to the top left corner of the screen and sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The strings ind  and	ri
       are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized  versions of the scrolling sequences are indn and rin, which have the same semantics as ind and ri, except that they take one
       parameter and scroll that many lines.  They are also undefined, except at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge of the screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily  apply
       to a cuf1 from the last column.	The only local motion that is defined from the left edge is if bw is given, then a cub1 from the left edge
       will move to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is not given, the effect is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box around the
       edge  of  the screen, for example.  If the terminal has switch-selectable automatic margins, the file usually assumes that this is on; that
       is, am.	If the terminal has a command which moves to the first column of the next line, that command can be given as  nel  (newline).	It
       does  not matter if the command clears the remainder of the current line, so, if the terminal has no cr and lf, it may still be possible to
       craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hardcopy and glass-tty terminals.  Thus, the Model 33 Teletype is described as:
       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
       bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,
       The Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as:
       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
       am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
       ind=^J, lines#24,
       Parameterized Strings

       Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the terminal are described by a parameterized string capability, with  such	as
       escapes	like %x.  For example, to address the cursor, the cup capability is given, using two parameters: the row and column to address to.
       (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to the physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen memory.)  If the  terminal
       has memory-relative cursor addressing, that can be indicated by mrcup.

       The  parameter  mechanism  uses	a  stack and special % codes to manipulate it.	Typically a sequence pushes one of the parameters onto the
       stack and then prints it in some format.  Often, more complex operations are necessary.

       The percent sign (%) encodings have the following meanings:

	    %%	      outputs `%'
	    %d	      print pop() as in printf
	    %2d       print pop() like %2d
	    %3d       print pop() like %3d
	    %03d      as in printf
	    %c	      print pop() gives %c
	    %s	      print pop() gives %s

	    %p[1-9]   push ith parm
	    %P[a-z]   set variable [a-z] to pop()
	    %g[a-z]   get variable [a-z] and push it
	    %'c'      char constant c
	    %{nn}     integer constant nn

	    %+ %- %* %/ %m
		      arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())
	    %& %| %^  bit operations: push(pop() op pop())
	    %= %> %<  logical operations: push(pop() op pop())
	    %! %~     unary operations push(op pop())
	    %i	      add 1 to first two parms (for ANSI terminals)

	    %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
		      if-then-else, %e elsepart is optional.
		      else-if's are possible ala Algol 68:
		      %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;
		      ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

       Binary operations are in postfix form with the operands in the usual order.  That is, to get x-5, use %gx%{5}%-.

       Consider the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to be sent E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the  order	of
       the  rows  and  columns	is  inverted  here,  and  that	the  row  and  column  are  printed  as  two  digits.  Thus, its cup capability is

       The Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent  preceded  by  a  ^T,  with  the  row  and  column  simply  encoded  in  binary,
       cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c.   Terminals  that use %c need to be able to backspace the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up one line on the screen
       (cuu1).	This is necessary because it is not always safe to transmit 
 ^D and 
, as the system may change or discard them.  (The  library
       routines  dealing  with	terminfo set tty modes so that tabs are never expanded, so 	 is safe to send.	This turns out to be essential for
       the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset by a blank character; thus cup=E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%.  After sending
       E=,  this pushes the first parameter, pushes the ASCII value for a space(32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two
       previous values), and outputs that value as a character.  Then, the same is done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is pos-
       sible using the stack.

       If  the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can be given as single parameter capabilities hpa (horizontal position
       absolute) and vpa (vertical position absolute).	Sometimes, these are shorter than the more  general  2-parameter  sequence  (as  with  the
       hp2645)	and  can be used in preference to cup .  If there are parameterized local motions (for example, move n spaces to the right), these
       can be given as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu, with a single parameter indicating how many spaces to move.  These are primarily useful if the ter-
       minal does not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       Cursor Motions

       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left corner of screen), then this can be given as home.  Similarly, a fast
       way of getting to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll. This may involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a  program
       should never do this itself (unless ll does), because it can make no assumption about the effect of moving up from the home position.  Note
       that the home position is the same as addressing to (0,0): the top left corner of the screen, not memory.  Thus, the  EH  sequence  on	HP
       terminals cannot be used for home.

       Area Clears

       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as el.	If
       the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the display, this should be given as ed.	Ed is only defined from the  first
       column of a line.  Thus, it can be simulated by a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not available.

       Insert/delete line

       If  the	terminal  can  open  a new blank line before the line where the cursor is, this should be given as il1; this is done only from the
       first position of a line.  The cursor must then appear on the newly blank line.	If the terminal can delete the line that the cursor is on,
       this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the first position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 that take a sin-
       gle parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as il and dl.  If the terminal has a settable scrolling	region	(like  the
       VT100),	the  command  to  set  this  can be described with the csr capability, which takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the
       scrolling region.  The cursor position is undefined after using this command.  It is possible to get the effect of insert  or  delete  line
       using  this  command. The sc and rc (save and restore cursor) commands are also useful.	Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen
       can also be done using ri or ind on many terminals without a true insert/delete line, and this is often faster even on terminals with those

       If  the	terminal  has the ability to define a window as part of memory, which all commands affect, it should be given as the parameterized
       string wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines in memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability should be given; if display memory can be retained below,  then	db
       should  be  given.   These indicate that deleting a line or scrolling may bring nonblank lines up from below or that scrolling back with ri
       may bring down nonblank lines.

       Insert/Delete Character

       There are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals with respect to insert/delete character that can be  described  using  The  most  common
       insert/delete  character  operations  affect  only the characters on the current line and shift characters off the end of the line rigidly.
       Other terminals, such as the Concept-100 and the Perkin Elmer Owl, make a distinction between typed  and  untyped  blanks  on  the  screen,
       shifting  upon an insert or delete only to an untyped blank on the screen that is either eliminated or expanded to two untyped blanks.  You
       can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the screen and typing text separated by cursor motions.	Type ``abc    def'', using
       local  cursor  motions  (not  spaces) between the abc and the def.  Then, position the cursor before the abc and put the terminal in insert
       mode.  If typing characters causes the rest of the line to shift rigidly and characters fall off the end, then your terminal does not  dis-
       tinguish  between  blanks  and untyped positions.  If the abc shifts over to the def which then move together around the end of the current
       line and onto the next as you insert, you have the second type of terminal. You should give the capability in, which  stands  for  ``insert
       null''.	While these are two logically separate attributes (one line, as opposed to multiline insert mode, and special treatment of untyped
       spaces) every terminal's insert mode can be described with the single attribute.

       Terminfo can describe both terminals that have an insert mode and terminals that send a simple sequence to open a  blank  position  on  the
       current	line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.  Give as rmir the sequence to leave insert mode.  Then, give as ich1 any
       sequence needed to be sent just before sending the character to be inserted.  Most terminals with a true insert mode will  not  give  ich1;
       terminals that send a sequence to open a screen position should give it here.  If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable
       to ich1.  Do not give both, unless the terminal actually requires both to be used in combination.  If post insert padding is  needed,  give
       this  as a number of milliseconds in ip (a string option).  Any other sequence that may need to be sent after an insert of a single charac-
       ter may also be given in ip.  If your terminal needs both to be placed into an insert mode and a special  code  to  precede  each  inserted
       character, both smir/rmir and ich1 can be given, and both will be used.	The ich capability, with one parameter, n, will repeat the effects
       of ich1 n times.

       It is occasionally necessary to move around while in insert mode to delete characters on the same line (for example,  if  there	is  a  tab
       after the insertion position).  If your terminal allows motion while in insert mode, you can give the capability mir to speed up inserting.
       Omitting mir affects only speed.   Some terminals (notably Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the way their insert mode works.

       Finally, you can specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch, with one parameter, n, to delete n characters, and delete mode	by  giving
       smdc and rmdc to enter and exit delete mode (any mode the terminal needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A command to erase n characters (equivalent to outputting n blanks, without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

       Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells

       If  your  terminal  has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can be represented in a number of different ways.  You should choose
       one display form as standout mode, representing a good, high contrast, easy to read, format  for  highlighting  error  messages	and  other
       important  information.	 If you have a choice, reverse video plus half-bright is good, or reverse video alone.	The sequences to enter and
       exit standout mode are given as smso and rmso, respectively.  If the code to change into or out of standout mode leaves	one  or  even  two
       blank spaces on the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes  to  begin  underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and rmul, respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the
       current character and move the cursor one space to the right, such as the Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other capabilities to enter various highlighting modes include blink (blinking), bold (bold or extra bright),  dim  (dim  or  half-bright),
       invis  (blanking  or  invisible	text),	prot (protected), rev (reverse video), sgr0 (turn off all attribute modes), smacs (enter alternate
       character set mode), and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on any of these modes singly may or may  not  turn	off  other

       If  there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of modes, this should be given as sgr (set attributes), taking nine parameters.  Each
       parameter is either 0 or 1, as the corresponding attribute is on or off.  The nine parameters are, in order: standout, underline,  reverse,
       blink,  dim, bold, blank, protect, and alternate character set.	Not all modes need be supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding
       separate attribute commands exist.

       Terminals with the ``magic cookie glitch'' (xmc) deposit special cookies when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the display
       algorithm  rather  than	having extra bits for each character.  Some terminals, such as the HP 2621, automatically leave standout mode when
       they move to a new line or the cursor is addressed.  Programs using standout mode should exit standout mode before  moving  the	cursor	or
       sending a newline, unless the msgr capability, asserting that it is safe to move in standout mode, is present.

       If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error quietly (a bell replacement), this can be given as flash; however, it
       must not move the cursor.

       If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is not on the bottom line (to make, for example, a  non-blinking  underline
       into  an  easier  to  find block or blinking underline), give this sequence as cvvis.  If you wish to make the cursor completely invisible,
       give that as civis.  The capability cnorm should be given which undoes the effects of both of these modes.

       If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when running a program that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and  exit	this  mode
       can  be given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from terminals like the Concept-100 with more than one page of memory.  If the
       terminal has only memory-relative cursor addressing and not screen-relative cursor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into
       the  terminal  for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for the TEKTRONIX 4025, where smcup sets the command character to
       be the one used by terminfo.

       If your terminal correctly generates underlined characters (with no special codes needed) even though it does not  overstrike,  you  should
       give the capability ul.	If overstrikes are erasable with a blank, this should be indicated by giving eo.


       If  the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are pressed, give this information. Note that it is not possible to handle
       terminals where the keypad only works in local (this applies, for example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad  can  be  set	to
       transmit  or  not transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx.  Otherwise, the keypad is always assumed to transmit.  The codes sent by the
       left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down arrow, and home keys can be given as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome, respectively.  If there
       are  function  keys  such as f0, f1, ... f10, the codes they send can be given as kf0, kf1, ... kf10.  If these keys have labels other than
       the default f0 through f10, the labels can be given as lf0, lf1, ... lf10.  The codes transmitted by certain  other  special  keys  can	be
       given:  kll  (home  down),  kbs	(backspace), ktbc (clear all tabs), kctab (clear the tab stop in this column), kclr (clear screen or erase
       key), kdch1 (delete character), kdl1 (delete line), krmir (exit insert mode), kel (clear to end of line), ked (clear  to  end  of  screen),
       kich1  (insert  character  or enter insert mode), kil1 (insert line), knp (next page), kpp (previous page), kind (scroll forward/down), kri
       (scroll backward/up), khts (set a tab stop in this column).  In addition, if the keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the four arrow
       keys,  the other five keys can be given as ka1, ka3, kb2, kc1, and kc3.	These keys are useful when the effects of a 3 by 3 directional pad
       are needed.

       Tabs and Initialization

       If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to the next tab stop can be given as ht (usually  CTRL  I).   A  backtab  command
       which  moves leftward to the next tab stop can be given as cbt.	By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being expanded
       by the computer rather than being sent to the terminal, programs should not use ht or cbt, even if they are present, since the user may not
       have  the tab stops properly set.  If the terminal has hardware tabs that are initially set every n spaces when the terminal is powered up,
       the numeric parameter it is given, showing the number of spaces the tabs are set to.  This is normally used by  the  command  to  determine
       whether	to  set  the mode for hardware tab expansion and whether to set the tab stops.	If the terminal has tab stops that can be saved in
       nonvolatile memory, the terminfo description can assume that they are properly set.

       Other capabilities include is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings for the terminal, iprog, the path name of a program to be run to  ini-
       tialize	the  terminal,	and if, the name of a file containing long initialization strings.  These strings are expected to set the terminal
       into modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.  They are normally sent to the terminal, by the  program,  each  time  the
       user  logs  in.	 They will be printed in the following order: is1, is2, setting tabs using tbc and hts, if, running the program iprog, and
       finally is3.  Most initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal modes can be set up without duplicating strings by putting the common
       sequences in is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.  A pair of sequences that does a harder reset from a totally unknown state can be analo-
       gously given as rs1, rs2, rf, and rs3, analogous to is2 and if.	These strings are output by the reset program, which is used when the ter-
       minal gets into a wedged state.	Commands are normally placed in rs2 and rf only if they produce annoying effects on the screen and are not
       necessary when logging in.  For example, the command to set the vt100 into 80-column mode would normally be part of is2, but it	causes	an
       annoying movement of the screen and is not normally needed because the terminal is usually already in 80-column mode.

       If  there  are  commands  to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current
       column of every row).  If a more complex sequence is needed to set the tabs than can be described by this, the sequence can  be	placed	in
       is2 or if.


       Certain	capabilities  control padding in the teletype driver.  These are primarily needed by hard copy terminals, and are used by the pro-
       gram to set teletype modes appropriately.  Delays embedded in the capabilities cr, ind, cub1, ff, and tab cause the appropriate delay  bits
       to be set in the teletype driver.  If pb (padding baud rate) is given, these values can be ignored at baud rates below the value of pb.


       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad, this can be given as pad.	Only the first character of the pad string
       is used.

       If the terminal has an extra status line that is not normally used by software, indicate this fact.  If the status line	is  viewed  as	an
       extra  line  below the bottom line, into which one can cursor-address normally (such as the Heathkit h19's 25th line, or the 24th line of a
       vt100 which is set to a 23-line scrolling region), the capability hs should be given.  Special strings to go to the beginning of the status
       line  and  to  return from the status line can be given as tsl and fsl.	The fsl string must leave the cursor position in the same place it
       was before tsl.	If necessary, the sc and rc strings can be included in tsl and fsl to get this effect.	The parameter tsl takes one param-
       eter,  which is the column number of the status line the cursor is to be moved to.  If escape sequences and other special commands, such as
       tab, work while in the status line, give the eslok flag.  A string that turns off the status line, or otherwise erases its contents, should
       be  given as dsl.  If the terminal has commands to save and restore the position of the cursor, give them as sc and rc.	The status line is
       normally assumed to be the same width as the rest of the screen, for example, cols.  If the status line	is  a  different  width  (possibly
       because the terminal does not allow an entire line to be loaded), the width, in columns, can be indicated with the numeric parameter, wsl.

       If  the	terminal can move up or down half a line, you can indicate this with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line down).  This is primarily
       useful for superscripts and subscripts on hardcopy terminals.  If a hardcopy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give this	as
       ff (usually CTRL L).

       If  there  is  a command to repeat a given character a given number of times (to save time transmitting a large number of identical charac-
       ters), you can indicate this with the parameterized string rep.	The first parameter is the character to be repeated and the second is  the
       number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) represents ``xxxxxxxxxx''.

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025, this can be indicated with cmdch.	Choose a prototype command
       character to use in all capabilities.  This character is given in the cmdch capability to identify it.  The following  convention  is  sup-
       ported on some UNIX systems: the environment is to be searched for a CC variable, and, if found, all occurrences of the prototype character
       are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

       Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific kind of known terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and network,  should  include
       the  gn	(generic)  capability,	so that programs can complain that they do not know how to talk to the terminal.  This capability does not
       apply to virtual terminal descriptions, for which the escape sequences are known.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control, give xon.  Padding information should still be included, so that  routines  can
       make better decisions about costs, but actual pad characters are not transmitted.

       If  the	terminal  has a meta key that acts as a shift key, setting the eighth bit of any character transmitted, this fact can be indicated
       with km.  Otherwise, software assumes that the eighth bit is parity and it is usually cleared.  If strings exist to turn this meta mode	on
       and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If  the	terminal  has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at once, the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A
       value of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual terminal protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media copy strings that control an auxiliary printer connected to the terminal can be given as mc0: print the contents of the screen,  mc4:
       turn  off  the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.  When the printer is on, all text sent to the terminal is sent to the printer.  It is
       undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal screen when the printer is on.  A variation  mc5p  takes  one  parameter,  and
       leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the parameter. It then turns the printer off.  The parameter should not exceed
       255.  All text, including mc4, is transparently passed to the printer while an mc5p is in effect.

       Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.	Each of these strings takes two parameters: the function key  num-
       ber  to	program  (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.  Function key numbers out of this range may program undefined keys in a
       terminal-dependent manner.  The difference between the capabilities is that pfkey causes pressing the given key to be the same as the  user
       typing  the  given  string; pfloc causes the string to be executed by the terminal in local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted to
       the computer.

       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow tilde (~) characters to be displayed, should indicate hz.

       Terminals that ignore a linefeed immediately after an am wrap, such as the Concept-100 and VT100, should indicate xenl.

       If el is required to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks, should indicate xt (destructive tabs).  This glitch is  also  taken
       to mean that it is not possible to position the cursor on top of a ``magic cookie'', that to erase standout mode it is instead necessary to
       use delete and insert line.

       The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the escape or CTRL C characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1  key  is  used
       for escape and f2 for CTRL C.  (Only certain Superbees have this problem, depending on the ROM.)

       Other specific terminal problems can be corrected by adding more capabilities of the form xx.

       Similar Terminals

       If  there  are  two very similar terminals, one can be defined as being just like the other with certain exceptions.  The string capability
       use can be given with the name of the similar terminal.	The capabilities given before use override those in the terminal type  invoked	by
       use.   A  capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the capability definition, where xx is the capability.  For example, the
       following entry
       2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,
       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and hence does not turn on the function key labels when in visual mode.
       This is useful for different modes for a terminal, or for different user preferences.

       Files containing terminal descriptions

See Also
       tic(1), intro(3cur), printf(3s), term(7)
       Guide to X/Open curses Screen Handling

Man Page