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NETSTAT(8)			    Linux Programmer's Manual			       NETSTAT(8)

       netstat - Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade con-
       nections, and multicast memberships

       netstat	[address_family_options]  [--tcp|-t]   [--udp|-u]   [--raw|-w]	 [--listening|-l]
       [--all|-a]   [--numeric|-n]   [--numeric-hosts][--numeric-ports][--numeric-ports]  [--sym-
       bolic|-N] [--extend|-e[--extend|-e]] [--timers|-o] [--program|-p]  [--verbose|-v]  [--con-
       tinuous|-c] [delay]

       netstat	{--route|-r}  [address_family_options]	[--extend|-e[--extend|-e]] [--verbose|-v]
       [--numeric|-n]	 [--numeric-hosts][--numeric-ports][--numeric-ports]	[--continuous|-c]

       netstat	{--interfaces|-i}  [iface]  [--all|-a]	[--extend|-e[--extend|-e]] [--verbose|-v]
       [--program|-p] [--numeric|-n] [--numeric-hosts][--numeric-ports][--numeric-ports]  [--con-
       tinuous|-c] [delay]

       netstat	{--groups|-g}  [--numeric|-n] [--numeric-hosts][--numeric-ports][--numeric-ports]
       [--continuous|-c] [delay]

       netstat	{--masquerade|-M}   [--extend|-e]   [--numeric|-n]   [--numeric-hosts][--numeric-
       ports][--numeric-ports] [--continuous|-c] [delay]

       netstat {--statistics|-s} [--tcp|-t] [--udp|-u] [--raw|-w] [delay]

       netstat {--version|-V}

       netstat {--help|-h}


       [--protocol={inet,unix,ipx,ax25,netrom,ddp}[,...]]    [--unix|-x]  [--inet|--ip]  [--ax25]
       [--ipx] [--netrom] [--ddp]

       Netstat prints information about the Linux networking subsystem.  The type of  information
       printed is controlled by the first argument, as follows:

       By  default,  netstat  displays	a list of open sockets.  If you don't specify any address
       families, then the active sockets of all configured address families will be printed.

   --route , -r
       Display the kernel routing tables.

   --groups , -g
       Display multicast group membership information for IPv4 and IPv6.

   --interface=iface , -i
       Display a table of all network interfaces, or the specified iface).

   --masquerade , -M
       Display a list of masqueraded connections.

   --statistics , -s
       Display summary statistics for each protocol.

   --verbose , -v
       Tell the user what is going on by being verbose. Especially print some useful  information
       about unconfigured address families.

   --numeric , -n
       Show numerical addresses instead of trying to determine symbolic host, port or user names.

       shows numerical host addresses but does not affect the resolution of port or user names.

       shows numerical port numbers but does not affect the resolution of host or user names.

       shows numerical user IDs but does not affect the resolution of host or port names.

   --protocol=family , -A
       Specifies the address families (perhaps better described as low level protocols) for which
       connections are to be shown.  family is a comma (',') separated	list  of  address  family
       keywords  like  inet, unix, ipx, ax25, netrom, and ddp.	This has the same effect as using
       the --inet, --unix (-x), --ipx, --ax25, --netrom, and --ddp options.

       The address family inet includes raw, udp and tcp protocol sockets.

   -c, --continuous
       This will cause netstat to print the selected information every second continuously.

   -e, --extend
       Display additional information.	Use this option twice for maximum detail.

   -o, --timers
       Include information related to networking timers.

   -p, --program
       Show the PID and name of the program to which each socket belongs.

   -l, --listening
       Show only listening sockets.  (These are omitted by default.)

   -a, --all
       Show both listening and non-listening sockets.  With the --interfaces option, show  inter-
       faces that are not marked

       Print routing information from the FIB.	(This is the default.)

       Print routing information from the route cache.

       Netstat will cycle printing through statistics every delay seconds.  UP.

   Active Internet connections (TCP, UDP, raw)
       The protocol (tcp, udp, raw) used by the socket.

       The count of bytes not copied by the user program connected to this socket.

       The count of bytes not acknowledged by the remote host.

   Local Address
       Address	and port number of the local end of the socket.  Unless the --numeric (-n) option
       is specified, the socket address is resolved to its canonical host name	(FQDN),  and  the
       port number is translated into the corresponding service name.

   Foreign Address
       Address and port number of the remote end of the socket.  Analogous to "Local Address."

       The  state of the socket. Since there are no states in raw mode and usually no states used
       in UDP, this column may be left blank. Normally this can be one of several values:

	      The socket has an established connection.

	      The socket is actively attempting to establish a connection.

	      A connection request has been received from the network.

	      The socket is closed, and the connection is shutting down.

	      Connection is closed, and the socket is waiting for a shutdown from the remote end.

	      The socket is waiting after close to handle packets still in the network.

       CLOSED The socket is not being used.

	      The remote end has shut down, waiting for the socket to close.

	      The remote end has shut down, and the socket is closed.  Waiting	for  acknowledge-

       LISTEN The socket is listening for incoming connections.  Such sockets are not included in
	      the output unless you specify the --listening (-l) or --all (-a) option.

	      Both sockets are shut down but we still don't have all our data sent.

	      The state of the socket is unknown.

       The username or the user id (UID) of the owner of the socket.

   PID/Program name
       Slash-separated pair of the process id (PID) and process name of the process that owns the
       socket.	--program causes this column to be included.  You will also need superuser privi-
       leges to see this information on sockets you don't own.	This  identification  information
       is not yet available for IPX sockets.

       (this needs to be written)

   Active UNIX domain Sockets
       The protocol (usually unix) used by the socket.

       The reference count (i.e. attached processes via this socket).

       The  flags displayed is SO_ACCEPTON (displayed as ACC), SO_WAITDATA (W) or SO_NOSPACE (N).
       SO_ACCECPTON is used on unconnected sockets if their corresponding processes  are  waiting
       for a connect request. The other flags are not of normal interest.

       There are several types of socket access:

	      The socket is used in Datagram (connectionless) mode.

	      This is a stream (connection) socket.

	      The socket is used as a raw socket.

	      This one serves reliably-delivered messages.

	      This is a sequential packet socket.

	      Raw interface access socket.

	      Who ever knows what the future will bring us - just fill in here :-)

       This field will contain one of the following Keywords:

       FREE   The socket is not allocated

	      The  socket  is listening for a connection request.  Such sockets are only included
	      in the output if you specify the --listening (-l) or --all (-a) option.

	      The socket is about to establish a connection.

	      The socket is connected.

	      The socket is disconnecting.

	      The socket is not connected to another one.

	      This state should never happen.

   PID/Program name
       Process ID (PID) and process name of the process that has  the  socket  open.   More  info
       available in Active Internet connections section written above.

       This is the path name as which the corresponding processes attached to the socket.

   Active IPX sockets
       (this needs to be done by somebody who knows it)

   Active NET/ROM sockets
       (this needs to be done by somebody who knows it)

   Active AX.25 sockets
       (this needs to be done by somebody who knows it)

       Starting  with  Linux  release 2.2 netstat -i does not show interface statistics for alias
       interfaces. To get per alias interface counters you need to setup explicit rules using the
       ipchains(8) command.

       /etc/services -- The services translation file

       /proc -- Mount point for the proc filesystem, which gives access to kernel status informa-
       tion via the following files.

       /proc/net/dev -- device information

       /proc/net/raw -- raw socket information

       /proc/net/tcp -- TCP socket information

       /proc/net/udp -- UDP socket information

       /proc/net/igmp -- IGMP multicast information

       /proc/net/unix -- Unix domain socket information

       /proc/net/ipx -- IPX socket information

       /proc/net/ax25 -- AX25 socket information

       /proc/net/appletalk -- DDP (appletalk) socket information

       /proc/net/nr -- NET/ROM socket information

       /proc/net/route -- IP routing information

       /proc/net/ax25_route -- AX25 routing information

       /proc/net/ipx_route -- IPX routing information

       /proc/net/nr_nodes -- NET/ROM nodelist

       /proc/net/nr_neigh -- NET/ROM neighbours

       /proc/net/ip_masquerade -- masqueraded connections

       /proc/net/snmp -- statistics

       route(8), ifconfig(8), ipchains(8), iptables(8), proc(5)

       Occasionally strange information may appear if a socket changes as it is viewed.  This  is
       unlikely to occur.

       The  netstat  user  interface  was written by Fred Baumgarten <dc6iq@insu1.etec.uni-karls-
       ruhe.de> the man page basically by Matt Welsh <mdw@tc.cornell.edu>. It was updated by Alan
       Cox  <Alan.Cox@linux.org> but could do with a bit more work.  It was updated again by Tuan
       Hoang <tqhoang@bigfoot.com>.
       The man page and the command included in the net-tools package  is  totally  rewritten  by
       Bernd Eckenfels <ecki@linux.de>.

net-tools				 19 December 2000			       NETSTAT(8)
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