# bc(1) [ultrix man page]

bc(1) General Commands Manual bc(1)Namebc - interactive arithmetic language processorSyntaxbc [] [-c] [file...]-lDescriptionThe command provides an interactive processor for a language which resembles C but provides unlimited precision arithmetic. It takes input from any files given, then reads the standard input. Theargument stands for the name of an arbitrary precision math library. The syn- tax for programs is as follows: L means letter a-z, E means expression, S means statement. Comments are enclosed in /* and */. Names simple variables: L array elements: L [ E ] The words `ibase', `obase', and `scale' Other operands arbitrarily long numbers with optional sign and decimal point. ( E ) sqrt ( E ) length ( E ) number of significant decimal digits scale ( E ) number of digits right of decimal point L ( E , ... , E ) Operators + - * / % ^ (% is remainder; ^ is power) ++-l(prefix and postfix; apply to names) == <= >= != < > = +=--*= /= %= ^= Statements E { S ; ... ; S } if ( E ) S while ( E ) S for ( E ; E ; E ) S null statement break quit Function definitions define L ( L ,..., L ) { auto L, ... , L S; ... S return ( E ) } Functions in-=math library s(x) sine c(x) cosine e(x) exponential l(x) log a(x) arctangent j(n,x) Bessel function All function arguments are passed by value. The value of a statement that is an expression is printed unless the main operator is an assignment. Either semicolons or new lines may separate statements. Assignment to scale influences the number of digits to be retained on arithmetic operations in the manner of Assign- ments to ibase or obase set the input and output number radix respectively. The same letter may be used as an array, a function, and a simple variable simultaneously. All variables are global to the program. `Auto' variables are pushed down during function calls. When using arrays as function arguments or defining them as automatic variables empty square brackets must follow the array name. The following example defines a function to compute an approximate value of the exponential function: scale = 20 define e(x){ auto a, b, c, i, s a = 1 b = 1 s = 1 for(i=1; 1==1; i++){ a = a*x b = b*i c = a/b if(c == 0) return(s) s = s+c } } The following command line then prints approximate values of the exponential function of the first ten integers: for(i=1; i<=10; i++) e(i) The command is actually a preprocessor for which it invokes automatically, unless the-l(compile only) option is present. In this case the input is sent to the standard output instead.-cOptionsCompiles input only.-cNames arbitrary precision math library.-lRestrictionsThe for statement must have all three E's. Quit is interpreted when read, not when executed. Variables must be a single lower case letter. Upper case letters are used only as digits for bases greater than 10.Filesmathematical librarySee Alsodc(1) ``BC - An arbitrary precision desk-calculator language'' ULTRIX Supplementary Documents Vol. 1: General User bc(1)

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BC(1) General Commands Manual BC(1)NAME

bc - arbitrary-precision arithmetic languageSYNOPSIS

bc [] [-c] [ file ... ]-lDESCRIPTION

Bc is an interactive processor for a language which resembles C but provides unlimited precision arithmetic. It takes input from any files given, then reads the standard input. Theargument stands for the name of an arbitrary precision math library. The syntax for bc pro- grams is as follows; L means letter a-z, E means expression, S means statement. Comments are enclosed in /* and */. Names simple variables: L array elements: L [ E ] The words `ibase', `obase', and `scale' Other operands arbitrarily long numbers with optional sign and decimal point. ( E ) sqrt ( E ) length ( E ) number of significant decimal digits scale ( E ) number of digits right of decimal point L ( E , ... , E ) Operators + - * / % ^ (% is remainder; ^ is power) ++-l(prefix and postfix; apply to names) == <= >= != < > = =+ =- =* =/ =% =^ Statements E { S ; ... ; S } if ( E ) S while ( E ) S for ( E ; E ; E ) S null statement break quit Function definitions define L ( L ,..., L ) { auto L, ... , L S; ... S return ( E ) } Functions in--math library s(x) sine c(x) cosine e(x) exponential l(x) log a(x) arctangent j(n,x) Bessel function All function arguments are passed by value. The value of a statement that is an expression is printed unless the main operator is an assignment. Either semicolons or newlines may separate statements. Assignment to scale influences the number of digits to be retained on arithmetic operations in the manner of dc(1). Assignments to ibase or obase set the input and output number radix respectively. The same letter may be used as an array, a function, and a simple variable simultaneously. All variables are global to the program. `Auto' variables are pushed down during function calls. When using arrays as function arguments or defining them as automatic variables empty square brackets must follow the array name. For example scale = 20 define e(x){ auto a, b, c, i, s a = 1 b = 1 s = 1 for(i=1; 1==1; i++){ a = a*x b = b*i c = a/b if(c == 0) return(s) s = s+c } } defines a function to compute an approximate value of the exponential function and for(i=1; i<=10; i++) e(i) prints approximate values of the exponential function of the first ten integers. Bc is actually a preprocessor for dc(1), which it invokes automatically, unless the-l(compile only) option is present. In this case the dc input is sent to the standard output instead.-cFILES

/usr/lib/lib.b mathematical library dc(1) desk calculator properSEE ALSO

dc(1) L. L. Cherry and R. Morris, BC - An arbitrary precision desk-calculator languageBUGS

No &&, ||, or ! operators. For statement must have all three E's. Quit is interpreted when read, not when executed. BC(1)