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Test Your Knowledge in Computers #412
Difficulty: Medium
AT&T 3B computer systems included the 3B2, 3B5, 3B15, 3B20S, and 3B4000. These computers were named after the successful 3B20D. The 3B20S (simplex) ran using the UNIX operating system and was developed at Bell Labs and produced by WECo in 1982 for the general purpose internal Bell System use, and later the mini-computer market.
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chown(1) [suse man page]

CHOWN(1)							   User Commands							  CHOWN(1)

NAME
chown - change file owner and group SYNOPSIS
chown [OPTION]... [OWNER][:[GROUP]] FILE... chown [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE... DESCRIPTION
This manual page documents the GNU version of chown. chown changes the user and/or group ownership of each given file. If only an owner (a user name or numeric user ID) is given, that user is made the owner of each given file, and the files' group is not changed. If the owner is followed by a colon and a group name (or numeric group ID), with no spaces between them, the group ownership of the files is changed as well. If a colon but no group name follows the user name, that user is made the owner of the files and the group of the files is changed to that user's login group. If the colon and group are given, but the owner is omitted, only the group of the files is changed; in this case, chown performs the same function as chgrp. If only a colon is given, or if the entire operand is empty, neither the owner nor the group is changed. OPTIONS
Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP. With --reference, change the owner and group of each FILE to those of RFILE. -c, --changes like verbose but report only when a change is made --dereference affect the referent of each symbolic link (this is the default), rather than the symbolic link itself -h, --no-dereference affect each symbolic link instead of any referenced file (useful only on systems that can change the ownership of a symlink) --from=CURRENT_OWNER:CURRENT_GROUP change the owner and/or group of each file only if its current owner and/or group match those specified here. Either may be omit- ted, in which case a match is not required for the omitted attribute. --no-preserve-root do not treat `/' specially (the default) --preserve-root fail to operate recursively on `/' -f, --silent, --quiet suppress most error messages --reference=RFILE use RFILE's owner and group rather than specifying OWNER:GROUP values -R, --recursive operate on files and directories recursively -v, --verbose output a diagnostic for every file processed The following options modify how a hierarchy is traversed when the -R option is also specified. If more than one is specified, only the final one takes effect. -H if a command line argument is a symbolic link to a directory, traverse it -L traverse every symbolic link to a directory encountered -P do not traverse any symbolic links (default) --help display this help and exit --version output version information and exit Owner is unchanged if missing. Group is unchanged if missing, but changed to login group if implied by a `:' following a symbolic OWNER. OWNER and GROUP may be numeric as well as symbolic. EXAMPLES
chown root /u Change the owner of /u to "root". chown root:staff /u Likewise, but also change its group to "staff". chown -hR root /u Change the owner of /u and subfiles to "root". AUTHOR
Written by David MacKenzie and Jim Meyering. REPORTING BUGS
Report chown bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/> General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/> COPYRIGHT
Copyright (C) 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>. This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law. SEE ALSO
chown(2) The full documentation for chown is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and chown programs are properly installed at your site, the command info coreutils 'chown invocation' should give you access to the complete manual. GNU coreutils 7.1 July 2010 CHOWN(1)

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