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MAKEDEV(8)			    Linux Programmer's Manual			       MAKEDEV(8)

       MAKEDEV - create devices

       cd dev; ./MAKEDEV -V
       cd  dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -d directory ] [ -c configdir ] [ -m maxdevices ] [-n] [-v] [-i] [-M]
       [-S]  device ...

       MAKEDEV is a program that will create the devices in /dev used to interface  with  drivers
       in the kernel.

       Note  that  programs giving the error ``ENOENT: No such file or directory'' normally means
       that the device file is missing, whereas ``ENODEV: No such  device''  normally  means  the
       kernel does not have the driver configured or loaded.

       -V     Print out version and exit.

       -n     Do not actually update the devices, just print the actions that would be performed.

       -M     Create  symlinks, directories, and sockets belonging to the current user, and print
	      out the list of devices which would be created in a format which is  understood  by

       -S     Do  not actually update the devices, just print the actions that would be performed
	      in a format which can be fed to a shell.

       -d directory
	      Create the devices under directory instead of the default (usually /dev).

       -v     Be verbose.  Print out the actions as they are performed.  This is the same  output
	      as produced by the -n option.

       -i     Ignore errors parsing configuration files.

       Since  there  is  currently no standardization in what names are used for system users and
       groups, it is possible that you may  need  to  modify  MAKEDEV's  configuration	files  to
       reflect your site's settings.

       Certain devices are required for minimal functionality.	These are:
	      mem  -  access  to  physical memory; kmem - access to kernel virtual memory; null -
	      null device (infinite sink); port - access to I/O ports; zero -  null  byte  source
	      (infinite  source);  core  -  symlink to /proc/kcore (for kernel debugging); full -
	      always returns ENOSPACE on write; ram - ramdisk; tty - to  access  the  controlling
	      tty of a process.

       Virtual Terminals

	      This creates the devices associated with the console.  These are the virtual termi-
	      nals ttyx, where x can be from 0 though 63.   The  device  tty0  is  the	currently
	      active  VT, and is also known as console.  For each VT, there are two devices: vcsx
	      and vcsax, which can be used to generate screen-dumps of the VT (vcsx is	just  the
	      text, and vcsax includes the attributes).

       Serial Devices

	      Serial ports.

       Pseudo Terminals

	      Each  possible  argument will create a bank of 16 master and slave pairs.  The cur-
	      rent kernel (1.2) is limited to 64 such pairs.   The  master  pseudo-terminals  are
	      pty[p-s][0-9a-f], and the slaves are tty[p-s][0-9a-f].

       Parallel Ports

       lp     Standard parallel ports.	The devices are created lp0, lp1, and lp2.

       Bus Mice

	      The  various bus mice devices.  This creates the following devices: logimouse (Log-
	      itech bus mouse), psmouse (PS/2-style mouse), msmouse (Microsoft Inport bus  mouse)
	      and atimouse (ATI XL bus mouse) and jmouse (J-mouse).

       Joystick Devices

       js     Joystick.  Creates js0 and js1.

       Disk Devices

	      Floppy  disk  devices.   The device fdx is the device which autodetects the format,
	      and the additional devices are fixed format (whose size is indicated in the  name).
	      The  other  devices are named as fdxLn.  The single letter L identifies the type of
	      floppy disk (d = 5.25" DD, h = 5.25" HD, D = 3.5" DD, H = 3.5" HD, E  =  3.5"  ED).
	      The  number  n represents the capacity of that format in K.  Thus the standard for-
	      mats are fdxd360, fdxh1200, fdxD720, fdxH1440, and fdxE2880.

	      For more information see Alain Knaff's fdutils package.

	      Devices fd0* through fd3* are floppy disks on the  first	controller,  and  devices
	      fd4* through fd7* are floppy disks on the second controller.

	      AT  hard	disks.	The device hdx provides access to the whole disk, with the parti-
	      tions being hdx[0-20].  The four primary partitions are hdx1 through hdx4, with the
	      logical partitions being numbered from hdx5 though hdx20.  (A primary partition can
	      be made into an extended partition, which  can  hold  4  logical	partitions).   By
	      default,	only  the  devices  for 4 logical partitions are made.	The others can be
	      made by uncommenting them.

	      Drives hda and hdb are the two on the first  controller.	 If  using  the  new  IDE
	      driver  (rather than the old HD driver), then hdc and hdd are the two drives on the
	      secondary controller.  These devices can also be used to acess IDE CDROMs if  using
	      the new IDE driver.

	      XT hard disks.  Partitions are the same as IDE disks.

       sd[a-z], sd[a-c][a-z], sdd[a-x]
	      SCSI hard disks.	The partitions are similar to the IDE disks, but there is a limit
	      of 11 logical partitions (sdx5 through sdx15).  This is to allow there  to  be  128
	      SCSI disks.

       loop   Loopback	disk  devices.	 These allow you to use a regular file as a block device.
	      This means that images of filesystems can be mounted, and  used  as  normal.   This
	      creates 16 devices loop0 through loop15.

       Tape Devices

	      SCSI  tapes.  This creates the rewinding tape device stx and the non-rewinding tape
	      device nstx.

       qic    QIC-80 tapes.  The devices created are rmt8, rmt16, tape-d, and tape-reset.

       ftape  Floppy driver tapes (QIC-117).  There are 4 methods  of  access  depending  on  the
	      floppy  tape  drive.   For  each	of access methods 0, 1, 2 and 3, the devices rftx
	      (rewinding) and nrftx (non-rewinding)  are  created.   For  compatability,  devices
	      ftape and nftape are symlinks to rft0 and nrft0 respectively.

       CDROM Devices

	      SCSI CD players.

       sonycd Sony CDU-31A CD player.

       mcd    Mitsumi CD player.

       cdu535 Sony CDU-535 CD player.

       lmscd  LMS/Philips CD player.

	      Sound  Blaster  CD  player.  The kernel is capable of supporting 16 CDROMs, each of
	      which is accessed as sbpcd[0-9a-f].  These are assigned in groups of 4 to each con-
	      troller.	sbpcd is a symlink to sbpcd0.


	      Logitech ScanMan32 & ScanMan 256.

	      Mustek M105 Handscanner.

       ac4096 A4Tek Color Handscanner.


       sound  This  creates  the  audio  devices  used by the sound driver.  These include mixer,
	      sequencer, dsp, and audio.


       sg     Generic SCSI devices.  The devices created are sga through sgh and sg0 through sg7.
	      These  allow  arbitary  commands	to  be	sent to any SCSI device.  This allows for
	      querying information about the device, or controlling SCSI devices that are not one
	      of disk, tape or CDROM (e.g. scanner, CD-R, CD-RW).

       fd     To  allow an arbitary program to be fed input from file descriptor x, use /dev/fd/x
	      as the file name.  This also  creates  /dev/stdin,  /dev/stdout,	and  /dev/stderr.
	      (Note, these are just symlinks into /proc/self/fd).

       ibcs2  Devices (and symlinks) needed by the IBCS2 emulation.

       apm    Devices for power management.

       Network Devices
	      Linux  used to have devices in /dev for controlling network devices, but that is no
	      longer the case.	To see what network devices are known  by  the	kernel,  look  in

       Other Devices
	      Note  that  the  list  of devices above is not exhaustive.  MAKEDEV can create more
	      devices nodes.  Its  aim	is  to	be  able  to  create  everything  listed  in  the
	      devices.txt file distributed with Linux 2.4.

       MAKEDEV	doesn't  actually  know  anything about devices.  It reads all of the information
       from files stored in /etc/makedev.d.  MAKEDEV will read any and all files in the subdirec-
       tory, processing lines in them like so:

	      [b|c] mode owner group major minor inc count fmt [base]
	      count  devices will be created, with permissions set to mode and owned by owner and
	      group.  The first device will be named fmt, and additional devices will be  created
	      if count is larger than 1.  If fmt contains a C-style formatting string, it will be
	      filled with the sum of base and zero.  Subsequent devices will be filled	with  the
	      sum  of base and n * inc, where n is the order this device is being created in.  If
	      the format string did not already include a format specifier, a "%d" will automati-
	      cally be appended to it to make this work.

       symbolic links
	      l linkname target
	      A symbolic link pointing to target named linkname will be created.

	      a alias value
	      Any  commands that create devices for alias will also include devices that would be
	      crated for value.

       Linux Allocated Devices, maintained by H. Peter Anvin, <Peter.Anvin@linux.org>.

       Let's hope not.	If we're lucky, any problems we'll find will be confined to the  configu-
       ration files, which were written by examining the devices.txt file.

       Nalin Dahyabhai, based largely on work done by Nick Holloway and Michael K. Johnson.

Linux					   26 June 2001 			       MAKEDEV(8)
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