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SGGES(l)) SGGES(l)SGGES - compute for a pair of N-by-N real nonsymmetric matrices (A,B),NAMESUBROUTINE SGGES( JOBVSL, JOBVSR, SORT, SELCTG, N, A, LDA, B, LDB, SDIM, ALPHAR, ALPHAI, BETA, VSL, LDVSL, VSR, LDVSR, WORK, LWORK, BWORK, INFO ) CHARACTER JOBVSL, JOBVSR, SORT INTEGER INFO, LDA, LDB, LDVSL, LDVSR, LWORK, N, SDIM LOGICAL BWORK( * ) REAL A( LDA, * ), ALPHAI( * ), ALPHAR( * ), B( LDB, * ), BETA( * ), VSL( LDVSL, * ), VSR( LDVSR, * ), WORK( * ) LOGICAL SELCTG EXTERNAL SELCTGSYNOPSISSGGES computes for a pair of N-by-N real nonsymmetric matrices (A,B), the generalized eigenvalues, the gener- alized real Schur form (S,T), optionally, the left and/or right matrices of Schur vectors (VSL and VSR). This gives the generalized Schur factorization (A,B) = ( (VSL)*S*(VSR)**T, (VSL)*T*(VSR)**T ) Optionally, it also orders the eigenvalues so that a selected cluster of eigenvalues appears in the leading diagonal blocks of the upper quasi-triangular matrix S and the upper triangular matrix T.The leading columns of VSL and VSR then form an orthonormal basis for the corresponding left and right eigenspaces (deflating sub- spaces). (If only the generalized eigenvalues are needed, use the driver SGGEV instead, which is faster.) A generalized eigenvalue for a pair of matrices (A,B) is a scalar w or a ratio alpha/beta = w, such that APURPOSEw*B is singular. It is usually represented as the pair (alpha,beta), as there is a reasonable interpretation for beta=0 or both being zero. A pair of matrices (S,T) is in generalized real Schur form if T is upper triangular with non-negative diagonal and S is block upper triangular with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 blocks. 1-by-1 blocks correspond to real generalized eigenvalues, while 2-by-2 blocks of S will be "standardized" by making the corresponding elements of T have the form: [ a 0 ] [ 0 b ] and the pair of corresponding 2-by-2 blocks in S and T will have a complex conjugate pair of generalized ei- genvalues.-JOBVSL (input) CHARACTER*1 = 'N': do not compute the left Schur vectors; = 'V': compute the left Schur vectors. JOBVSR (input) CHARACTER*1 = 'N': do not compute the right Schur vectors; = 'V': compute the right Schur vectors. SORT (input) CHARACTER*1 Specifies whether or not to order the eigenvalues on the diagonal of the generalized Schur form. = 'N': Eigenvalues are not ordered; = 'S': Eigenvalues are ordered (see SELCTG); SELCTG (input) LOGICAL FUNCTION of three REAL arguments SELCTG must be declared EXTERNAL in the calling subroutine. If SORT = 'N', SELCTG is not referenced. If SORT = 'S', SELCTG is used to select eigenvalues to sort to the top left of the Schur form. An ei- genvalue (ALPHAR(j)+ALPHAI(j))/BETA(j) is selected if SELCTG(ALPHAR(j),ALPHAI(j),BETA(j)) is true; i.e. if either one of a complex conjugate pair of eigenvalues is selected, then both complex eigenval- ues are selected. Note that in the ill-conditioned case, a selected complex eigenvalue may no longer satisfy SELCTG(ALPHAR(j),ALPHAI(j), BETA(j)) = .TRUE. after ordering. INFO is to be set to N+2 in this case. N (input) INTEGER The order of the matrices A, B, VSL, and VSR. N >= 0. A (input/output) REAL array, dimension (LDA, N) On entry, the first of the pair of matrices. On exit, A has been overwritten by its generalized Schur form S. LDA (input) INTEGER The leading dimension of A. LDA >= max(1,N). B (input/output) REAL array, dimension (LDB, N) On entry, the second of the pair of matrices. On exit, B has been overwritten by its generalized Schur form T. LDB (input) INTEGER The leading dimension of B. LDB >= max(1,N). SDIM (output) INTEGER If SORT = 'N', SDIM = 0. If SORT = 'S', SDIM = number of eigenvalues (after sorting) for which SELCTG is true. (Complex conjugate pairs for which SELCTG is true for either eigenvalue count as 2.) ALPHAR (output) REAL array, dimension (N) ALPHAI (output) REAL array, dimension (N) BETA (output) REAL array, dimension (N) On exit, (ALPHAR(j) + ALPHAI(j)*i)/BETA(j), j=1,...,N, will be the generalized eigenvalues. ALPHAR(j) + ALPHAI(j)*i, and BETA(j),j=1,...,N are the diagonals of the complex Schur form (S,T) that would result if the 2-by-2 diagonal blocks of the real Schur form of (A,B) were further reduced to triangu- lar form using 2-by-2 complex unitary transformations. If ALPHAI(j) is zero, then the j-th eigenvalue is real; if positive, then the j-th and (j+1)-st eigenvalues are a complex conjugate pair, with ALPHAI(j+1) negative. Note: the quotients ALPHAR(j)/BETA(j) and ALPHAI(j)/BETA(j) may easily over- or underflow, and BETA(j) may even be zero. Thus, the user should avoid naively computing the ratio. However, ALPHAR and ALPHAI will be always less than and usually comparable with norm(A) in magnitude, and BETA always less than and usually comparable with norm(B). VSL (output) REAL array, dimension (LDVSL,N) If JOBVSL = 'V', VSL will contain the left Schur vectors. Not referenced if JOBVSL = 'N'. LDVSL (input) INTEGER The leading dimension of the matrix VSL. LDVSL >=1, and if JOBVSL = 'V', LDVSL >= N. VSR (output) REAL array, dimension (LDVSR,N) If JOBVSR = 'V', VSR will contain the right Schur vectors. Not referenced if JOBVSR = 'N'. LDVSR (input) INTEGER The leading dimension of the matrix VSR. LDVSR >= 1, and if JOBVSR = 'V', LDVSR >= N. WORK (workspace/output) REAL array, dimension (LWORK) On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK. LWORK (input) INTEGER The dimension of the array WORK. LWORK >= 8*N+16. If LWORK =ARGUMENTS, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA. BWORK (workspace) LOGICAL array, dimension (N) Not referenced if SORT = 'N'. INFO (output) INTEGER = 0: successful exit < 0: if INFO =-1, the i-th argument had an illegal value. = 1,...,N: The QZ iteration failed. (A,B) are not in Schur form, but ALPHAR(j), ALPHAI(j), and BETA(j) should be correct for j=INFO+1,...,N. > N: =N+1: other than QZ iteration failed in SHGEQZ. =N+2: after reordering, roundoff changed values of some complex eigenvalues so that leading eigenval- ues in the Generalized Schur form no longer satisfy SELCTG=.TRUE. This could also be caused due to scaling. =N+3: reordering failed in STGSEN.-iLAPACK version 3.015 June 2000 SGGES(l)

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