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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for sa (redhat section 8)

SA(8)											    SA(8)

       sa -  summarizes accounting information

       sa     [ -a | --list-all-names ]
	      [ -b | --sort-sys-user-div-calls ]
	      [ -c | --percentages ] [ -d | --sort-avio ]
	      [ -D | --sort-tio ] [ -f | --not-interactive ]
	      [ -i | --dont-read-summary-file ]
	      [ -j | --print-seconds ] [ -k | --sort-cpu-avmem ]
	      [ -K | --sort-ksec ] [ -l | --separate-times ]
	      [ -m | --user-summary ] [ -n | --sort-num-calls ]
	      [ -r | --reverse-sort ] [ -s | --merge ]
	      [ -t | --print-ratio ] [ -u | --print-users ]
	      [ -v num | --threshold num ] [ --sort-real-time ]
	      [ --debug ] [ -V | --version ] [ -h | --help ]
	      [ --other-usracct-file filename ]
	      [ --other-savacct-file filename ]
	      [ [ --other-acct-file ] filename ]

       sa summarizes information about previously executed commands as recorded in the acct file.
       In addition, it condenses this data into a summary file named savacct which contains the
       number of times the command was called and the system resources used.  The information can
       also be summarized on a per-user basis; sa will save this information into a file named

       If no arguments are specified, sa will print information about all of the commands in the
       acct file.

       If called with a file name as the last argument, sa will use that file instead of the
       system's default acct file.

       By default, sa will sort the output by sum of user and system time.  If command names have
       unprintable characters, or are only called once, sa will sort them into a group called
       `***other'.  If more than one sorting option is specified, the list will be sorted by the
       one specified last on the command line.

       The output fields are labeled as follows:

	       sum of system and user time in cpu seconds

	       "real time" in cpu seconds

	       cpu-time averaged core usage, in 1k units

	       average number of I/O operations per execution

	       total number of I/O operations

	       cpu storage integral (kilo-core seconds)

	       user cpu time in cpu seconds

	       system time in cpu seconds

       An asterisk will appear after the name of commands that forked but didn't call exec.

       GNU sa takes care to implement a number of features not found in other versions.  For
       example, most versions of sa don't pay attention to flags like `--print-seconds' and
       `--sort-num-calls' when printing out commands when combined with the `--user-summary' or
       `--print-users' flags.  GNU sa pays attention to these flags if they are applicable.
       Also, MIPS' sa stores the average memory use as a short rather than a double, resulting in
       some round-off errors.  GNU sa uses double the whole way through.

       -a, --list-all-names
	      Force sa not to sort those command names with unprintable characters and those used
	      only once into the ***other group.
       -b, --sort-sys-user-div-calls
	      Sort the output by the sum of user and system time divided by the number of calls.
       -c, --percentages
	      Print percentages of total time for the command's user, system, and real time
       -d, --sort-avio
	      Sort the output by the average number of disk I/O operations.
       -D, --sort-tio
	      Print and sort the output by the total number of disk I/O operations.
       -f, --not-interactive
	      When using the `--threshold' option, assume that all answers to interactive queries
	      will be affirmative.
       -i, --dont-read-summary-file
	      Don't read the information in the system's default savacct file.
       -j, --print-seconds
	      Instead of printing total minutes for each category, print seconds per call.
       -k, --sort-cpu-avmem
	      Sort the output by cpu time average memory usage.
       -K, --sort-ksec
	      Print and sort the output by the cpu-storage integral.
       -l, --separate-times
	      Print separate columns for system and user time; usually the two are added together
	      and listed as `cpu'.
       -m, --user-summary
	      Print the number of processes and number of CPU minutes on a per-user basis.
       -n, --sort-num-calls
	      Sort the output by the number of calls.  This is the default sorting method.
       -r, --reverse-sort
	      Sort output items in reverse order.
       -s, --merge
	      Merge the summarized accounting data into the summary files savacct and usracct.
       -t, --print-ratio
	      For each entry, print the ratio of real time to the sum of system and user times.
	      If the sum of system and user times is too small to report--the sum is
	      zero--`*ignore*' will appear in this field.
       -u, --print-users
	      For each command in the accounting file, print the userid and command name.  After
	      printing all entries, quit.  *Note*: this flag supersedes all others.
       -v num --threshold num
	      Print commands which were executed num times or fewer and await a reply from the
	      terminal.  If the response begins with `y', add the command to the `**junk**'
	      It really doesn't make any sense to me that the stock version of sa separates
	      statistics for a particular executable depending on whether or not that command
	      forked.  Therefore, GNU sa lumps this information together unless this option is
	      Print verbose internal information.
       -V, --version
	      Print the version number of sa.
       -h, --help
	      Prints the usage string and default locations of system files to standard output
	      and exits.
	      Sort the output by the "real time" field.
       --other-usracct-file filename
	      Write summaries by user ID to filename rather than the system's default usracct
       --other-savacct-file filename
	      Write summaries by command name to filename rather than the system's default
	      SAVACCT file.
       --other-file filename
	      Read from the file filename instead of the system's default ACCT file.
       acct   The raw system wide process accounting file. See acct(5) (or pacct(5)) for further
	      A summary of system process accounting sorted by command.
	      A summary of system process accounting sorted by user ID.
       There is not yet a wide experience base for comparing the output of GNU sa with versions
       of sa in many other systems.  The problem is that the data files grow big in a short time
       and therefore require a lot of disk space.
       The GNU accounting utilities were written by Noel Cragg <noel@gnu.ai.mit.edu>. The man
       page was adapted from the accounting texinfo page by Susan Kleinmann <sgk@sgk.tiac.net>.
       acct(5), ac(8)

					  1997 August 19				    SA(8)

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