Pnmtotiffcmyk User Manual(0) Pnmtotiffcmyk User Manual(0)
pnmtotiffcmyk - convert a Netpbm image into a CMYK encoded TIFF file
pnmtotiffcmyk [-none|-packbits|-lzw] [-predictor n] [-msb2lsb|-lsb2msb]
[-rowsperstrip n] [-lowdotrange n] [-highdotrange n] [-knor-
mal|-konly|-kremove] [[-default] [-theta deg] [-gamma n] [-gammap n] |-negative]
This program is part of Netpbm(1)
pnmtotiffcmykreads a PNM image as input and produces a CMYK encoded TIFF file as output.
It optionally modifies the color balance and black level, and modifies removal of CMY from
The order of most options is not important, but options for particular conversion algo-
rithms must appear after the algorithm is selected (-default,-negative). If you don't
select an algorithm, pnmtotiffcmyk assumes -default and the appropriate options
(-theta,-gamma,-gammap) can appear anywhere.
Tiff files can be compressed. By default, pnmtotiffcmyk uses LZW decompression, but
(apparently) some readers cannot read this, so you may want to select a different algo-
rithm (-none,-packbits). For LZW compression, a -predictor value of 2 forces horizontal
differencing of scanlines before encoding; a value of 1 forces no differencing.
These options control fill order (default is -msb2lsb).
This sets the number of rows in an image strip (data in the Tiff files generated by this
program is stored in strips - each strip is compressed individually). The default gives a
strip size of no more than 8 kb.
These options set tag values that may be useful for printers.
These options control the calculation of the CMYK ink levels. They are useful only for
testing and debugging the code.
-kremove sets the black (K) levels to zero while leaving the other ink levels as they
would be if the black level were normal.
-konly sets all inks to the normal black value.
These options control what ink levels pnmtotiffcmyk uses to represent each input color.
-negative selects a simple algorithm that generates a color negative. None of the follow-
ing options apply to this algorithm. The algorithm is included as an example in the
source code to help implementors of other conversions.
-default is not necessary, unless you have to countermand a -negative on the same command
The default conversion from RGB to CMYK is as follows: The basic values of the 3 pigments
are C = 1-R, M = 1-G, Y = 1-B. From this, pnmtotiffcmyk chooses a black (K) level which
is the minimum of those three. It then replaces that much of the 3 pigments with the
black. I.e. it substracts K from each of the basic C, M, and Y values.
The options below modify this conversion.
-theta provides a simple correction for any color bias that may occur in the printed image
because, in practice, inks do not exactly complement the primary colors. It rotates the
colors (before black replacement) by deg degrees in the color wheel. Unless you are try-
ing to produce unusual effects you will need to use small values. Try generating three
images at -10, 0 (the default) and 10 degrees and see which has the best color balance.
-gamma applies a gamma correction to the black (K) value described above. Specifically,
instead of calculating the K value as min(C,M,Y), pnmtotiffcmyk raises that value (nor-
malised to the range 0 to 1) to the nth power. In practice, this means that a value
greater than 1 makes the image lighter and a value less than 1 makes the image darker.
The range of allowed values is 0.1 to 10.
This option controls the black replacement.
If you specify -gammap, pnmtotiffcmyk uses the specified gamma value in computing how much
ink to remove from the 3 pigments, but still uses the regular gamma value (-gamma option)
to generate the actual amount of black ink with which to replace it.
Values of n from 0.01 to 10 are valid.
For example, it may be best to only subtract black from the colored inks in the very dark-
est regions. In that case, n should be a large value, such as 5.
As a special case, if n is -1, pnmtotiffcmyk does not remove any pigment (but still adds
the black ink). This means dark areas are even darker. Furthermore, when printed, dark
areas contain a lot of ink which can make high contrast areas, like lettering, appear
fuzzy. It's hard to see what the utility of this is.
pnmtotiff(1) , tifftopnm(1) , pnm(5)
Copyright (c) 1999 Andrew Cooke (Jara Software). Released under the GPL with no warranty.
See source or COPYRIGHT and LICENCE files in distribution for full details.
Much of the code uses ideas from other Netpbm programs, written by Jef Poskanzer (thanks
go to him and libtiff maintainer Sam Leffler). A small section of the code - some of the
tiff tag settings - is derived directly from pnmtotiff, by Jef Poskanzer, which, in turn,
acknowledges Patrick Naughton with the following text:
Derived by Jef Poskanzer from ras2tif.c, which is:
Copyright (c) 1990 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Author: Patrick J. Naughton
Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and
its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted,
provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that
both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
This file is provided AS IS with no warranties of any kind. The
author shall have no liability with respect to the infringement of
copyrights, trade secrets or any patents by this file or any part
thereof. In no event will the author be liable for any lost revenue
or profits or other special, indirect and consequential damages.
netpbm documentation 07 February 2004 Pnmtotiffcmyk User Manual(0)