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EMACS(1)										 EMACS(1)

NAME
       emacs - GNU project Emacs

SYNOPSIS
       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ... ]

DESCRIPTION
       GNU  Emacs  is  a  version of Emacs, written by the author of the original (PDP-10) Emacs,
       Richard Stallman.
       The primary documentation of GNU Emacs is in the GNU Emacs  Manual,  which  you	can  read
       using  Info, either from Emacs or as a standalone program.  Please look there for complete
       and up-to-date documentation.  This man page is updated only when someone volunteers to do
       so;  the  Emacs maintainers' priority goal is to minimize the amount of time this man page
       takes away from other more useful projects.
       The user functionality of GNU Emacs encompasses everything other Emacs editors do, and  it
       is easily extensible since its editing commands are written in Lisp.

       Emacs  has  an extensive interactive help facility, but the facility assumes that you know
       how to manipulate Emacs windows and buffers.  CTRL-h or F1 enters the Help facility.  Help
       Tutorial (CTRL-h t) starts an interactive tutorial which can teach beginners the fundamen-
       tals of Emacs in a few minutes.	Help Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps you find	a  command  given
       its  functionality,  Help  Character  (CTRL-h c) describes a given character's effect, and
       Help Function (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp function specified by name.

       Emacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to your buffers,  so  it  is  easy  to
       recover from editing mistakes.

       GNU  Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and sending (Mail), outline
       editing (Outline), compiling (Compile), running subshells within  Emacs	windows  (Shell),
       running a Lisp read-eval-print loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), automated psychotherapy (Doc-
       tor), and much more.

       There is an extensive reference manual, but users of  other  Emacses  should  have  little
       trouble	adapting  even without a copy.	Users new to Emacs will be able to use basic fea-
       tures fairly rapidly by studying the tutorial and using the self-documentation features.

   Emacs Options
       The following options are of general interest:

	      file    Edit file.

	      --file file, --find-file file, --visit file
		      The same as specifying file directly as an argument.

	      +number Go to the line specified by number (do not insert a space between  the  "+"
		      sign and the number).  This applies only to the next file specified.

	      +line:column
		      Go to the specified line and column.

	      -q, --no-init-file
		      Do not load an init file.

	      --no-site-file
		      Do not load the site-wide startup file.

	      --no-desktop
		      Do not load a saved desktop.

	      -nl, --no-shared-memory
		      Do not use shared memory.

	      -Q, --quick
		      Equivalent to "-q --no-site-file --no-splash".

	      --no-splash
		      Do not display a splash screen during start-up.

	      --debug-init
		      Enable  Emacs  Lisp  debugger  during  the processing of the user init file
		      ~/.emacs.  This is useful for debugging problems in the init file.

	      -u user, --user user
		      Load user's init file.

	      -t file, --terminal file
		      Use specified file as the terminal instead  of  using  stdin/stdout.   This
		      must be the first argument specified in the command line.

	      --multibyte, --no-unibyte
		      Enable multibyte mode (enabled by default).

	      --unibyte, --no-multibyte
		      Enable unibyte mode.

	      --version
		      Display Emacs version information and exit.

	      --help  Display this help and exit.

       The  following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in the order encoun-
       tered):

	      -f function, --funcall function
		      Execute the lisp function function.

	      -l file, --load file
		      Load the lisp code in the file file.

	      --eval expr, --execute expr
		      Evaluate the Lisp expression expr.

       The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:

	      --batch Edit in batch mode.  The editor will send messages to stderr.  This  option
		      must  be the first in the argument list.	You must use -l and -f options to
		      specify files to execute and functions to call.

	      --script file
		      Run file as an Emacs Lisp script.

	      --insert file
		      Insert contents of file into the current buffer.

	      --kill  Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

	      -L dir, --directory dir
		      Add dir to the list of directories Emacs searches for Lisp files.

   Using Emacs with X
       Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system.	If  you  run  Emacs  from
       under X windows, it will create its own X window to display in.	You will probably want to
       start the editor as a background process so that you can continue using your original win-
       dow.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

	      --name name
		      Specify  the  name  which  should  be assigned to the initial Emacs window.
		      This controls looking up X resources as well as the window title.

	      -T name, --title name
		      Specify the title for the initial X window.

	      -r, -rv, --reverse-video
		      Display the Emacs window in reverse video.

	      -fn font, --font font
		      Set the Emacs window's font to that specified by font.  You will	find  the
		      various  X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory.  Note that Emacs will
		      only accept fixed width fonts.  Under the X11 Release 4 font-naming conven-
		      tions, any font with the value "m" or "c" in the eleventh field of the font
		      name is a fixed width font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name are of the  form
		      widthxheight  are  generally  fixed  width, as is the font fixed.  See xls-
		      fonts(1) for more information.

		      When you specify a font, be sure to put a space between the switch and  the
		      font name.

	      --xrm resources
		      Set additional X resources.

	      --color, --color=mode
		      Override	color  mode for character terminals; mode defaults to `auto', and
		      can also be `never', `auto', `always', or a mode name like `ansi8'.

	      -bw pixels, --border-width pixels
		      Set the Emacs window's border width to the number of  pixels  specified  by
		      pixels.  Defaults to one pixel on each side of the window.

	      -ib pixels, --internal-border pixels
		      Set the window's internal border width to the number of pixels specified by
		      pixels.  Defaults to one pixel of padding on each side of the window.

	      -g geometry, --geometry geometry
		      Set the Emacs window's width, height, and position as specified.	The geom-
		      etry  specification is in the standard X format; see X(7) for more informa-
		      tion.  The width and height are specified in characters; the default is  80
		      by  24.	See  the Emacs manual, section "Options for Window Size and Posi-
		      tion", for information on how window sizes interact with selecting or dese-
		      lecting the tool bar and menu bar.

	      -lsp pixels, --line-spacing pixels
		      Additional space to put between lines.

	      -vb, --vertical-scroll-bars
		      Enable vertical scrollbars.

	      -fh, --fullheight
		      Make the first frame as high as the screen.

	      -fs, --fullscreen
		      Make the first frame fullscreen.

	      -fw, --fullwidth
		      Make the first frame as wide as the screen.

	      -fg color, --foreground-color color
		      On color displays, set the color of the text.

		      Use the command M-x list-colors-display for a list of valid color names.

	      -bg color, --background-color color
		      On color displays, set the color of the window's background.

	      -bd color, --border-color color
		      On color displays, set the color of the window's border.

	      -cr color, --cursor-color color
		      On color displays, set the color of the window's text cursor.

	      -ms color, --mouse-color color
		      On color displays, set the color of the window's mouse cursor.

	      -d displayname, --display displayname
		      Create  the  Emacs window on the display specified by displayname.  Must be
		      the first option specified in the command line.

	      -nbi, --no-bitmap-icon
		      Do not use picture of gnu for Emacs icon.

	      --iconic
		      Start Emacs in iconified state.

	      -nbc, --no-blinking-cursor
		      Disable blinking cursor.

	      -nw, --no-window-system
		      Tell Emacs not to use its special interface to X.  If you use  this  switch
		      when  invoking  Emacs from an xterm(1) window, display is done in that win-
		      dow.

	      -D, --basic-display
		      This option disables many display features; use it for debugging Emacs.

       You can set X default values  for  your	Emacs  windows	in  your  .Xresources  file  (see
       xrdb(1)).  Use the following format:

	      emacs.keyword:value

       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set default values for
       the following keywords:

	      background (class Background)
		      For color displays, sets the window's background color.

	      bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
		      If bitmapIcon's value is set to  on,  the  window  will  iconify	into  the
		      "kitchen sink."

	      borderColor (class BorderColor)
		      For color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

	      borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
		      Sets the window's border width in pixels.

	      cursorColor (class Foreground)
		      For color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.

	      cursorBlink (class CursorBlink)
		      Specifies whether to make the cursor blink.  The default is on.  Use off or
		      false to turn cursor blinking off.

	      font (class Font)
		      Sets the window's text font.

	      foreground (class Foreground)
		      For color displays, sets the window's text color.

	      fullscreen (class Fullscreen)
		      The desired fullscreen size.  The value can be one of fullboth,  fullwidth,
		      or  fullheight,  which correspond to the command-line options `-fs', `-fw',
		      and `-fh', respectively.	Note that this applies to the initial frame only.

	      geometry (class Geometry)
		      Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above).

	      iconName (class Title)
		      Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

	      internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
		      Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.

	      lineSpacing (class LineSpacing)
		      Additional space ("leading") between lines, in pixels.

	      menuBar (class MenuBar)
		      Gives frames menu bars if on; don't have menu bars if off.  See  the  Emacs
		      manual, sections "Lucid Resources" and "LessTif Resources", for how to con-
		      trol the appearance of the menu bar if you have one.

	      minibuffer (class Minibuffer)
		      If none, don't make a minibuffer in this frame.  It  will  use  a  separate
		      minibuffer frame instead.

	      paneFont (class Font)
		      Font name for menu pane titles, in non-toolkit versions of Emacs.

	      pointerColor (class Foreground)
		      For color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

	      privateColormap (class PrivateColormap)
		      If  on,  use a private color map, in the case where the "default visual" of
		      class PseudoColor and Emacs is using it.

	      reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
		      If reverseVideo's value is set to on,  the  window  will	be  displayed  in
		      reverse video.

	      screenGamma (class ScreenGamma)
		      Gamma   correction   for	 colors,   equivalent	to  the  frame	parameter
		      `screen-gamma'.

	      scrollBarWidth (class ScrollBarWidth)
		      The  scroll  bar	width  in  pixels,  equivalent	to  the  frame	parameter
		      `scroll-bar-width'.

	      selectionFont (class SelectionFont)
		      Font  name  for  pop-up menu items, in non-toolkit versions of Emacs.  (For
		      toolkit versions, see the Emacs  manual,	sections  "Lucid  Resources"  and
		      "LessTif Resources".)

	      selectionTimeout (class SelectionTimeout)
		      Number  of  milliseconds to wait for a selection reply.  A value of 0 means
		      wait as long as necessary.

	      synchronous (class Synchronous)
		      Run Emacs in synchronous mode if on.  Synchronous mode is useful for debug-
		      ging X problems.

	      title (class Title)
		      Sets the title of the Emacs window.

	      toolBar (class ToolBar)
		      Number of lines to reserve for the tool bar.

	      useXIM (class UseXIM)
		      Turns off use of X input methods (XIM) if false or off.

	      verticalScrollBars (class ScrollBars)
		      Gives frames scroll bars if on; suppresses scroll bars if off.

	      visualClass (class VisualClass)
		      Specify the "visual" that X should use.  This tells X how to handle colors.
		      The value should start with one  of  TrueColor,  PseudoColor,  DirectColor,
		      StaticColor,  GrayScale, and StaticGray, followed by -depth, where depth is
		      the number of color planes.

       If you try to set color values while using a black and white display, the window's charac-
       teristics  will	default  as follows: the foreground color will be set to black, the back-
       ground color will be set to white, the border color will be set to grey, and the text  and
       mouse cursors will be set to black.

   Using the Mouse
       The following lists some of the mouse button bindings for the Emacs window under X11.

	      MOUSE BUTTON	  FUNCTION
	      ------------------------------------------------------------
	      left		  Set point.
	      middle		  Paste text.
	      right		  Cut text into X cut buffer.
	      SHIFT-middle	  Cut text into X cut buffer.
	      SHIFT-right	  Paste text.
	      CTRL-middle	  Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it.
	      CTRL-right	  Select  this window, then split it into
				  two windows.	Same as typing CTRL-x 2.
	      CTRL-SHIFT-left	  X buffer menu -- hold the  buttons  and
				  keys	down,  wait  for  menu to appear,
				  select buffer, and release.  Move mouse
				  out of menu and release to cancel.
	      CTRL-SHIFT-middle   X  help  menu -- pop up index card menu
				  for Emacs help.
	      CTRL-SHIFT-right	  Select window with  mouse,  and  delete
				  all  other  windows.	 Same  as  typing
				  CTRL-x 1.

MANUALS
       You can order printed copies of the GNU Emacs Manual from the  Free  Software  Foundation,
       which develops GNU software.  See the file ORDERS for ordering information.
       Your  local  Emacs  maintainer might also have copies available.  As with all software and
       publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make and distribute copies  of  the  Emacs
       manual.	The TeX source to the manual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.

FILES
       /usr/local/share/info  --  files for the Info documentation browser.  The complete text of
       the Emacs reference manual is  included	in  a  convenient  tree  structured  form.   Also
       includes  the  Emacs  Lisp Reference Manual, useful to anyone wishing to write programs in
       the Emacs Lisp extension language.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp -- Lisp source files and compiled files  that  define
       most editing commands.  Some are preloaded; others are autoloaded from this directory when
       used.

       /usr/local/libexec/emacs/$VERSION/$ARCH -- various programs that are used with GNU Emacs.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc -- various files of information.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.* -- contains the documentation	strings  for  the
       Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU Emacs.  They are stored here to reduce
       the size of Emacs proper.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE lists  people  offering  various  services  to
       assist  users  of  GNU Emacs, including education, troubleshooting, porting and customiza-
       tion.

BUGS
       There is a mailing list, bug-gnu-emacs@gnu.org, for reporting Emacs bugs and  fixes.   But
       before  reporting something as a bug, please try to be sure that it really is a bug, not a
       misunderstanding or a deliberate feature.  We ask you  to  read	the  section  ``Reporting
       Emacs  Bugs''  near  the end of the reference manual (or Info system) for hints on how and
       when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number of the Emacs  you  are  running  in
       every  bug  report  that  you send in.  Bugs tend actually to be fixed if they can be iso-
       lated, so it is in your interest to report them in such a way  that  they  can  be  easily
       reproduced.

       Do  not expect a personal answer to a bug report.  The purpose of reporting bugs is to get
       them fixed for everyone in the next release, if possible.  For personal	assistance,  look
       in the SERVICE file (see above) for a list of people who offer it.

       Please  do  not	send anything but bug reports to this mailing list.  For more information
       about Emacs mailing lists, see the file /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/MAILINGLISTS.

UNRESTRICTIONS
       Emacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under the terms stated in
       the Emacs General Public License, a copy of which accompanies each copy of Emacs and which
       also appears in the reference manual.

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions of Unix systems, but
       it  is  never included in the scope of any license covering those systems.  Such inclusion
       violates the terms on which distribution is permitted.  In fact, the  primary  purpose  of
       the  General Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other restrictions to
       redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges that you contribute
       your  extensions  to  the GNU library.  Eventually GNU (Gnu's Not Unix) will be a complete
       replacement for Unix.  Everyone will be free to use, copy, study and change the	GNU  sys-
       tem.

SEE ALSO
       emacsclient(1), etags(1), X(7), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

AUTHORS
       Emacs  was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.  Joachim Martillo
       and Robert Krawitz added the X features.

COPYING
       Copyright (C) 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
	     2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this document provided the
       copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

       Permission  is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this document under the
       conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work  is  dis-
       tributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

       Permission  is  granted	to copy and distribute translations of this document into another
       language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except  that  this  permission
       notice may be stated in a translation approved by the Free Software Foundation.

GNU Emacs 23.1				  2007 April 13 				 EMACS(1)
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