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SuSE 11.3 - man page for qemu-kvm (suse section 1)

QEMU(1) 										  QEMU(1)

NAME
       qemu-doc - QEMU Emulator User Documentation

SYNOPSIS
       usage: qemu [options] [disk_image]

DESCRIPTION
       The QEMU PC System emulator simulates the following peripherals:

       -   i440FX host PCI bridge and PIIX3 PCI to ISA bridge

       -   Cirrus CLGD 5446 PCI VGA card or dummy VGA card with Bochs VESA extensions (hardware
	   level, including all non standard modes).

       -   PS/2 mouse and keyboard

       -   2 PCI IDE interfaces with hard disk and CD-ROM support

       -   Floppy disk

       -   PCI and ISA network adapters

       -   Serial ports

       -   Creative SoundBlaster 16 sound card

       -   ENSONIQ AudioPCI ES1370 sound card

       -   Intel 82801AA AC97 Audio compatible sound card

       -   Adlib(OPL2) - Yamaha YM3812 compatible chip

       -   Gravis Ultrasound GF1 sound card

       -   CS4231A compatible sound card

       -   PCI UHCI USB controller and a virtual USB hub.

       SMP is supported with up to 255 CPUs.

       Note that adlib, gus and cs4231a are only available when QEMU was configured with
       --audio-card-list option containing the name(s) of required card(s).

       QEMU uses the PC BIOS from the Bochs project and the Plex86/Bochs LGPL VGA BIOS.

       QEMU uses YM3812 emulation by Tatsuyuki Satoh.

       QEMU uses GUS emulation(GUSEMU32 <http://www.deinmeister.de/gusemu/>) by Tibor "TS"
       SchA~Xtz.

       Not that, by default, GUS shares IRQ(7) with parallel ports and so qemu must be told to
       not have parallel ports to have working GUS

	       qemu dos.img -soundhw gus -parallel none

       Alternatively:

	       qemu dos.img -device gus,irq=5

       Or some other unclaimed IRQ.

       CS4231A is the chip used in Windows Sound System and GUSMAX products

OPTIONS
       disk_image is a raw hard disk image for IDE hard disk 0. Some targets do not need a disk
       image.

       Standard options:

       -h  Display help and exit

       -version
	   Display version information and exit

       -M machine
	   Select the emulated machine ("-M ?" for list)

       -cpu model
	   Select CPU model (-cpu ? for list and additional feature selection)

       -smp n[,cores=cores][,threads=threads][,sockets=sockets][,maxcpus=maxcpus]
	   Simulate an SMP system with n CPUs. On the PC target, up to 255 CPUs are supported. On
	   Sparc32 target, Linux limits the number of usable CPUs to 4.  For the PC target, the
	   number of cores per socket, the number of threads per cores and the total number of
	   sockets can be specified. Missing values will be computed. If any on the three values
	   is given, the total number of CPUs n can be omitted. maxcpus specifies the maximum
	   number of hotpluggable CPUs.

       -numa opts
	   Simulate a multi node NUMA system. If mem and cpus are omitted, resources are split
	   equally.

       -fda file
       -fdb file
	   Use file as floppy disk 0/1 image. You can use the host floppy by using /dev/fd0 as
	   filename.

       -hda file
       -hdb file
       -hdc file
       -hdd file
	   Use file as hard disk 0, 1, 2 or 3 image.

       -cdrom file
	   Use file as CD-ROM image (you cannot use -hdc and -cdrom at the same time). You can
	   use the host CD-ROM by using /dev/cdrom as filename.

       -drive option[,option[,option[,...]]]
	   Define a new drive. Valid options are:

	   file=file
	       This option defines which disk image to use with this drive. If the filename
	       contains comma, you must double it (for instance, "file=my,,file" to use file
	       "my,file").

	   if=interface
	       This option defines on which type on interface the drive is connected.  Available
	       types are: ide, scsi, sd, mtd, floppy, pflash, virtio.

	   bus=bus,unit=unit
	       These options define where is connected the drive by defining the bus number and
	       the unit id.

	   index=index
	       This option defines where is connected the drive by using an index in the list of
	       available connectors of a given interface type.

	   media=media
	       This option defines the type of the media: disk or cdrom.

	   cyls=c,heads=h,secs=s[,trans=t]
	       These options have the same definition as they have in -hdachs.

	   snapshot=snapshot
	       snapshot is "on" or "off" and allows to enable snapshot for given drive (see
	       -snapshot).

	   cache=cache
	       cache is "none", "writeback", "unsafe", or "writethrough" and controls how the
	       host cache is used to access block data.

	   aio=aio
	       aio is "threads", or "native" and selects between pthread based disk I/O and
	       native Linux AIO.

	   format=format
	       Specify which disk format will be used rather than detecting the format.  Can be
	       used to specifiy format=raw to avoid interpreting an untrusted format header.

	   serial=serial
	       This option specifies the serial number to assign to the device.

	   addr=addr
	       Specify the controller's PCI address (if=virtio only).

	   boot=boot
	       boot is "on" or "off" and allows for booting from non-traditional interfaces, such
	       as virtio.

	   By default, writethrough caching is used for all block device.  This means that the
	   host page cache will be used to read and write data but write notification will be
	   sent to the guest only when the data has been reported as written by the storage
	   subsystem.

	   Writeback caching will report data writes as completed as soon as the data is present
	   in the host page cache.  This is safe as long as you trust your host.  If your host
	   crashes or loses power, then the guest may experience data corruption.

	   The host page cache can be avoided entirely with cache=none.  This will attempt to do
	   disk IO directly to the guests memory.  QEMU may still perform an internal copy of the
	   data.

	   Some block drivers perform badly with cache=writethrough, most notably, qcow2.  If
	   performance is more important than correctness, cache=writeback should be used with
	   qcow2.

	   In case you don't care about data integrity over host failures, use cache=unsafe. This
	   option tells qemu that it never needs to write any data to the disk but can instead
	   keeps things in cache. If anything goes wrong, like your host losing power, the disk
	   storage getting disconnected accidently, etc. you're image will most probably be
	   rendered unusable.	When using the -snapshot option, unsafe caching is always used.

	   Instead of -cdrom you can use:

		   qemu -drive file=file,index=2,media=cdrom

	   Instead of -hda, -hdb, -hdc, -hdd, you can use:

		   qemu -drive file=file,index=0,media=disk
		   qemu -drive file=file,index=1,media=disk
		   qemu -drive file=file,index=2,media=disk
		   qemu -drive file=file,index=3,media=disk

	   You can connect a CDROM to the slave of ide0:

		   qemu -drive file=file,if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom

	   If you don't specify the "file=" argument, you define an empty drive:

		   qemu -drive if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom

	   You can connect a SCSI disk with unit ID 6 on the bus #0:

		   qemu -drive file=file,if=scsi,bus=0,unit=6

	   Instead of -fda, -fdb, you can use:

		   qemu -drive file=file,index=0,if=floppy
		   qemu -drive file=file,index=1,if=floppy

	   By default, interface is "ide" and index is automatically incremented:

		   qemu -drive file=a -drive file=b"

	   is interpreted like:

		   qemu -hda a -hdb b

       -mtdblock file
	   Use file as on-board Flash memory image.

       -sd file
	   Use file as SecureDigital card image.

       -pflash file
	   Use file as a parallel flash image.

       -boot [order=drives][,once=drives][,menu=on|off]
	   Specify boot order drives as a string of drive letters. Valid drive letters depend on
	   the target achitecture. The x86 PC uses: a, b (floppy 1 and 2), c (first hard disk), d
	   (first CD-ROM), n-p (Etherboot from network adapter 1-4), hard disk boot is the
	   default. To apply a particular boot order only on the first startup, specify it via
	   once.

	   Interactive boot menus/prompts can be enabled via menu=on as far as firmware/BIOS
	   supports them. The default is non-interactive boot.

		   # try to boot from network first, then from hard disk
		   qemu -boot order=nc
		   # boot from CD-ROM first, switch back to default order after reboot
		   qemu -boot once=d

	   Note: The legacy format '-boot drives' is still supported but its use is discouraged
	   as it may be removed from future versions.

       -snapshot
	   Write to temporary files instead of disk image files. In this case, the raw disk image
	   you use is not written back. You can however force the write back by pressing C-a s.

       -m megs
	   Set virtual RAM size to megs megabytes. Default is 128 MiB.	Optionally, a suffix of
	   "M" or "G" can be used to signify a value in megabytes or gigabytes respectively.

       -k language
	   Use keyboard layout language (for example "fr" for French). This option is only needed
	   where it is not easy to get raw PC keycodes (e.g. on Macs, with some X11 servers or
	   with a VNC display). You don't normally need to use it on PC/Linux or PC/Windows
	   hosts.

	   The available layouts are:

		   ar  de-ch  es  fo	 fr-ca	hu  ja	mk     no  pt-br  sv
		   da  en-gb  et  fr	 fr-ch	is  lt	nl     pl  ru	  th
		   de  en-us  fi  fr-be  hr	it  lv	nl-be  pt  sl	  tr

	   The default is "en-us".

       -audio-help
	   Will show the audio subsystem help: list of drivers, tunable parameters.

       -soundhw card1[,card2,...] or -soundhw all
	   Enable audio and selected sound hardware. Use ? to print all available sound hardware.

		   qemu -soundhw sb16,adlib disk.img
		   qemu -soundhw es1370 disk.img
		   qemu -soundhw ac97 disk.img
		   qemu -soundhw all disk.img
		   qemu -soundhw ?

	   Note that Linux's i810_audio OSS kernel (for AC97) module might require manually
	   specifying clocking.

		   modprobe i810_audio clocking=48000

       USB options:

       -usb
	   Enable the USB driver (will be the default soon)

       -usbdevice devname
	   Add the USB device devname.

	   mouse
	       Virtual Mouse. This will override the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.

	   tablet
	       Pointer device that uses absolute coordinates (like a touchscreen). This means
	       qemu is able to report the mouse position without having to grab the mouse. Also
	       overrides the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.

	   disk:[format=format]:file
	       Mass storage device based on file. The optional format argument will be used
	       rather than detecting the format. Can be used to specifiy "format=raw" to avoid
	       interpreting an untrusted format header.

	   host:bus.addr
	       Pass through the host device identified by bus.addr (Linux only).

	   host:vendor_id:product_id
	       Pass through the host device identified by vendor_id:product_id (Linux only).

	   serial:[vendorid=vendor_id][,productid=product_id]:dev
	       Serial converter to host character device dev, see "-serial" for the available
	       devices.

	   braille
	       Braille device.	This will use BrlAPI to display the braille output on a real or
	       fake device.

	   net:options
	       Network adapter that supports CDC ethernet and RNDIS protocols.

       -device driver[,option[,...]]
	   Add device driver. Depending on the device type, option (typically key=value) may be
	   useful.

       -name name
	   Sets the name of the guest.	This name will be displayed in the SDL window caption.
	   The name will also be used for the VNC server.  Also optionally set the top visible
	   process name in Linux.

       -uuid uuid
	   Set system UUID.

       Display options:

       -nographic
	   Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output. With this option, you can totally
	   disable graphical output so that QEMU is a simple command line application. The
	   emulated serial port is redirected on the console. Therefore, you can still use QEMU
	   to debug a Linux kernel with a serial console.

       -curses
	   Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output.  With this option, QEMU can display
	   the VGA output when in text mode using a curses/ncurses interface.  Nothing is
	   displayed in graphical mode.

       -no-frame
	   Do not use decorations for SDL windows and start them using the whole available screen
	   space. This makes the using QEMU in a dedicated desktop workspace more convenient.

       -alt-grab
	   Use Ctrl-Alt-Shift to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt).

       -ctrl-grab
	   Use Right-Ctrl to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt).

       -no-quit
	   Disable SDL window close capability.

       -sdl
	   Enable SDL.

       -portrait
	   Rotate graphical output 90 deg left (only PXA LCD).

       -vga type
	   Select type of VGA card to emulate. Valid values for type are

	   cirrus
	       Cirrus Logic GD5446 Video card. All Windows versions starting from Windows 95
	       should recognize and use this graphic card. For optimal performances, use 16 bit
	       color depth in the guest and the host OS.  (This one is the default)

	   std Standard VGA card with Bochs VBE extensions.  If your guest OS supports the VESA
	       2.0 VBE extensions (e.g. Windows XP) and if you want to use high resolution modes
	       (>= 1280x1024x16) then you should use this option.

	   vmware
	       VMWare SVGA-II compatible adapter. Use it if you have sufficiently recent
	       XFree86/XOrg server or Windows guest with a driver for this card.

	   none
	       Disable VGA card.

       -full-screen
	   Start in full screen.

       -vnc display[,option[,option[,...]]]
	   Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output.  With this option, you can have
	   QEMU listen on VNC display display and redirect the VGA display over the VNC session.
	   It is very useful to enable the usb tablet device when using this option (option
	   -usbdevice tablet). When using the VNC display, you must use the -k parameter to set
	   the keyboard layout if you are not using en-us. Valid syntax for the display is

	   host:d
	       TCP connections will only be allowed from host on display d.  By convention the
	       TCP port is 5900+d. Optionally, host can be omitted in which case the server will
	       accept connections from any host.

	   unix:path
	       Connections will be allowed over UNIX domain sockets where path is the location of
	       a unix socket to listen for connections on.

	   none
	       VNC is initialized but not started. The monitor "change" command can be used to
	       later start the VNC server.

	   Following the display value there may be one or more option flags separated by commas.
	   Valid options are

	   reverse
	       Connect to a listening VNC client via a "reverse" connection. The client is
	       specified by the display. For reverse network connections (host:d,"reverse"), the
	       d argument is a TCP port number, not a display number.

	   password
	       Require that password based authentication is used for client connections.  The
	       password must be set separately using the "change" command in the pcsys_monitor

	   tls Require that client use TLS when communicating with the VNC server. This uses
	       anonymous TLS credentials so is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack. It is
	       recommended that this option be combined with either the x509 or x509verify
	       options.

	   x509=/path/to/certificate/dir
	       Valid if tls is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used for negotiating
	       the TLS session. The server will send its x509 certificate to the client. It is
	       recommended that a password be set on the VNC server to provide authentication of
	       the client when this is used. The path following this option specifies where the
	       x509 certificates are to be loaded from.  See the vnc_security section for details
	       on generating certificates.

	   x509verify=/path/to/certificate/dir
	       Valid if tls is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used for negotiating
	       the TLS session. The server will send its x509 certificate to the client, and
	       request that the client send its own x509 certificate.  The server will validate
	       the client's certificate against the CA certificate, and reject clients when
	       validation fails. If the certificate authority is trusted, this is a sufficient
	       authentication mechanism. You may still wish to set a password on the VNC server
	       as a second authentication layer. The path following this option specifies where
	       the x509 certificates are to be loaded from. See the vnc_security section for
	       details on generating certificates.

	   sasl
	       Require that the client use SASL to authenticate with the VNC server.  The exact
	       choice of authentication method used is controlled from the system / user's SASL
	       configuration file for the 'qemu' service. This is typically found in
	       /etc/sasl2/qemu.conf. If running QEMU as an unprivileged user, an environment
	       variable SASL_CONF_PATH can be used to make it search alternate locations for the
	       service config.	While some SASL auth methods can also provide data encryption (eg
	       GSSAPI), it is recommended that SASL always be combined with the 'tls' and 'x509'
	       settings to enable use of SSL and server certificates. This ensures a data
	       encryption preventing compromise of authentication credentials. See the
	       vnc_security section for details on using SASL authentication.

	   acl Turn on access control lists for checking of the x509 client certificate and SASL
	       party. For x509 certs, the ACL check is made against the certificate's
	       distinguished name. This is something that looks like
	       "C=GB,O=ACME,L=Boston,CN=bob". For SASL party, the ACL check is made against the
	       username, which depending on the SASL plugin, may include a realm component, eg
	       "bob" or "bob@EXAMPLE.COM".  When the acl flag is set, the initial access list
	       will be empty, with a "deny" policy. Thus no one will be allowed to use the VNC
	       server until the ACLs have been loaded. This can be achieved using the "acl"
	       monitor command.

       i386 target only:

       -win2k-hack
	   Use it when installing Windows 2000 to avoid a disk full bug. After Windows 2000 is
	   installed, you no longer need this option (this option slows down the IDE transfers).

       -no-fd-bootchk
	   Disable boot signature checking for floppy disks in Bochs BIOS. It may be needed to
	   boot from old floppy disks.

       -osk
	   Set the dongle key for Apple's SMC chip that is used to decrypt Mac OS X binaries.

       -no-acpi
	   Disable ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) support. Use it if your
	   guest OS complains about ACPI problems (PC target machine only).

       -no-hpet
	   Disable HPET support.

       -balloon none
	   Disable balloon device.

       -balloon virtio[,addr=addr]
	   Enable virtio balloon device (default), optionally with PCI address addr.

       -acpitable [sig=str][,rev=n][,oem_id=str][,oem_table_id=str][,oem_rev=n]
       [,asl_compiler_id=str][,asl_compiler_rev=n][,data=file1[:file2]...]
	   Add ACPI table with specified header fields and context from specified files.

       -smbios file=binary
	   Load SMBIOS entry from binary file.

       -smbios type=0[,vendor=str][,version=str][,date=str][,release=%d.%d]
	   Specify SMBIOS type 0 fields

       -smbios
       type=1[,manufacturer=str][,product=str][,version=str][,serial=str][,uuid=uuid][,sku=str][,family=str]
	   Specify SMBIOS type 1 fields

       Network options:

       -net nic[,vlan=n][,macaddr=mac][,model=type][,name=name][,addr=addr][,vectors=v]
	   Create a new Network Interface Card and connect it to VLAN n (n = 0 is the default).
	   The NIC is an e1000 by default on the PC target. Optionally, the MAC address can be
	   changed to mac, the device address set to addr (PCI cards only), and a name can be
	   assigned for use in monitor commands.  Optionally, for PCI cards, you can specify the
	   number v of MSI-X vectors that the card should have; this option currently only
	   affects virtio cards; set v = 0 to disable MSI-X. If no -net option is specified, a
	   single NIC is created.  Qemu can emulate several different models of network card.
	   Valid values for type are "virtio", "i82551", "i82557b", "i82559er", "ne2k_pci",
	   "ne2k_isa", "pcnet", "rtl8139", "e1000", "smc91c111", "lance" and "mcf_fec".  Not all
	   devices are supported on all targets.  Use -net nic,model=?	for a list of available
	   devices for your target.

       -net user[,option][,option][,...]
	   Use the user mode network stack which requires no administrator privilege to run.
	   Valid options are:

	   vlan=n
	       Connect user mode stack to VLAN n (n = 0 is the default).

	   name=name
	       Assign symbolic name for use in monitor commands.

	   net=addr[/mask]
	       Set IP network address the guest will see. Optionally specify the netmask, either
	       in the form a.b.c.d or as number of valid top-most bits. Default is 10.0.2.0/8.

	   host=addr
	       Specify the guest-visible address of the host. Default is the 2nd IP in the guest
	       network, i.e. x.x.x.2.

	   restrict=y|yes|n|no
	       If this options is enabled, the guest will be isolated, i.e. it will not be able
	       to contact the host and no guest IP packets will be routed over the host to the
	       outside. This option does not affect explicitly set forwarding rule.

	   hostname=name
	       Specifies the client hostname reported by the builtin DHCP server.

	   dhcpstart=addr
	       Specify the first of the 16 IPs the built-in DHCP server can assign. Default is
	       the 16th to 31st IP in the guest network, i.e. x.x.x.16 to x.x.x.31.

	   dns=addr
	       Specify the guest-visible address of the virtual nameserver. The address must be
	       different from the host address. Default is the 3rd IP in the guest network, i.e.
	       x.x.x.3.

	   tftp=dir
	       When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in TFTP server. The files
	       in dir will be exposed as the root of a TFTP server.  The TFTP client on the guest
	       must be configured in binary mode (use the command "bin" of the Unix TFTP client).

	   bootfile=file
	       When using the user mode network stack, broadcast file as the BOOTP filename. In
	       conjunction with tftp, this can be used to network boot a guest from a local
	       directory.

	       Example (using pxelinux):

		       qemu -hda linux.img -boot n -net user,tftp=/path/to/tftp/files,bootfile=/pxelinux.0

	   smb=dir[,smbserver=addr]
	       When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in SMB server so that
	       Windows OSes can access to the host files in dir transparently. The IP address of
	       the SMB server can be set to addr. By default the 4th IP in the guest network is
	       used, i.e. x.x.x.4.

	       In the guest Windows OS, the line:

		       10.0.2.4 smbserver

	       must be added in the file C:\WINDOWS\LMHOSTS (for windows 9x/Me) or
	       C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\ETC\LMHOSTS (Windows NT/2000).

	       Then dir can be accessed in \\smbserver\qemu.

	       Note that a SAMBA server must be installed on the host OS in /usr/sbin/smbd. QEMU
	       was tested successfully with smbd versions from Red Hat 9, Fedora Core 3 and
	       OpenSUSE 11.x.

	   hostfwd=[tcp|udp]:[hostaddr]:hostport-[guestaddr]:guestport
	       Redirect incoming TCP or UDP connections to the host port hostport to the guest IP
	       address guestaddr on guest port guestport. If guestaddr is not specified, its
	       value is x.x.x.15 (default first address given by the built-in DHCP server). By
	       specifying hostaddr, the rule can be bound to a specific host interface. If no
	       connection type is set, TCP is used. This option can be given multiple times.

	       For example, to redirect host X11 connection from screen 1 to guest screen 0, use
	       the following:

		       # on the host
		       qemu -net user,hostfwd=tcp:127.0.0.1:6001-:6000 [...]
		       # this host xterm should open in the guest X11 server
		       xterm -display :1

	       To redirect telnet connections from host port 5555 to telnet port on the guest,
	       use the following:

		       # on the host
		       qemu -net user,hostfwd=tcp::5555-:23 [...]
		       telnet localhost 5555

	       Then when you use on the host "telnet localhost 5555", you connect to the guest
	       telnet server.

	   guestfwd=[tcp]:server:port-dev
	       Forward guest TCP connections to the IP address server on port port to the
	       character device dev. This option can be given multiple times.

	   Note: Legacy stand-alone options -tftp, -bootp, -smb and -redir are still processed
	   and applied to -net user. Mixing them with the new configuration syntax gives
	   undefined results. Their use for new applications is discouraged as they will be
	   removed from future versions.

       -net tap[,vlan=n][,name=name][,fd=h][,ifname=name][,script=file][,downscript=dfile]
	   Connect the host TAP network interface name to VLAN n, use the network script file to
	   configure it and the network script dfile to deconfigure it. If name is not provided,
	   the OS automatically provides one. fd=h can be used to specify the handle of an
	   already opened host TAP interface. The default network configure script is
	   /etc/qemu-ifup and the default network deconfigure script is /etc/qemu-ifdown. Use
	   script=no or downscript=no to disable script execution. Example:

		   qemu linux.img -net nic -net tap

	   More complicated example (two NICs, each one connected to a TAP device)

		   qemu linux.img -net nic,vlan=0 -net tap,vlan=0,ifname=tap0 \
		   -net nic,vlan=1 -net tap,vlan=1,ifname=tap1

       -net socket[,vlan=n][,name=name][,fd=h][,listen=[host]:port][,connect=host:port]
	   Connect the VLAN n to a remote VLAN in another QEMU virtual machine using a TCP socket
	   connection. If listen is specified, QEMU waits for incoming connections on port (host
	   is optional). connect is used to connect to another QEMU instance using the listen
	   option. fd=h specifies an already opened TCP socket.

	   Example:

		   # launch a first QEMU instance
		   qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
		   -net socket,listen=:1234
		   # connect the VLAN 0 of this instance to the VLAN 0
		   # of the first instance
		   qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
		   -net socket,connect=127.0.0.1:1234

       -net socket[,vlan=n][,name=name][,fd=h][,mcast=maddr:port]
	   Create a VLAN n shared with another QEMU virtual machines using a UDP multicast
	   socket, effectively making a bus for every QEMU with same multicast address maddr and
	   port.  NOTES:

	   1.  Several QEMU can be running on different hosts and share same bus (assuming
	       correct multicast setup for these hosts).

	   2.  mcast support is compatible with User Mode Linux (argument ethN=mcast), see
	       <http://user-mode-linux.sf.net>.

	   3.  Use fd=h to specify an already opened UDP multicast socket.

	   Example:

		   # launch one QEMU instance
		   qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
		   -net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
		   # launch another QEMU instance on same "bus"
		   qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
		   -net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
		   # launch yet another QEMU instance on same "bus"
		   qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:58 \
		   -net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234

	   Example (User Mode Linux compat.):

		   # launch QEMU instance (note mcast address selected
		   # is UML's default)
		   qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
		   -net socket,mcast=239.192.168.1:1102
		   # launch UML
		   /path/to/linux ubd0=/path/to/root_fs eth0=mcast

       -net
       vde[,vlan=n][,name=name][,sock=socketpath][,port=n][,group=groupname][,mode=octalmode]
	   Connect VLAN n to PORT n of a vde switch running on host and listening for incoming
	   connections on socketpath. Use GROUP groupname and MODE octalmode to change default
	   ownership and permissions for communication port. This option is available only if
	   QEMU has been compiled with vde support enabled.

	   Example:

		   # launch vde switch
		   vde_switch -F -sock /tmp/myswitch
		   # launch QEMU instance
		   qemu linux.img -net nic -net vde,sock=/tmp/myswitch

       -net dump[,vlan=n][,file=file][,len=len]
	   Dump network traffic on VLAN n to file file (qemu-vlan0.pcap by default).  At most len
	   bytes (64k by default) per packet are stored. The file format is libpcap, so it can be
	   analyzed with tools such as tcpdump or Wireshark.

       -net none
	   Indicate that no network devices should be configured. It is used to override the
	   default configuration (-net nic -net user) which is activated if no -net options are
	   provided.

       Character device options:

       The general form of a character device option is:

       -chardev backend ,id=id [,options]
	   Backend is one of: null, socket, udp, msmouse, vc, file, pipe, console, serial, pty,
	   stdio, braille, tty, parport.  The specific backend will determine the applicable
	   options.

	   All devices must have an id, which can be any string up to 127 characters long.  It is
	   used to uniquely identify this device in other command line directives.

	   Options to each backend are described below.

       -chardev null ,id=id
	   A void device. This device will not emit any data, and will drop any data it receives.
	   The null backend does not take any options.

       -chardev socket ,id=id [TCP options or unix options] [,server] [,nowait] [,telnet]
	   Create a two-way stream socket, which can be either a TCP or a unix socket. A unix
	   socket will be created if path is specified. Behaviour is undefined if TCP options are
	   specified for a unix socket.

	   server specifies that the socket shall be a listening socket.

	   nowait specifies that QEMU should not block waiting for a client to connect to a
	   listening socket.

	   telnet specifies that traffic on the socket should interpret telnet escape sequences.

	   TCP and unix socket options are given below:

	   TCP options: port=host [,host=host] [,to=to] [,ipv4] [,ipv6] [,nodelay]
	       host for a listening socket specifies the local address to be bound.  For a
	       connecting socket species the remote host to connect to. host is optional for
	       listening sockets. If not specified it defaults to 0.0.0.0.

	       port for a listening socket specifies the local port to be bound. For a connecting
	       socket specifies the port on the remote host to connect to.  port can be given as
	       either a port number or a service name.	port is required.

	       to is only relevant to listening sockets. If it is specified, and port cannot be
	       bound, QEMU will attempt to bind to subsequent ports up to and including to until
	       it succeeds. to must be specified as a port number.

	       ipv4 and ipv6 specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be used.  If neither is
	       specified the socket may use either protocol.

	       nodelay disables the Nagle algorithm.

	   unix options: path=path
	       path specifies the local path of the unix socket. path is required.

       -chardev udp ,id=id [,host=host] ,port=port [,localaddr=localaddr] [,localport=localport]
       [,ipv4] [,ipv6]
	   Sends all traffic from the guest to a remote host over UDP.

	   host specifies the remote host to connect to. If not specified it defaults to
	   "localhost".

	   port specifies the port on the remote host to connect to. port is required.

	   localaddr specifies the local address to bind to. If not specified it defaults to
	   0.0.0.0.

	   localport specifies the local port to bind to. If not specified any available local
	   port will be used.

	   ipv4 and ipv6 specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be used.  If neither is specified
	   the device may use either protocol.

       -chardev msmouse ,id=id
	   Forward QEMU's emulated msmouse events to the guest. msmouse does not take any
	   options.

       -chardev vc ,id=id [[,width=width] [,height=height]] [[,cols=cols] [,rows=rows]]
	   Connect to a QEMU text console. vc may optionally be given a specific size.

	   width and height specify the width and height respectively of the console, in pixels.

	   cols and rows specify that the console be sized to fit a text console with the given
	   dimensions.

       -chardev file ,id=id ,path=path
	   Log all traffic received from the guest to a file.

	   path specifies the path of the file to be opened. This file will be created if it does
	   not already exist, and overwritten if it does. path is required.

       -chardev pipe ,id=id ,path=path
	   Create a two-way connection to the guest. The behaviour differs slightly between
	   Windows hosts and other hosts:

	   On Windows, a single duplex pipe will be created at \\.pipe\path.

	   On other hosts, 2 pipes will be created called path.in and path.out. Data written to
	   path.in will be received by the guest. Data written by the guest can be read from
	   path.out. QEMU will not create these fifos, and requires them to be present.

	   path forms part of the pipe path as described above. path is required.

       -chardev console ,id=id
	   Send traffic from the guest to QEMU's standard output. console does not take any
	   options.

	   console is only available on Windows hosts.

       -chardev serial ,id=id ,path=path
	   Send traffic from the guest to a serial device on the host.

	   serial is only available on Windows hosts.

	   path specifies the name of the serial device to open.

       -chardev pty ,id=id
	   Create a new pseudo-terminal on the host and connect to it. pty does not take any
	   options.

	   pty is not available on Windows hosts.

       -chardev stdio ,id=id
	   Connect to standard input and standard output of the qemu process.  stdio does not
	   take any options. stdio is not available on Windows hosts.

       -chardev braille ,id=id
	   Connect to a local BrlAPI server. braille does not take any options.

       -chardev tty ,id=id ,path=path
	   Connect to a local tty device.

	   tty is only available on Linux, Sun, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and DragonFlyBSD hosts.

	   path specifies the path to the tty. path is required.

       -chardev parport ,id=id ,path=path
	   parport is only available on Linux, FreeBSD and DragonFlyBSD hosts.

	   Connect to a local parallel port.

	   path specifies the path to the parallel port device. path is required.

       Bluetooth(R) options:

       -bt hci[...]
	   Defines the function of the corresponding Bluetooth HCI.  -bt options are matched with
	   the HCIs present in the chosen machine type.  For example when emulating a machine
	   with only one HCI built into it, only the first "-bt hci[...]" option is valid and
	   defines the HCI's logic.  The Transport Layer is decided by the machine type.
	   Currently the machines "n800" and "n810" have one HCI and all other machines have
	   none.

	   The following three types are recognized:

	   -bt hci,null
	       (default) The corresponding Bluetooth HCI assumes no internal logic and will not
	       respond to any HCI commands or emit events.

	   -bt hci,host[:id]
	       ("bluez" only) The corresponding HCI passes commands / events to / from the
	       physical HCI identified by the name id (default: "hci0") on the computer running
	       QEMU.  Only available on "bluez" capable systems like Linux.

	   -bt hci[,vlan=n]
	       Add a virtual, standard HCI that will participate in the Bluetooth scatternet n
	       (default 0).  Similarly to -net VLANs, devices inside a bluetooth network n can
	       only communicate with other devices in the same network (scatternet).

       -bt vhci[,vlan=n]
	   (Linux-host only) Create a HCI in scatternet n (default 0) attached to the host
	   bluetooth stack instead of to the emulated target.  This allows the host and target
	   machines to participate in a common scatternet and communicate.  Requires the Linux
	   "vhci" driver installed.  Can be used as following:

		   qemu [...OPTIONS...] -bt hci,vlan=5 -bt vhci,vlan=5

       -bt device:dev[,vlan=n]
	   Emulate a bluetooth device dev and place it in network n (default 0).  QEMU can only
	   emulate one type of bluetooth devices currently:

	   keyboard
	       Virtual wireless keyboard implementing the HIDP bluetooth profile.

       Linux/Multiboot boot specific:

       When using these options, you can use a given Linux or Multiboot kernel without installing
       it in the disk image. It can be useful for easier testing of various kernels.

       -kernel bzImage
	   Use bzImage as kernel image. The kernel can be either a Linux kernel or in multiboot
	   format.

       -append cmdline
	   Use cmdline as kernel command line

       -initrd file
	   Use file as initial ram disk.

       -initrd "file1 arg=foo,file2"
	   This syntax is only available with multiboot.

	   Use file1 and file2 as modules and pass arg=foo as parameter to the first module.

       Debug/Expert options:

       -serial dev
	   Redirect the virtual serial port to host character device dev. The default device is
	   "vc" in graphical mode and "stdio" in non graphical mode.

	   This option can be used several times to simulate up to 4 serial ports.

	   Use "-serial none" to disable all serial ports.

	   Available character devices are:

	   vc[:WxH]
	       Virtual console. Optionally, a width and height can be given in pixel with

		       vc:800x600

	       It is also possible to specify width or height in characters:

		       vc:80Cx24C

	   pty [Linux only] Pseudo TTY (a new PTY is automatically allocated)

	   none
	       No device is allocated.

	   null
	       void device

	   /dev/XXX
	       [Linux only] Use host tty, e.g. /dev/ttyS0. The host serial port parameters are
	       set according to the emulated ones.

	   /dev/parportN
	       [Linux only, parallel port only] Use host parallel port N. Currently SPP and EPP
	       parallel port features can be used.

	   file:filename
	       Write output to filename. No character can be read.

	   stdio
	       [Unix only] standard input/output

	   pipe:filename
	       name pipe filename

	   COMn
	       [Windows only] Use host serial port n

	   udp:[remote_host]:remote_port[@[src_ip]:src_port]
	       This implements UDP Net Console.  When remote_host or src_ip are not specified
	       they default to 0.0.0.0.  When not using a specified src_port a random port is
	       automatically chosen.

	       If you just want a simple readonly console you can use "netcat" or "nc", by
	       starting qemu with: "-serial udp::4555" and nc as: "nc -u -l -p 4555". Any time
	       qemu writes something to that port it will appear in the netconsole session.

	       If you plan to send characters back via netconsole or you want to stop and start
	       qemu a lot of times, you should have qemu use the same source port each time by
	       using something like "-serial udp::4555@4556" to qemu. Another approach is to use
	       a patched version of netcat which can listen to a TCP port and send and receive
	       characters via udp.  If you have a patched version of netcat which activates
	       telnet remote echo and single char transfer, then you can use the following
	       options to step up a netcat redirector to allow telnet on port 5555 to access the
	       qemu port.

	       "Qemu Options:"
		   -serial udp::4555@4556

	       "netcat options:"
		   -u -P 4555 -L 0.0.0.0:4556 -t -p 5555 -I -T

	       "telnet options:"
		   localhost 5555

	   tcp:[host]:port[,server][,nowait][,nodelay]
	       The TCP Net Console has two modes of operation.	It can send the serial I/O to a
	       location or wait for a connection from a location.  By default the TCP Net Console
	       is sent to host at the port.  If you use the server option QEMU will wait for a
	       client socket application to connect to the port before continuing, unless the
	       "nowait" option was specified.  The "nodelay" option disables the Nagle buffering
	       algorithm.  If host is omitted, 0.0.0.0 is assumed. Only one TCP connection at a
	       time is accepted. You can use "telnet" to connect to the corresponding character
	       device.

	       "Example to send tcp console to 192.168.0.2 port 4444"
		   -serial tcp:192.168.0.2:4444

	       "Example to listen and wait on port 4444 for connection"
		   -serial tcp::4444,server

	       "Example to not wait and listen on ip 192.168.0.100 port 4444"
		   -serial tcp:192.168.0.100:4444,server,nowait

	   telnet:host:port[,server][,nowait][,nodelay]
	       The telnet protocol is used instead of raw tcp sockets.	The options work the same
	       as if you had specified "-serial tcp".  The difference is that the port acts like
	       a telnet server or client using telnet option negotiation.  This will also allow
	       you to send the MAGIC_SYSRQ sequence if you use a telnet that supports sending the
	       break sequence.	Typically in unix telnet you do it with Control-] and then type
	       "send break" followed by pressing the enter key.

	   unix:path[,server][,nowait]
	       A unix domain socket is used instead of a tcp socket.  The option works the same
	       as if you had specified "-serial tcp" except the unix domain socket path is used
	       for connections.

	   mon:dev_string
	       This is a special option to allow the monitor to be multiplexed onto another
	       serial port.  The monitor is accessed with key sequence of Control-a and then
	       pressing c. See monitor access pcsys_keys in the -nographic section for more keys.
	       dev_string should be any one of the serial devices specified above.  An example to
	       multiplex the monitor onto a telnet server listening on port 4444 would be:

	       "-serial mon:telnet::4444,server,nowait"
	   braille
	       Braille device.	This will use BrlAPI to display the braille output on a real or
	       fake device.

	   msmouse
	       Three button serial mouse. Configure the guest to use Microsoft protocol.

       -parallel dev
	   Redirect the virtual parallel port to host device dev (same devices as the serial
	   port). On Linux hosts, /dev/parportN can be used to use hardware devices connected on
	   the corresponding host parallel port.

	   This option can be used several times to simulate up to 3 parallel ports.

	   Use "-parallel none" to disable all parallel ports.

       -monitor dev
	   Redirect the monitor to host device dev (same devices as the serial port).  The
	   default device is "vc" in graphical mode and "stdio" in non graphical mode.

       -mon chardev=[name][,mode=readline|control][,default]
	   Setup monitor on chardev name.

       -pidfile file
	   Store the QEMU process PID in file. It is useful if you launch QEMU from a script.

       -nooutgoing
	   Forbid userspace networking to make outgoing connections. Only accept incoming
	   connections from ip address IP.

       -singlestep
	   Run the emulation in single step mode.

       -S  Do not start CPU at startup (you must type 'c' in the monitor).

       -gdb dev
	   Wait for gdb connection on device dev. Typical connections will likely be TCP-based,
	   but also UDP, pseudo TTY, or even stdio are reasonable use case. The latter is
	   allowing to start qemu from within gdb and establish the connection via a pipe:

		   (gdb) target remote | exec qemu -gdb stdio ...

       -s  Shorthand for -gdb tcp::1234, i.e. open a gdbserver on TCP port 1234.

       -d  Output log in /tmp/qemu.log

       -hdachs c,h,s,[,t]
	   Force hard disk 0 physical geometry (1 <= c <= 16383, 1 <= h <= 16, 1 <= s <= 63) and
	   optionally force the BIOS translation mode (t=none, lba or auto). Usually QEMU can
	   guess all those parameters. This option is useful for old MS-DOS disk images.

       -L  path
	   Set the directory for the BIOS, VGA BIOS and keymaps.

       -bios file
	   Set the filename for the BIOS.

       -enable-kvm
	   Enable KVM full virtualization support. This option is only available if KVM support
	   is enabled when compiling.

       -no-reboot
	   Exit instead of rebooting.

       -no-shutdown
	   Don't exit QEMU on guest shutdown, but instead only stop the emulation.  This allows
	   for instance switching to monitor to commit changes to the disk image.

       -loadvm file
	   Start right away with a saved state ("loadvm" in monitor)

       -daemonize
	   Daemonize the QEMU process after initialization.  QEMU will not detach from standard
	   IO until it is ready to receive connections on any of its devices.  This option is a
	   useful way for external programs to launch QEMU without having to cope with
	   initialization race conditions.

       -option-rom file
	   Load the contents of file as an option ROM.	This option is useful to load things like
	   EtherBoot.

       -clock method
	   Force the use of the given methods for timer alarm. To see what timers are available
	   use -clock ?.

       -rtc [base=utc|localtime|date][,clock=host|vm][,driftfix=none|slew]
	   Specify base as "utc" or "localtime" to let the RTC start at the current UTC or local
	   time, respectively. "localtime" is required for correct date in MS-DOS or Windows. To
	   start at a specific point in time, provide date in the format "2006-06-17T16:01:21" or
	   "2006-06-17". The default base is UTC.

	   By default the RTC is driven by the host system time. This allows to use the RTC as
	   accurate reference clock inside the guest, specifically if the host time is smoothly
	   following an accurate external reference clock, e.g. via NTP.  If you want to isolate
	   the guest time from the host, even prevent it from progressing during suspension, you
	   can set clock to "vm" instead.

	   Enable driftfix (i386 targets only) if you experience time drift problems,
	   specifically with Windows' ACPI HAL. This option will try to figure out how many timer
	   interrupts were not processed by the Windows guest and will re-inject them.

       -icount [N|auto]
	   Enable virtual instruction counter.	The virtual cpu will execute one instruction
	   every 2^N ns of virtual time.  If "auto" is specified then the virtual cpu speed will
	   be automatically adjusted to keep virtual time within a few seconds of real time.

	   Note that while this option can give deterministic behavior, it does not provide cycle
	   accurate emulation.	Modern CPUs contain superscalar out of order cores with complex
	   cache hierarchies.  The number of instructions executed often has little or no
	   correlation with actual performance.

       -watchdog model
	   Create a virtual hardware watchdog device.  Once enabled (by a guest action), the
	   watchdog must be periodically polled by an agent inside the guest or else the guest
	   will be restarted.

	   The model is the model of hardware watchdog to emulate.  Choices for model are:
	   "ib700" (iBASE 700) which is a very simple ISA watchdog with a single timer, or
	   "i6300esb" (Intel 6300ESB I/O controller hub) which is a much more featureful PCI-
	   based dual-timer watchdog.  Choose a model for which your guest has drivers.

	   Use "-watchdog ?" to list available hardware models.  Only one watchdog can be enabled
	   for a guest.

       -watchdog-action action
	   The action controls what QEMU will do when the watchdog timer expires.  The default is
	   "reset" (forcefully reset the guest).  Other possible actions are: "shutdown" (attempt
	   to gracefully shutdown the guest), "poweroff" (forcefully poweroff the guest), "pause"
	   (pause the guest), "debug" (print a debug message and continue), or "none" (do
	   nothing).

	   Note that the "shutdown" action requires that the guest responds to ACPI signals,
	   which it may not be able to do in the sort of situations where the watchdog would have
	   expired, and thus "-watchdog-action shutdown" is not recommended for production use.

	   Examples:

	   "-watchdog i6300esb -watchdog-action pause"
	   "-watchdog ib700"
       -echr numeric_ascii_value
	   Change the escape character used for switching to the monitor when using monitor and
	   serial sharing.  The default is 0x01 when using the "-nographic" option.  0x01 is
	   equal to pressing "Control-a".  You can select a different character from the ascii
	   control keys where 1 through 26 map to Control-a through Control-z.	For instance you
	   could use the either of the following to change the escape character to Control-t.

	   "-echr 0x14"
	   "-echr 20"
       -virtioconsole c
	   Set virtio console.

       -nodefaults
	   Don't create default devices.

       -chroot dir
	   Immediately before starting guest execution, chroot to the specified directory.
	   Especially useful in combination with -runas.

       -runas user
	   Immediately before starting guest execution, drop root privileges, switching to the
	   specified user.

       -readconfig file
	   Read device configuration from file.

       -writeconfig file
	   Write device configuration to file.

       During the graphical emulation, you can use the following keys:

       Ctrl-Alt-f
	   Toggle full screen

       Ctrl-Alt-u
	   Restore the screen's un-scaled dimensions

       Ctrl-Alt-n
	   Switch to virtual console 'n'. Standard console mappings are:

	   1   Target system display

	   2   Monitor

	   3   Serial port

       Ctrl-Alt
	   Toggle mouse and keyboard grab.

       In the virtual consoles, you can use Ctrl-Up, Ctrl-Down, Ctrl-PageUp and Ctrl-PageDown to
       move in the back log.

       During emulation, if you are using the -nographic option, use Ctrl-a h to get terminal
       commands:

       Ctrl-a h
       Ctrl-a ?
	   Print this help

       Ctrl-a x
	   Exit emulator

       Ctrl-a s
	   Save disk data back to file (if -snapshot)

       Ctrl-a t
	   Toggle console timestamps

       Ctrl-a b
	   Send break (magic sysrq in Linux)

       Ctrl-a c
	   Switch between console and monitor

       Ctrl-a Ctrl-a
	   Send Ctrl-a

       The following options are specific to the PowerPC emulation:

       -g WxH[xDEPTH]
	   Set the initial VGA graphic mode. The default is 800x600x15.

       -prom-env string
	   Set OpenBIOS variables in NVRAM, for example:

		   qemu-system-ppc -prom-env 'auto-boot?=false' \
		    -prom-env 'boot-device=hd:2,\yaboot' \
		    -prom-env 'boot-args=conf=hd:2,\yaboot.conf'

	   These variables are not used by Open Hack'Ware.

       The following options are specific to the Sparc32 emulation:

       -g WxHx[xDEPTH]
	   Set the initial TCX graphic mode. The default is 1024x768x8, currently the only other
	   possible mode is 1024x768x24.

       -prom-env string
	   Set OpenBIOS variables in NVRAM, for example:

		   qemu-system-sparc -prom-env 'auto-boot?=false' \
		    -prom-env 'boot-device=sd(0,2,0):d' -prom-env 'boot-args=linux single'

       -M [SS-4|SS-5|SS-10|SS-20|SS-600MP|LX|Voyager|SPARCClassic|SPARCbook|SS-2|SS-1000|SS-2000]
	   Set the emulated machine type. Default is SS-5.

       The following options are specific to the Sparc64 emulation:

       -prom-env string
	   Set OpenBIOS variables in NVRAM, for example:

		   qemu-system-sparc64 -prom-env 'auto-boot?=false'

       -M [sun4u|sun4v|Niagara]
	   Set the emulated machine type. The default is sun4u.

SEE ALSO
       The HTML documentation of QEMU for more precise information and Linux user mode emulator
       invocation.

AUTHOR
       Fabrice Bellard

					    2010-07-05					  QEMU(1)


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