ltf(1) General Commands Manual ltf(1)
ltf - labeled tape facility
ltf option[keys] file...
The command reads and writes single-volume Versions 3 and 4 ANSI-compatible tape volumes. For a description of the label conventions, see
The file argument specifies each file or directory name that is to be processed. If a directory name is specified, the complete directory
tree is processed.
The actions of are controlled by one of the following option characters that must appear as the first command-line argument: -c, -H, -t,
-c (R)Creates a new volume assigning an interchange file name to the files on the volume. That is, initializes the volume and writes each
named file onto the output file. Then assigns an "interchange" file name to the files being created on the volume. This "interchange"
file name is a name that can be recognized by a non-ULTRIX system. (Permissible ULTRIX file names are not allowed in all forms of ANSI
volumes). This file name is 17 characters in length and includes only capital letters and the "a" characters, see It is formed by con-
verting all lower case letters to upper case, converting non-"a" characters to upper case Z, and truncating the resultant string to 17
characters. If ANSI Version 4 volumes are being used, the original ULTRIX file name is preserved in HDR3 through HDR9 and EOF3 through
EOF9. For further information, see
-H Displays help messages for all options and keys.
-t Lists each named file on the specified volume. If no file argument is given, information about all files on the volume is provided. If
-t is used without v or V (verbose keys), the interchange file names are also included in the list.
-x Extracts each named file from the volume to the user's current directory. If no file argument is given, the entire content of the vol-
ume is extracted. If the p key is not specified when extracting files from a volume written by an ULTRIX system, the files are restored
to the current user and group IDs and to the mode set by the system call.
The following optional keys can be specified to enable or disable actions as specified:
a Outputs an ANSI-compatible Version 3 format volume. This key can be used with the -c option only. The default version is 4. For fur-
ther information, see
h Write to a tape volume the file that a symbolic link points to instead of creating the symbolic link on a volume. The file written to
the tape now has the same name as the symbolic link. This key can be used with the -c option only. When extracting, if a symbolic link
exists in the current directory that has the same name as a file on the tape volume, the link is followed and the file that the symbolic
link currently points to is overwritten with the extracted file. To avoid overwriting files, use the w key.
o Omits directory blocks from the output volume. When creating a volume, the directory files are omitted, and when listing or extracting,
the V key is disabled.
O Omits usage of optional headers HDR3 through HDR9 and EOF3 through EOF9. For further information, see If a file is created on an ULTRIX
system without the use of the O key, these file headers contain the complete ULTRIX disk file name. Some non-ULTRIX systems are not
able to process volumes containing these header labels. Thus, it is helpful to use this qualifier to avoid unnecessary error messages
when planning to use non-ULTRIX systems.
p Restores files to original mode, user ID and group ID that is written on the tape volume. This key can be used with the -x option on
ULTRIX files and by the superuser only.
v Displays long form information about volume and files. Normally, operates with little terminal output.
When used in conjunction with the -t option, v gives more information about the volume entries than when used in conjunction with the -c
and -x options. The following line is typical output from -tv functions.
ltf: Volume ID is: ULTRIX Volume is: ANSI Version #4
ltf: Owner ID is: OwnerID
ltf: Implementation ID is: SystemID
ltf: Volume created on: System
t(1,1) rw-r--r-- 103/3 owner Feb 2 12:34 2530 bytes <cc >D file1
t(2,1) rw-r--r-- 103/3 owner Jun 29 09:34 999 bytes <com>D file2
t(3,1) rwxrwxrwx 293/10 name Jan 24 10:20 1234 bytes <bin>F name
t(4,1) --xrwx--- 199/04 theowner Jan 24 10:21 12345 bytes <asc>D
long file name
The first field contains the file sequence number and the file section number of the file. If an ULTRIX system created the labeled vol-
ume, the second and third fields contain the mode, and owner/group ID of the file. Otherwise, these two fields are filled with dashes.
The fourth field contains the file owner name. The fifth field contains latest modification time. The year is included if the modifi-
cation time is older than Jan 1 of the current year. The sixth field contains the number of bytes used on the volume for the file. If
the volume is non-ULTRIX, this field contains the number of blocks with the block size in parenthesis. The seventh field contains the
ANSI file type (angle brackets) and the file record format (one character suffix). The file record formats are: F (fixed length), D
(variable length), or S (spanned/segmented records). The eighth (last) field contains the name of the file. If the file name does not
fit within the 12 spaces left in the line, the name appears on the next line preceded by a carriage return. A long file name will be
continued over one or more lines thus it is recommended to keep auto wrap on in the terminal setup. Also if a file on a volume is
either a symbolic or hard link, information about the linked file is displayed on the next line, preceded by a carriage return.
V Displays verbose information about directories.
w Warns the user if file name is in danger of being truncated when using -c or if it could be overwritten using -x. Normally, operates
silently and does not let the user know what is happening. When -cw is specified, displays two warning messages if the interchange name
and the ULTRIX file name are not the same. When -xw is specified, displays a warning message if a file is about to be overwritten.
Another message is displayed asking for approval to overwrite the file. If the user types no or presses return, then the option exists
to type in a new file name or press return to quit. If a new file name is typed, this name is also checked. Thus, does not continue
until a unique file name is typed. When -x is specified, does not warn the user if a directory name already exists.
Selects a unit number for a named tape device. These unit numbers can be entered when using the default tape name, /dev/rmt0h.
The following optional keys require an additional argument to be specified on the command line. If two or more of these keys are used,
their respective arguments are to appear in the exact order that the keys are specified.
Set the blocking factor to size. This specifies the maximum number of bytes that can be written in a block on a volume. If no value is
specified, size defaults to 2048 bytes. The maximum size is 20480 bytes and the minimum size is 18 bytes. The B key need only be spec-
ified with -c.
The size may be specified as n bytes, (where n is assumed to be decimal) or as nb, (a multiple of 512 bytes using n followed by 'b',
where 'b' signifies the multiple of 512) or as nk, (a multiple of 1024 bytes using n followed by 'k', where 'k' signifies the multiple
Sets the device file name to device. The default is /dev/rmt0h. The use of the f key overrides the 0..31 keys.
Allows file name to be supplied either interactively or from a specified file. Normally, expects the argument file names to be part of
the command line. The I key allows the user to enter argument file names either interactively or from a specified file. If file is a
dash (-), reads standard input and prompts for all required information. All of the file names are requested first, followed by a sin-
gle return before the arguments are processed. If file is a valid file name, file is opened and read to obtain argument file names.
Specifies a six-character volume identifier label. The default label for ULTRIX systems is 'ULTRIX'.
Specifies file sequence and section number at which volume will be positioned, using #,#. The first #, represents the file sequence
number, while second #, the file section number. The file sequence number begins at 1 and is incremented for each file in the current
file set. Since this implementation of only produces one file set, the file sequence number for volumes written with this implementa-
tion is the number of the file as it is written on the volume. The file section number begins at 1 and is incremented for each file
section on any one volume. This number is necessary when files are written in multi-volume format where the need may exist to split a
file across volumes; however since this implementation of writes only single volumes, the file section number is always 1 for volumes
written with this implementation. If no file arguments are specified, all files from the position number to the end of the tape are
listed or extracted. Otherwise, particular files that exist between the position number and the end of the tape can be listed or
extracted. A warning message appears if a file is requested that exists before the position number specified. The P key cannot be used
with the -c option.
ltf -cfB /dev/rmt0h 100 file1 file2 file3
This example creates a new volume for file1, file2, and file3 using device /dev/rmt0h (f key) and a blocking factor of 100 (B key).
The command does not support floppy diskettes or multi-volume tapes.
Diagnostics are written to the standard error file. They come in four forms: fatal errors, warnings, information, and prompts. The com-
mand terminates when it detects that a fatal error has occurred.
The diagnostics are intended to be self-explanatory. Their general format is:
ltf: FATAL > a fatal error message
ltf: Warning > a warning or advisory message
ltf: Info > an information message
ltf: a prompt asking for input