# math(3m) [ultrix man page]

math(3m) math(3m)Namemath - introduction to mathematical library functionsDescriptionThese functions constitute the C math library libm. There are two versions of the math library libm.a and libm43.a. The first, libm.a, contains routines written in MIPS assembly language and tuned for best performance and includes many routines for the float data type. The routines in there are based on the algorithms of Cody and Waite or those in the 4.3 BSD release, whichever provides the best performance with acceptable error bounds. Those routines with Cody and Waite implementations are marked with a `*' in the list of functions below. The second version of the math library, libm43.a, contains routines all based on the original codes in the 4.3 BSD release. The difference between the two version's error bounds is typically around 1 unit in the last place, whereas the performance difference may be a factor of two or more. The link editor searches this library under the "-lm" (or "-lm43") option. Declarations for these functions may be obtained from the include file <math.h>. The Fortran math library is described in ``man 3f intro''. List Of Functions The cycle counts of all functions are approximate; cycle counts often depend on the value of argument. The error bound sometimes applies only to the primary range.Error Bound (ULPs) Cycles Name Description libm.a libm43.a libm.a libm43.a-------------------------------------------------------------------------acos inverse trig function 3 3 ? ? acosh inverse hyperbolic 3 3 ? ? function asin inverse trig function 3 3 ? ? asinh inverse hyperbolic 3 3 ? ? function atan inverse trig function 1 1 152 260 atanh inverse hyperbolic 3 3 ? ? function atan2 inverse trig function 2 2 ? ? cabs complex absolute 1 1 ? ? value cbrt cube root 1 1 ? ? ceil integer no less than 0 0 ? ? copysign copy sign bit 0 0 ? ? cos* trig function 2 1 128 243 cosh* hyperbolic function ? 3 142 294 drem remainder 0 0 ? ? erf error function ? ? ? ? erfc complementary error ? ? ? ? function exp* exponential 2 1 101 230 expm1 exp(x)-1 1 1 281 281 fabs absolute value 0 0 ? ? fatan* inverse trig function 3 64 fcos* trig function 1 87 fcosh* hyperbolic function ? 105 fexp* exponential 1 79 flog* natural logarithm 1 100 floor integer no greater 0 0 ? ? than fsin* trig function 1 68 fsinh* hyperbolic function ? 44 fsqrt square root 1 95 ftan* trig function ? 61 ftanh* hyperbolic function ? 116 hypot Euclidean distance 1 1 ? ? j0 bessel function ? ? ? ? j1 bessel function ? ? ? ? jn bessel function ? ? ? ? lgamma log gamma function ? ? ? ? log* natural logarithm 2 1 119 217 logb exponent extraction 0 0 ? ? log10* logarithm to base 10 3 3 ? ? log1p log(1+x) 1 1 269 269 pow exponential x**y 60-500 60-500 ? ? rint round to nearest 0 0 ? ? integer scalb exponent adjustment 0 0 ? ? sin* trig function 2 1 101 222 sinh* hyperbolic function ? 3 79 292 sqrt square root 1 1 133 133 tan* trig function ? 3 92 287 tanh* hyperbolic function ? 3 156 293 y0 bessel function ? ? ? ? y1 bessel function ? ? ? ? yn bessel function ? ? ? ?-------------------------------------------------------------------------In 4.3 BSD, distributed from the University of California in late 1985, most of the foregoing functions come in two versions, one for the double-precision "D" format in the DEC VAX-11 family of computers, another for double-precision arithmetic conforming to the IEEE Standard 754 for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic. The two versions behave very similarly, as should be expected from programs more accurate and robust than was the norm when UNIX was born. For instance, the programs are accurate to within the numbers of ulps tabulated above; an ulp is one Unit in the Last Place. And the programs have been cured of anomalies that afflicted the older math library libm in which incidents like the following had been reported: sqrt(-1.0) = 0.0 and log(-1.0) =-------------------------------------------------------------------------cos(1.0e-11) > cos(0.0) > 1.0. pow(x,1.0) != x when x = 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, ..., 9.0. pow(-1.0,1.0e10) trapped on Integer Overflow. sqrt(1.0e30) and sqrt(1.0e-30) were very slow. RISC machines conform to the IEEE Standard 754 for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, to which only the notes for IEEE floating-point apply and are included here. BIEEE STANDARD 754 Floating-Point Arithmetic: This standard is on its way to becoming more widely adopted than any other design for computer arithmetic. The main virtue of 4.3 BSD's libm codes is that they are intended for the public domain; they may be copied freely provided their prove- nance is always acknowledged, and provided users assist the authors in their researches by reporting experience with the codes. Therefore no user of UNIX on a machine that conforms to IEEE 754 need use anything worse than the new libm. Properties of IEEE 754 Double-Precision: Wordsize: 64 bits, 8 bytes. Radix: Binary. Precision: 53 sig. bits, roughly like 16 sig. decimals. If x and x' are consecutive positive Double-Precision numbers (they differ by 1 ulp), then 1.1e-16 < 0.5**53 < (x'-x)/x <= 0.5**52 < 2.3e-16. Range: Overflow threshold = 2.0**1024 = 1.8e308 Underflow threshold = 0.5**1022 = 2.2e-308 Overflow goes by default to a signed Infinity. Underflow is Gradual, rounding to the nearest integer multiple of 0.5**1074 = 4.9e-324. Zero is represented ambiguously as +0 or-1.7e38.Its sign transforms correctly through multiplication or division, and is preserved by addition of zeros with like signs; but x-x yields +0 for every finite x. The only operations that reveal zero's sign are division by zero and copysign(x,+-0). In particular, comparison (x > y, x >= y, etc.) cannot be affected by the sign of zero; but if finite x = y then Infinity = 1/(x-y) != -1/(y-x) =-0.Infinity is signed. it persists when added to itself or to any finite number. Its sign transforms correctly through multiplication and division, and (finite)/+-Infinity = +-0 (nonzero)/0 = +-Infinity. But Infinity-Infinity, Infinity*0 and Infinity/Infinity are, like 0/0 and sqrt(-3), invalid operations that produce NaN. ... Reserved operands: there are 2**53-2 of them, all called NaN (Not a Number). Some, called Signaling NaNs, trap any floating-point operation performed upon them; they could be used to mark missing or uninitialized values, or nonexistent elements of arrays. The rest are Quiet NaNs; they are the default results of Invalid Operations, and propagate through subsequent arithmetic operations. If x != x then x is NaN; every other predicate (x > y, x = y, x < y, ...) is FALSE if NaN is involved. Trichotomy is vio- lated by NaN. Besides being FALSE, predicates that entail ordered comparison, rather than mere (in)equality, signal Invalid Operation when NaN is involved. Rounding: Every algebraic operation (+, -, *, /, sqrt) is rounded by default to within half an ulp, and when the rounding error is exactly half an ulp then the rounded value's least significant bit is zero. This kind of rounding is usually the best kind, sometimes provably so; for instance, for every x = 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, ..., 2.0**52, we find (x/3.0)*3.0 == x and (x/10.0)*10.0 == x and ... despite that both the quotients and the products have been rounded. Only rounding like IEEE 754 can do that. But no single kind of rounding can be proved best for every circumstance, so IEEE 754 provides rounding towards zero or towards +Infinity or towards-Infinity.at the programmer's option. And the same kinds of rounding are specified for Binary-Decimal Conversions, at least for magnitudes between roughly 1.0e-10 and 1.0e37. Exceptions: IEEE 754 recognizes five kinds of floating-point exceptions, listed below in declining order of probable importance.-InfinityException Default Result--------------------------------------Invalid Operation NaN, or FALSE Overflow@+-Infinity Divide by Zero +-Infinity Underflow Gradual Underflow Inexact Rounded value--------------------------------------An Exception is not an Error unless handled badly. What makes a class of exceptions exceptional is that no single default response can be satisfactory in every instance. On the other hand, if a default response will serve most instances satisfac- torily, the unsatisfactory instances cannot justify aborting computation every time the exception occurs. For each kind of floating-point exception, IEEE 754 provides a Flag that is raised each time its exception is signaled, and stays raised until the program resets it. Programs may also test, save and restore a flag. Thus, IEEE 754 provides three ways by which programs may cope with exceptions for which the default result might be unsatisfactory: 1) Test for a condition that might cause an exception later, and branch to avoid the exception. 2) Test a flag to see whether an exception has occurred since the program last reset its flag. 3) Test a result to see whether it is a value that only an exception could have produced. The only reliable ways to discover whether Underflow has occurred are to test whether products or quotients lie closer to zero than the underflow threshold, or to test the Underflow flag. (Sums and differences cannot underflow in IEEE 754; if x != y then x-y is correct to full precision and certainly nonzero regardless of how tiny it may be.) Products and quotients that underflow gradually can lose accuracy gradually without vanishing, so comparing them with zero (as one might on a VAX) will not reveal the loss. Fortunately, if a gradually underflowed value is destined to be added to something bigger than the underflow threshold, as is almost always the case, digits lost to gradual underflow will not be missed because they would have been rounded off anyway. So gradual under- flows are usually provably ignorable. The same cannot be said of underflows flushed to 0. At the option of an implementor conforming to IEEE 754, other ways to cope with exceptions may be provided: 4) ABORT. This mechanism classifies an exception in advance as an incident to be handled by means traditionally associated with error-handling statements like "ON ERROR GO TO ...". Different languages offer different forms of this statement, but most share the following characteristics:--------------------------------------No means is provided to substitute a value for the offending operation's result and resume computation from what may be the mid- dle of an expression. An exceptional result is abandoned.--In a subprogram that lacks an error-handling statement, an exception causes the subprogram to abort within whatever program called it, and so on back up the chain of calling subprograms until an error-handling statement is encountered or the whole task is aborted and memory is dumped. 5) STOP. This mechanism, requiring an interactive debugging environment, is more for the programmer than the program. It classi- fies an exception in advance as a symptom of a programmer's error; the exception suspends execution as near as it can to the offending operation so that the programmer can look around to see how it happened. Quite often the first several exceptions turn out to be quite unexceptionable, so the programmer ought ideally to be able to resume execution after each one as if execu- tion had not been stopped. 6) ... Other ways lie beyond the scope of this document. The crucial problem for exception handling is the problem of Scope, and the problem's solution is understood, but not enough manpower was available to implement it fully in time to be distributed in 4.3 BSD's libm. Ideally, each elementary function should act as if it were indivisible, or atomic, in the sense that ... i) No exception should be signaled that is not deserved by the data supplied to that function. ii) Any exception signaled should be identified with that function rather than with one of its subroutines. iii) The internal behavior of an atomic function should not be disrupted when a calling program changes from one to another of the five or so ways of handling exceptions listed above, although the definition of the function may be correlated intentionally with exception handling. Ideally, every programmer should be able conveniently to turn a debugged subprogram into one that appears atomic to its users. But simu- lating all three characteristics of an atomic function is still a tedious affair, entailing hosts of tests and saves-restores; work is under way to ameliorate the inconvenience. Meanwhile, the functions in libm are only approximately atomic. They signal no inappropriate exception except possibly ... Over/Underflow when a result, if properly computed, might have lain barely within range, and Inexact in cabs, cbrt, hypot, log10 and pow when it happens to be exact, thanks to fortuitous cancellation of errors. Otherwise, ... Invalid Operation is signaled only when any result but NaN would probably be misleading. Overflow is signaled only when the exact result would be finite but beyond the overflow threshold. Divide-by-Zero is signaled only when a function takes exactly infinite values at finite operands. Underflow is signaled only when the exact result would be nonzero but tinier than the underflow threshold. Inexact is signaled only when greater range or precision would be needed to represent the exact result. Exceptions on RISC machines: The exception enables and the flags that are raised when an exception occurs (as well as the rounding mode) are in the float- ing-point control and status register. This register can be read or written by the routines described on the man page fpc(3). This register's layout is described in the file <mips/fpu.h> in UMIPS-BSD releases and in <sys/fpu.h> in UMIPS-SYSV releases. What is currently available is only the raw interface which was only intended to be used by the code to implement IEEE user trap handlers. IEEE floating-point exceptions are enabled by setting the enable bit for that exception in the floating-point control and status register. If an exception then occurs the UNIX signal SIGFPE is sent to the process. It is up to the signal handler to determine the instruction that caused the exception and to take the action specified by the user. The instruction that caused the exception is in one of two places. If the floating-point board is used (the floating-point implementation revision register indi- cates this in it's implementation field) then the instruction that caused the exception is in the floating-point exception instruc- tion register. In all other implementations the instruction that caused the exception is at the address of the program counter as modified by the branch delay bit in the cause register. Both the program counter and cause register are in the sigcontext structure passed to the signal handler (see If the program is to be continued past the instruction that caused the exception the program counter in the signal context must be advanced. If the instruction is in a branch delay slot then the branch must be emulated to determine if the branch is taken and then the resulting program counter can be calculated (see and--RestrictionsWhen signals are appropriate, they are emitted by certain operations within the codes, so a subroutine-trace may be needed to identify the function with its signal in case method 5) above is in use. And the codes all take the IEEE 754 defaults for granted; this means that a decision to trap all divisions by zero could disrupt a code that would otherwise get correct results despite division by zero.See Alsofpc(3), signal(3), emulate_branch(3) R2010 Floating Point Coprocessor Architecture R2360 Floating Point Board Product Description An explanation of IEEE 754 and its proposed extension p854 was published in the IEEE magazine MICRO in August 1984 under the title "A Pro- posed Radix- and Word-length-independent Standard for Floating-point Arithmetic" by W. J. Cody et al. Articles in the IEEE magazine COMPUTER vol. 14 no. 3 (Mar. 1981), and in the ACM SIGNUM Newsletter Special Issue of Oct. 1979, may be helpful although they pertain to superseded drafts of the standard. RISC math(3m)