GITREPOSITORY-LAYOU(5) Git Manual GITREPOSITORY-LAYOU(5)
gitrepository-layout - Git Repository Layout
You may find these things in your git repository (.git directory for a repository
associated with your working tree, or <project>.git directory for a public bare
repository. It is also possible to have a working tree where .git is a plain ascii file
containing gitdir: <path>, i.e. the path to the real git repository).
Object store associated with this repository. Usually an object store is self
sufficient (i.e. all the objects that are referred to by an object found in it are
also found in it), but there are couple of ways to violate it.
1. You could populate the repository by running a commit walker without -a option.
Depending on which options are given, you could have only commit objects without
associated blobs and trees this way, for example. A repository with this kind of
incomplete object store is not suitable to be published to the outside world but
sometimes useful for private repository.
2. You also could have an incomplete but locally usable repository by cloning
shallowly. See git-clone(1).
3. You can be using objects/info/alternates mechanism, or
$GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES mechanism to borrow objects from other object
stores. A repository with this kind of incomplete object store is not suitable to
be published for use with dumb transports but otherwise is OK as long as
objects/info/alternates points at the right object stores it borrows from.
Traditionally, each object is stored in its own file. They are split into 256
subdirectories using the first two letters from its object name to keep the number of
directory entries objects directory itself needs to hold. Objects found here are often
called unpacked (or loose) objects.
Packs (files that store many object in compressed form, along with index files to
allow them to be randomly accessed) are found in this directory.
Additional information about the object store is recorded in this directory.
This file is to help dumb transports discover what packs are available in this object
store. Whenever a pack is added or removed, git update-server-info should be run to
keep this file up-to-date if the repository is published for dumb transports. git
repack does this by default.
This file records paths to alternate object stores that this object store borrows
objects from, one pathname per line. Note that not only native Git tools use it
locally, but the HTTP fetcher also tries to use it remotely; this will usually work if
you have relative paths (relative to the object database, not to the repository!) in
your alternates file, but it will not work if you use absolute paths unless the
absolute path in filesystem and web URL is the same. See also
This file records URLs to alternate object stores that this object store borrows
objects from, to be used when the repository is fetched over HTTP.
References are stored in subdirectories of this directory. The git prune command knows
to keep objects reachable from refs found in this directory and its subdirectories.
records tip-of-the-tree commit objects of branch name
records any object name (not necessarily a commit object, or a tag object that points
at a commit object).
records tip-of-the-tree commit objects of branches copied from a remote repository.
records the same information as refs/heads/, refs/tags/, and friends record in a more
efficient way. See git-pack-refs(1).
A symref (see glossary) to the refs/heads/ namespace describing the currently active
branch. It does not mean much if the repository is not associated with any working
tree (i.e. a bare repository), but a valid git repository must have the HEAD file;
some porcelains may use it to guess the designated "default" branch of the repository
(usually master). It is legal if the named branch name does not (yet) exist. In some
legacy setups, it is a symbolic link instead of a symref that points at the current
HEAD can also record a specific commit directly, instead of being a symref to point at
the current branch. Such a state is often called detached HEAD, and almost all
commands work identically as normal. See git-checkout(1) for details.
A slightly deprecated way to store shorthands to be used to specify URL to git fetch,
git pull and git push commands is to store a file in branches/<name> and give name to
these commands in place of repository argument.
Hooks are customization scripts used by various git commands. A handful of sample
hooks are installed when git init is run, but all of them are disabled by default. To
enable, the .sample suffix has to be removed from the filename by renaming. Read
githooks(5) for more details about each hook.
The current index file for the repository. It is usually not found in a bare
Additional information about the repository is recorded in this directory.
This file helps dumb transports discover what refs are available in this repository.
If the repository is published for dumb transports, this file should be regenerated by
git update-server-info every time a tag or branch is created or modified. This is
normally done from the hooks/update hook, which is run by the git-receive-pack command
when you git push into the repository.
This file records fake commit ancestry information, to pretend the set of parents a
commit has is different from how the commit was actually created. One record per line
describes a commit and its fake parents by listing their 40-byte hexadecimal object
names separated by a space and terminated by a newline.
This file, by convention among Porcelains, stores the exclude pattern list.
.gitignore is the per-directory ignore file. git status, git add, git rm and git
clean look at it but the core git commands do not look at it. See also: gitignore(5).
Stores shorthands to be used to give URL and default refnames to interact with remote
repository to git fetch, git pull and git push commands.
Records of changes made to refs are stored in this directory. See git-update-ref(1)
for more information.
Records all changes made to the branch tip named name.
Records all changes made to the tag named name.
This is similar to info/grafts but is internally used and maintained by shallow clone
mechanism. See --depth option to git-clone(1) and git-fetch(1).
git-init(1), git-clone(1), git-fetch(1), git-pack-refs(1), git-gc(1), git-checkout(1),
gitglossary(7), The Git User's Manual
Part of the git(1) suite.
1. The Git User's Manual
Git 1.7.1 07/05/2010 GITREPOSITORY-LAYOU(5)