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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for rrestore (redhat section 8)

RESTORE(8)			   BSD System Manager's Manual			       RESTORE(8)

     restore -- restore files or file systems from backups made with dump

     restore -C [-cklMvVy] [-b blocksize] [-D filesystem] [-f file] [-F script] [-L limit]
	     [-s fileno] [-T directory]
     restore -i [-achklmMNuvVy] [-A file] [-b blocksize] [-f file] [-F script] [-Q file]
	     [-s fileno] [-T directory]
     restore -P file [-achklmMNuvVy] [-A file] [-b blocksize] [-f file] [-F script] [-s fileno]
	     [-T directory] [-X filelist] [file ...]
     restore -R [-cklMNuvVy] [-b blocksize] [-f file] [-F script] [-s fileno] [-T directory]
     restore -r [-cklMNuvVy] [-b blocksize] [-f file] [-F script] [-s fileno] [-T directory]
     restore -t [-chklMNuvVy] [-A file] [-b blocksize] [-f file] [-F script] [-Q file]
	     [-s fileno] [-T directory] [-X filelist] [file ...]
     restore -x [-achklmMNuvVy] [-A file] [-b blocksize] [-f file] [-F script] [-Q file]
	     [-s fileno] [-T directory] [-X filelist] [file ...]

     (The 4.3BSD option syntax is implemented for backward compatibility but is not documented

     The restore command performs the inverse function of dump(8).  A full backup of a file sys-
     tem may be restored and subsequent incremental backups layered on top of it.  Single files
     and directory subtrees may be restored from full or partial backups.  Restore works across a
     network; to do this see the -f flag described below.  Other arguments to the command are
     file or directory names specifying the files that are to be restored.  Unless the -h flag is
     specified (see below), the appearance of a directory name refers to the files and (recur-
     sively) subdirectories of that directory.

     Exactly one of the following flags is required:

     -C      This mode allows comparison of files from a dump.	Restore reads the backup and com-
	     pares its contents with files present on the disk.  It first changes its working
	     directory to the root of the filesystem that was dumped and compares the tape with
	     the files in its new current directory.  See also the -L flag described below.

     -i      This mode allows interactive restoration of files from a dump.  After reading in the
	     directory information from the dump, restore provides a shell like interface that
	     allows the user to move around the directory tree selecting files to be extracted.
	     The available commands are given below; for those commands that require an argument,
	     the default is the current directory.

	     add [arg]	 The current directory or specified argument is added to the list of
			 files to be extracted.  If a directory is specified, then it and all its
			 descendents are added to the extraction list (unless the -h flag is
			 specified on the command line).  Files that are on the extraction list
			 are prepended with a ``*'' when they are listed by ls.

	     cd arg	 Change the current working directory to the specified argument.

	     delete [arg]
			 The current directory or specified argument is deleted from the list of
			 files to be extracted.  If a directory is specified, then it and all its
			 descendents are deleted from the extraction list (unless the -h flag is
			 specified on the command line).  The most expedient way to extract most
			 of the files from a directory is to add the directory to the extraction
			 list and then delete those files that are not needed.

	     extract	 All files on the extraction list are extracted from the dump.	Restore
			 will ask which volume the user wishes to mount.  The fastest way to
			 extract a few files is to start with the last volume and work towards
			 the first volume.

	     help	 List a summary of the available commands.

	     ls [arg]	 List the current or specified directory.  Entries that are directories
			 are appended with a ``*''.  Entries that have been marked for extraction
			 are prepended with a ``*''.  If the verbose flag is set, the inode num-
			 ber of each entry is also listed.

	     pwd	 Print the full pathname of the current working directory.

	     quit	 Restore immediately exits, even if the extraction list is not empty.

	     setmodes	 All directories that have been added to the extraction list have their
			 owner, modes, and times set; nothing is extracted from the dump.  This
			 is useful for cleaning up after a restore has been prematurely aborted.

	     verbose	 The sense of the -v flag is toggled.  When set, the verbose flag causes
			 the ls command to list the inode numbers of all entries.  It also causes
			 restore to print out information about each file as it is extracted.

     -P file
	     Restore creates a new Quick File Access file file from an existing dump file without
	     restoring its contents.

     -R      Restore requests a particular tape of a multi-volume set on which to restart a full
	     restore (see the -r flag below).  This is useful if the restore has been inter-

     -r      Restore (rebuild) a file system.  The target file system should be made pristine
	     with mke2fs(8), mounted, and the user cd'd into the pristine file system before
	     starting the restoration of the initial level 0 backup. If the level 0 restores suc-
	     cessfully, the -r flag may be used to restore any necessary incremental backups on
	     top of the level 0.  The -r flag precludes an interactive file extraction and can be
	     detrimental to one's health (not to mention the disk) if not used carefully.  An

		   mke2fs /dev/sda1
		   mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
		   cd /mnt

		   restore rf /dev/st0

	     Note that restore leaves a file restoresymtable in the root directory to pass infor-
	     mation between incremental restore passes.  This file should be removed when the
	     last incremental has been restored.

	     Restore, in conjunction with mke2fs(8) and dump(8), may be used to modify file sys-
	     tem parameters such as size or block size.

     -t      The names of the specified files are listed if they occur on the backup.  If no file
	     argument is given, the root directory is listed, which results in the entire content
	     of the backup being listed, unless the -h flag has been specified.  Note that the -t
	     flag replaces the function of the old dumpdir(8) program.	See also the -X option

     -x      The named files are read from the given media.  If a named file matches a directory
	     whose contents are on the backup and the -h flag is not specified, the directory is
	     recursively extracted.  The owner, modification time, and mode are restored (if pos-
	     sible).  If no file argument is given, the root directory is extracted, which
	     results in the entire content of the backup being extracted, unless the -h flag has
	     been specified.  See also the -X option below.

     The following additional options may be specified:

     -a      In -i or -x mode, restore does ask the user for the volume number on which the files
	     to be extracted are supposed to be (in order to minimise the time be reading only
	     the interesting volumes). The -a option disables this behaviour and reads all the
	     volumes starting with 1. This option is useful when the operator does not know on
	     which volume the files to be extracted are and/or when he prefers the longer unat-
	     tended mode rather than the shorter interactive mode.

     -A archive_file
	     Read the table of contents from archive_file instead of the media. This option can
	     be used in combination with the -t, -i, or -x options, making it possible to check
	     whether files are on the media without having to mount the media.

     -b blocksize
	     The number of kilobytes per dump record.  If the -b option is not specified, restore
	     tries to determine the media block size dynamically.

     -c      Normally, restore will try to determine dynamically whether the dump was made from
	     an old (pre-4.4) or new format file system.  The -c flag disables this check, and
	     only allows reading a dump in the old format.

     -D filesystem
	     The -D flag allows the user to specify the filesystem name when using restore with
	     the -C option to check the backup.

     -f file
	     Read the backup from file; file may be a special device file like /dev/st0 (a tape
	     drive), /dev/sda1 (a disk drive), an ordinary file, or '-' (the standard input).  If
	     the name of the file is of the form ``host:file'' or ``user@host:file'', restore
	     reads from the named file on the remote host using rmt(8).

     -F script
	     Run script at the beginning of each tape. The device name and the current volume
	     number are passed on the command line.  The script must return 0 if restore should
	     continue without asking the user to change the tape, 1 if restore should continue
	     but ask the user to change the tape.  Any other exit code will cause restore to
	     abort.  For security reasons, restore reverts back to the real user ID and the real
	     group ID before running the script.

     -h      Extract the actual directory, rather than the files that it references.  This pre-
	     vents hierarchical restoration of complete subtrees from the dump.

     -k      Use Kerberos authentication when contacting the remote tape server.  (Only available
	     if this options was enabled when restore was compiled.)

     -l      When doing remote restores, assume the remote file is a regular file (instead of a
	     tape device). If you're restoring a remote compressed file, you will need to specify
	     this option or restore will fail to access it correctly.

     -L limit
	     The -L flag allows the user to specify a maximal number of miscompares when using
	     restore with the -C option to check the backup. If this limit is reached, restore
	     will abort with an error message. A value of 0 (the default value) disables the

     -m      Extract by inode numbers rather than by file name.  This is useful if only a few
	     files are being extracted, and one wants to avoid regenerating the complete pathname
	     to the file.

     -M      Enables the multi-volume feature (for reading dumps made using the -M option of
	     dump). The name specified with -f is treated as a prefix and restore tries to read
	     in sequence from <prefix>001, <prefix>002 etc.

     -N      The -N flag causes restore to perform a full execution as requested by one of -i,
	     -R, -r, -t or -x command without actually writing any file on disk.

     -Q file
	     Use the file file in order to read tape position as stored using the dump Quick File
	     Access mode, in one of -i, -x or -t mode.

	     It is recommended to set up the st driver to return logical tape positions rather
	     than physical before calling dump/restore with parameter Q.  Since not all tape
	     devices support physical tape positions those tape devices return an error during
	     dump/restore when the st driver is set to the default physical setting.  Please see
	     the st man page, option MTSETDRVBUFFER, or the mt man page, on how to set the driver
	     to return logical tape positions.

	     Before calling restore with parameter Q, always make sure the st driver is set to
	     return the same type of tape position used during the call to dump. Otherwise
	     restore may be confused.

	     This option can be used when restoring from local or remote tapes (see above) or
	     from local or remote files.

     -s fileno
	     Read from the specified fileno on a multi-file tape.  File numbering starts at 1.

     -T directory
	     The -T flag allows the user to specify a directory to use for the storage of tempo-
	     rary files. The default value is /tmp. This flag is most useful when restoring files
	     after having booted from a floppy.  There might be little or no space on the floppy
	     filesystem, but another source of space might exist.

     -u      When creating certain types of files, restore may generate a warning diagnostic if
	     they already exist in the target directory.  To prevent this, the -u (unlink) flag
	     causes restore to remove old entries before attempting to create new ones.

     -v      Normally restore does its work silently.  The -v (verbose) flag causes it to type
	     the name of each file it treats preceded by its file type.

     -V      Enables reading multi-volume non-tape mediums like CDROMs.

     -X filelist
	     Read list of files to be listed or extracted from the text file filelist in addition
	     to those specified on the command line. This can be used in conjunction with the -t
	     or -x commands. The file filelist should contain file names separated by newlines.
	     filelist may be an ordinary file or '-' (the standard input).

     -y      Do not ask the user whether to abort the restore in the event of an error.  Always
	     try to skip over the bad block(s) and continue.

     Complains if it gets a read error.  If -y has been specified, or the user responds 'y',
     restore will attempt to continue the restore.

     If a backup was made using more than one tape volume, restore will notify the user when it
     is time to mount the next volume.	If the -x or -i flag has been specified, restore will
     also ask which volume the user wishes to mount.  The fastest way to extract a few files is
     to start with the last volume, and work towards the first volume.

     There are numerous consistency checks that can be listed by restore.  Most checks are self-
     explanatory or can ``never happen''.  Common errors are given below.

     Converting to new file system format
	     A dump tape created from the old file system has been loaded.  It is automatically
	     converted to the new file system format.

     <filename>: not found on tape
	     The specified file name was listed in the tape directory, but was not found on the
	     tape.  This is caused by tape read errors while looking for the file, and from using
	     a dump tape created on an active file system.

     expected next file <inumber>, got <inumber>
	     A file that was not listed in the directory showed up.  This can occur when using a
	     dump created on an active file system.

     Incremental dump too low
	     When doing an incremental restore, a dump that was written before the previous
	     incremental dump, or that has too low an incremental level has been loaded.

     Incremental dump too high
	     When doing an incremental restore, a dump that does not begin its coverage where the
	     previous incremental dump left off, or that has too high an incremental level has
	     been loaded.

     Tape read error while restoring <filename>
     Tape read error while skipping over inode <inumber>
     Tape read error while trying to resynchronize
	     A tape (or other media) read error has occurred.  If a file name is specified, its
	     contents are probably partially wrong.  If an inode is being skipped or the tape is
	     trying to resynchronize, no extracted files have been corrupted, though files may
	     not be found on the tape.

     resync restore, skipped <num> blocks
	     After a dump read error, restore may have to resynchronize itself.  This message
	     lists the number of blocks that were skipped over.

     Restore exits with zero status on success.  Tape errors are indicated with an exit code of

     When doing a comparison of files from a dump, an exit code of 2 indicates that some files
     were modified or deleted since the dump was made.

     If the following environment variable exists it will be utilized by restore:

     TAPE    If no -f option was specified, restore will use the device specified via TAPE as the
	     dump device.  TAPE may be of the form "tapename", "host:tapename" or
     TMPDIR  The directory given in TMPDIR will be used instead of /tmp to store temporary files.
     RMT     The environment variable RMT will be used to determine the pathname of the remote
	     rmt(8) program.
     RSH     Restore uses the contents of this variable to determine the name of the remote shell
	     command to use when doing a network restore (rsh, ssh etc.).  If this variable is
	     not set, rcmd(3) will be used, but only root will be able to do a network restore.

     /dev/st0		the default tape drive
     /tmp/rstdir*	file containing directories on the tape
     /tmp/rstmode*	owner, mode, and time stamps for directories
     ./restoresymtable	information passed between incremental restores

     dump(8), mount(8), mke2fs(8), rmt(8)

     Restore can get confused when doing incremental restores from dumps that were made on active
     file systems.

     A level 0 dump must be done after a full restore.	Because restore runs in user code, it has
     no control over inode allocation; thus a full dump must be done to get a new set of directo-
     ries reflecting the new inode numbering, even though the content of the files is unchanged.

     The temporary files /tmp/rstdir* and /tmp/rstmode* are generated with a unique name based on
     the date of the dump and the process ID (see mktemp(3) ), except when -r or -R is used.
     Because -R allows you to restart a -r operation that may have been interrupted, the tempo-
     rary files should be the same across different processes.	In all other cases, the files are
     unique because it is possible to have two different dumps started at the same time, and sep-
     arate operations shouldn't conflict with each other.

     To do a network restore, you have to run restore as root or use a remote shell replacement
     (see RSH variable).  This is due to the previous security history of dump and restore.
     (restore is written to be setuid root, but we are not certain all bugs are gone from the
     restore code - run setuid at your own risk.)

     The dump/restore backup suite was ported to Linux's Second Extended File System by Remy Card
     <card@Linux.EU.Org>. He maintained the initial versions of dump (up and including 0.4b4,
     released in january 1997).

     Starting with 0.4b5, the new maintainer is Stelian Pop

     The dump/restore backup suite is available from

     The restore command appeared in 4.2BSD.

restore 0.4b28				  April 12, 2002			   restore 0.4b28

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