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toupper(3) [ultrix man page]

conv(3) 						     Library Functions Manual							   conv(3)

Name
       toupper, tolower, _toupper, _tolower, toascii - translate characters

Syntax
       #include <ctype.h>

       int toupper(c)
       int c;

       int tolower(c)
       int c;

       int _toupper(c)
       int c;

       int _tolower(c)
       int c;

       int toascii(c)
       int c;

Description
       The  functions  and  have  as their domain the range of the function. If the argument to represents a lowercase letter, the output from the
       function is the corresponding uppercase letter. If the argument to represents an uppercase letter, the result is the  corresponding  lower-
       case letter.

       The  case  of  c depends on the definition of the character in the language database. Because the case of a character can vary between lan-
       guage databases, the case of c depends on what language database is in use. Specifically, the case of arguments depends	on  what  property
       tables  are  associated the LC_CTYPE category.  Property tables are associated with the LC_CTYPE category by a successful call to the func-
       tion that includes the LC_CTYPE category. If no successful call to define LC_CTYPE has occurred or if the  character  case  information	is
       unavailable for the language in use, the rules of the ASCII coded character set determine the case of arguments.

       If  the	argument  to the function does not have the uppercase attribute, returns the argument unchanged.  Likewise, if the argument to the
       function does not have the lowercase attribute, returns it unchanged.

       The macros and have the same affect as and The difference is that the argument to the macros must be an ASCII character (that is, a charac-
       ter in the domain -1 to 127) and the argument must have the appropriate case.  Arguments to must have the uppercase attribute and arguments
       to must the lowercase attribute. The result of supplying arguments to these macros that are outside the domain or do not have the appropri-
       ate case is undefined.  These macros operate faster than the and functions.

       The  macro  converts its argument to the ASCII character set. The macro converts its argument by truncating the numerical representation of
       the argument so that it is between -1 and 127. You can use this macro when you move an application to a system other than an ULTRIX system.

   International Environment
       LC_CTYPE       If this environment variable is set and valid, uses the international language database named in the definition to determine
		      character classification rules.

See Also
       ctype(3int), setlocale(3), getc(3)

																	   conv(3)

Check Out this Related Man Page

conv(3) 						     Library Functions Manual							   conv(3)

NAME
toascii, tolower, _tolower, toupper, _toupper - Translate characters LIBRARY
Standard C Library (libc.so, libc.a) SYNOPSIS
#include <ctype.h> int toascii( int c); int tolower( int c); int _tolower( int c); int toupper( int c); int _toupper( int c); STANDARDS
Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to industry standards as follows: toascii(), tolower(), _tolower(), toupper(), _toupper(): XPG4, XPG4-UNIX Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information about industry standards and associated tags. PARAMETERS
Specifies the character to be converted. DESCRIPTION
The toascii(), tolower(), _tolower(), toupper(), and _toupper() functions translate all characters, including multibyte characters, to their specified character values. The toascii() function converts its input to a 7-bit ASCII character. The tolower() function takes an int value that can be represented as an unsigned char or the value of EOF (defined in the stdio.h header file) as its input. When the input of the tolower() function expresses an uppercase letter, and there exists a corresponding lowercase letter (as defined by character type information in the program locale category LC_CTYPE), the corresponding lowercase letter is returned. All other input val- ues in the domain are returned unchanged. The tolower() function has as its domain the range -1 through 255. In the C locale, or in a locale where case-conversion information is not defined, the tolower() function determines the case of characters according to the rules of the Portable Character Set (ASCII characters). Characters outside the ASCII range of characters are returned unchanged. The _tolower() macro is equivalent to the tolower() function, but executes faster. If the value of the c parameter to the _tolower() macro does not have a corresponding lowercase character, the results of the function are undefined. The toupper() function takes an int value that can be represented as an unsigned char or the value of EOF (defined in the stdio.h header file) as its input. When the input of the toupper() function expresses a lowercase letter, and there exists a corresponding uppercase letter (as defined by character type information in the program locale category LC_CTYPE), the corresponding uppercase letter is returned. All other input val- ues in the domain are returned unchanged. The toupper() function has as its domain the range -1 through 255. In the C locale, or in a locale where case-conversion information is not defined, the toupper() function determines the case of characters according to the rules of the Portable Character Set (ASCII characters). Characters outside the ASCII range of characters are returned unchanged. The _toupper() macro is equivalent to the toupper() function, but executes faster. If the value of the c parameter to the _toupper() macro does not have a corresponding uppercase character, the results of the function are undefined. NOTES
The LC_CTYPE category of the current locale affects all conversions. See the i18n_intro(5) reference page for more information on locale variables. RETURN VALUES
The toascii() function returns the logical AND of parameter c and the value 0X7F. When the c parameter is a character for which the isupper() function is TRUE, there is a corresponding character for which the islower() function is also TRUE. That lowercase character is returned by the tolower() function or by the _tolower() macro. Otherwise, the c parame- ter is returned unchanged. When the c parameter is a character for which the islower() function is TRUE, there is a corresponding character for which the isupper() function is also TRUE. That uppercase character is returned by the toupper() function or by the _toupper() macro. Otherwise, the c parame- ter is returned unchanged. RELATED INFORMATION
Functions: ctype(3) Other: i18n_intro(5), standards(5) delim off conv(3)
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