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DATE(1P)			    POSIX Programmer's Manual				 DATE(1P)

PROLOG
       This  manual  page  is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux implementation of
       this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux  manual  page  for  details  of
       Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.

NAME
       date - write the date and time

SYNOPSIS
       date [-u] [+format]

       date [-u] mmddhhmm[[cc]yy]

DESCRIPTION
       The  date  utility shall write the date and time to standard output  or attempt to set the
       system date and time.  By default, the current date and time shall be written. If an oper-
       and  beginning with '+' is specified, the output format of date shall be controlled by the
       conversion specifications and other text in the operand.

OPTIONS
       The date utility shall conform to the Base  Definitions	volume	of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,
       Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following option shall be supported:

       -u     Perform  operations as if the TZ environment variable was set to the string "UTC0",
	      or its equivalent historical value of "GMT0" . Otherwise, date shall use the  time-
	      zone  indicated  by the TZ environment variable or the system default if that vari-
	      able is unset or null.

OPERANDS
       The following operands shall be supported:

       +format
	      When the format is specified, each conversion specifier shall be	replaced  in  the
	      standard	output	by its corresponding value.  All other characters shall be copied
	      to the output without change.  The output shall always be terminated with  a  <new-
	      line>.

   Conversion Specifications
       %a     Locale's abbreviated weekday name.

       %A     Locale's full weekday name.

       %b     Locale's abbreviated month name.

       %B     Locale's full month name.

       %c     Locale's appropriate date and time representation.

       %C     Century  (a  year  divided  by 100 and truncated to an integer) as a decimal number
	      [00,99].

       %d     Day of the month as a decimal number [01,31].

       %D     Date in the format mm/dd/yy.

       %e     Day of the month as a decimal number [1,31] in a two-digit field with leading space
	      character fill.

       %h     A synonym for %b .

       %H     Hour (24-hour clock) as a decimal number [00,23].

       %I     Hour (12-hour clock) as a decimal number [01,12].

       %j     Day of the year as a decimal number [001,366].

       %m     Month as a decimal number [01,12].

       %M     Minute as a decimal number [00,59].

       %n     A <newline>.

       %p     Locale's equivalent of either AM or PM.

       %r     12-hour  clock  time  [01,12]  using  the AM/PM notation; in the POSIX locale, this
	      shall be equivalent to %I : %M : %S %p .

       %S     Seconds as a decimal number [00,60].

       %t     A <tab>.

       %T     24-hour clock time [00,23] in the format HH:MM:SS.

       %u     Weekday as a decimal number [1,7] (1=Monday).

       %U     Week of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number [00,53].
	      All days in a new year preceding the first Sunday shall be considered to be in week
	      0.

       %V     Week of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number [01,53].
	      If  the  week  containing  January 1 has four or more days in the new year, then it
	      shall be considered week 1; otherwise, it shall be the last week	of  the  previous
	      year, and the next week shall be week 1.

       %w     Weekday as a decimal number [0,6] (0=Sunday).

       %W     Week of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number [00,53].
	      All days in a new year preceding the first Monday shall be considered to be in week
	      0.

       %x     Locale's appropriate date representation.

       %X     Locale's appropriate time representation.

       %y     Year within century [00,99].

       %Y     Year with century as a decimal number.

       %Z     Timezone name, or no characters if no timezone is determinable.

       %%     A percent sign character.

       See  the  Base  Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 7.3.5, LC_TIME for the
       conversion specifier values in the POSIX locale.

   Modified Conversion Specifications
       Some conversion specifiers can be modified by the E and O modifier characters to  indicate
       a  different  format  or specification as specified in the LC_TIME locale description (see
       the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 7.3.5, LC_TIME). If the  cor-
       responding  keyword  (see era, era_year, era_d_fmt, and alt_digits in the Base Definitions
       volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 7.3.5, LC_TIME) is not specified or not	supported
       for the current locale, the unmodified conversion specifier value shall be used.

       %Ec    Locale's alternative appropriate date and time representation.

       %EC    The name of the base year (period) in the locale's alternative representation.

       %Ex    Locale's alternative date representation.

       %EX    Locale's alternative time representation.

       %Ey    Offset from %EC (year only) in the locale's alternative representation.

       %EY    Full alternative year representation.

       %Od    Day of month using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %Oe    Day of month using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OH    Hour (24-hour clock) using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OI    Hour (12-hour clock) using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %Om    Month using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OM    Minutes using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OS    Seconds using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %Ou    Weekday as a number in the locale's alternative representation (Monday = 1).

       %OU    Week  number  of	the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) using the locale's
	      alternative numeric symbols.

       %OV    Week number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week,  rules  corresponding
	      to %V ), using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %Ow    Weekday as a number in the locale's alternative representation (Sunday = 0).

       %OW    Week  number  of	the year (Monday as the first day of the week) using the locale's
	      alternative numeric symbols.

       %Oy    Year (offset from %C ) in alternative representation.

       mmddhhmm[[cc]yy]

	      Attempt to set the system date and time from the value given in the  operand.  This
	      is  only possible if the user has appropriate privileges and the system permits the
	      setting of the system date and time. The first mm is the month (number); dd is  the
	      day  (number); hh is the hour (number, 24-hour system); the second mm is the minute
	      (number); cc is the century and is the first  two  digits  of  the  year	(this  is
	      optional);  yy  is  the last two digits of the year and is optional.  If century is
	      not specified, then values in the range [69,99] shall refer to years 1969  to  1999
	      inclusive, and values in the range [00,68] shall refer to years 2000 to 2068 inclu-
	      sive. The current year is the default if yy is omitted.

       Note:
	      It is expected that in a future version of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 the default century
	      inferred from a 2-digit year will change. (This would apply to all commands accept-
	      ing a 2-digit year as input.)

STDIN
       Not used.

INPUT FILES
       None.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of date:

       LANG   Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that  are	unset  or
	      null. (See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Inter-
	      nationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used
	      to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other interna-
	      tionalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE
	      Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text  data  as
	      characters  (for	example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in argu-
	      ments).

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diag-
	      nostic messages written to standard error.

       LC_TIME
	      Determine the format and contents of date and time strings written by date.

       NLSPATH
	      Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .

       TZ     Determine the timezone in which the time and date are written, unless the -u option
	      is specified. If the TZ variable is unset or null  and  -u  is  not  specified,  an
	      unspecified system default timezone is used.

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       When  no  formatting operand is specified, the output in the POSIX locale shall be equiva-
       lent to specifying:

	      date "+%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y"

STDERR
       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

	0     The date was written successfully.

       >0     An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       Default.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       Conversion specifiers are of unspecified format when not in the POSIX locale. Some of them
       can  contain <newline>s in some locales, so it may be difficult to use the format shown in
       standard output for parsing the output of date in those locales.

       The range of values for %S extends from 0 to 60 seconds to accommodate the occasional leap
       second.

       Although certain of the conversion specifiers in the POSIX locale (such as the name of the
       month) are shown with initial capital letters, this need not be the case in other locales.
       Programs  using	these fields may need to adjust the capitalization if the output is going
       to be used at the beginning of a sentence.

       The date string formatting capabilities are intended for use in Gregorian-style calendars,
       possibly  with  a  different starting year (or years). The %x and %c conversion specifica-
       tions, however, are intended for local representation; these may be based on a  different,
       non-Gregorian calendar.

       The  %C	conversion specification was introduced to allow a fallback for the %EC (alterna-
       tive year format base year); it can be viewed as the base of the  current  subdivision  in
       the  Gregorian  calendar.  The century number is calculated as the year divided by 100 and
       truncated to an integer; it should not be confused with the use	of  ordinal  numbers  for
       centuries (for example, "twenty-first century".) Both the %Ey and %y can then be viewed as
       the offset from %EC and %C, respectively.

       The E and O modifiers modify the traditional  conversion  specifiers,  so  that	they  can
       always  be  used,  even if the implementation (or the current locale) does not support the
       modifier.

       The E modifier supports alternative date formats, such as the Japanese Emperor's  Era,  as
       long  as  these	are  based on the Gregorian calendar system. Extending the E modifiers to
       other date elements may provide an implementation-defined extension capable of  supporting
       other calendar systems, especially in combination with the O modifier.

       The  O  modifier  supports  time and date formats using the locale's alternative numerical
       symbols, such as Kanji or Hindi digits or ordinal number representation.

       Non-European locales, whether they use Latin digits in computational items or  not,  often
       have  local  forms of the digits for use in date formats. This is not totally unknown even
       in Europe; a variant of dates uses Roman numerals for the months: the third day of Septem-
       ber  1991  would  be  written  as 3.IX.1991. In Japan, Kanji digits are regularly used for
       dates; in Arabic-speaking countries, Hindi digits are used. The %d, %e, %H,  %I,  %m,  %S,
       %U,  %w,  %W,  and  %y  conversion specifications always return the date and time field in
       Latin digits (that is, 0 to 9). The %O modifier was introduced to support the use for dis-
       play  purposes  of  non-Latin  digits.  In the LC_TIME category in localedef, the optional
       alt_digits keyword is intended for this purpose. As an example, assume the following (par-
       tial) localedef source:

	      alt_digits  "";"I";"II";"III";"IV";"V";"VI";"VII";"VIII" \
			  "IX";"X";"XI";"XII"
	      d_fmt	  "%e.%Om.%Y"

       With the above date, the command:

	      date "+%x"

       would  yield 3.IX.1991. With the same d_fmt, but without the alt_digits, the command would
       yield 3.9.1991.

EXAMPLES
	1. The following are input/output examples of date used at arbitrary times in  the  POSIX
	   locale:

	   $ date
	   Tue Jun 26 09:58:10 PDT 1990

	   $ date "+DATE: %m/%d/%y%nTIME: %H:%M:%S"
	   DATE: 11/02/91
	   TIME: 13:36:16

	   $ date "+TIME: %r"
	   TIME: 01:36:32 PM

	2. Examples for Denmark, where the default date and time format is %a %d %b %Y %T %Z :

	   $ LANG=da_DK.iso_8859-1 date
	   ons 02 okt 1991 15:03:32 CET

	   $ LANG=da_DK.iso_8859-1 \
	       date "+DATO: %A den %e. %B %Y%nKLOKKEN: %H:%M:%S"
	   DATO: onsdag den 2. oktober 1991
	   KLOKKEN: 15:03:56

	3. Examples for Germany, where the default date and time format is %a %d . %h . %Y, %T %Z
	   :

	   $ LANG=De_DE.88591 date
	   Mi 02.Okt.1991, 15:01:21 MEZ

	   $ LANG=De_DE.88591 date "+DATUM: %A, %d. %B %Y%nZEIT: %H:%M:%S"
	   DATUM: Mittwoch, 02. Oktober 1991
	   ZEIT: 15:02:02

	4. Examples for France, where the default date and time format is %a %d %h %Y %Z %T :

	   $ LANG=Fr_FR.88591 date
	   Mer 02 oct 1991 MET 15:03:32

	   $ LANG=Fr_FR.88591 date "+JOUR: %A %d %B %Y%nHEURE: %H:%M:%S"
	   JOUR: Mercredi 02 octobre 1991
	   HEURE: 15:03:56

RATIONALE
       Some of the new options for formatting are from the ISO C standard.   The  -u  option  was
       introduced to allow portable access to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The string "GMT0"
       is allowed as an equivalent TZ value to be compatible with all of the  systems  using  the
       BSD implementation, where this option originated.

       The %e format conversion specification (adopted from System V) was added because the ISO C
       standard conversion specifications did not provide  any	way  to  produce  the  historical
       default date output during the first nine days of any month.

       There  are  two	varieties  of day and week numbering supported (in addition to any others
       created with the locale-dependent %E and %O modifier characters):

	* The historical variety in which Sunday is the first day of the week  and  the  weekdays
	  preceding  the first Sunday of the year are considered week 0. These are represented by
	  %w and %U . A variant of this is %W, using Monday as the first day  of  the  week,  but
	  still  referring to week 0. This view of the calendar was retained because so many his-
	  torical applications depend on it and the ISO C standard strftime() function, on  which
	  many date implementations are based, was defined in this way.

	* The  international  standard,  based	on the ISO 8601:2000 standard where Monday is the
	  first weekday and the algorithm for the first week number is more complex: If the  week
	  (Monday  to Sunday) containing January 1 has four or more days in the new year, then it
	  is week 1; otherwise, it is week 53 of the previous year, and the next week is week  1.
	  These are represented by the new conversion specifications %u and %V, added as a result
	  of international comments.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       The System Interfaces volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, printf(), strftime()

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and	reproduced  in	electronic  form  from	IEEE  Std
       1003.1,	2003  Edition,	Standard  for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System
       Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003  by
       the  Institute  of  Electrical  and  Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE  and  The  Open  Group
       Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig-
       inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group			       2003					 DATE(1P)
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