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HIER(7) 			    Linux Programmer's Manual				  HIER(7)

       hier - Description of the file system hierarchy

       A typical Linux system has, among others, the following directories:

       /      This is the root directory.  This is where the whole tree starts.

       /bin   This  directory  contains  executable programs which are needed in single user mode
	      and to bring the system up or repair it.

       /boot  Contains static files for the boot loader.  This directory  only	holds  the  files
	      which  are  needed  during  the  boot process.  The map installer and configuration
	      files should go to /sbin and /etc.

       /dev   Special or device files, which refer to physical devices.  See mknod(1).

       /dos   If both MS-DOS and Linux are run on one computer, this is a typical place to  mount
	      a DOS file system.

       /etc   Contains	configuration files which are local to the machine.  Some larger software
	      packages, like X11, can have their own subdirectories below /etc.   Site-wide  con-
	      figuration  files may be placed here or in /usr/etc.  Nevertheless, programs should
	      always look for these files in /etc and you may  have  links  for  these	files  to

	      Host-specific configuration files for add-on applications installed in /opt.

	      This directory contains the configuration files for SGML and XML (optional).

	      When  a  new  user account is created, files from this directory are usually copied
	      into the user's home directory.

	      Configuration files for the X11 window system (optional).

       /home  On machines with home directories for users, these are usually beneath this  direc-
	      tory,  directly  or not.	The structure of this directory depends on local adminis-
	      tration decisions.

       /lib   This directory should hold those shared libraries that are necessary  to	boot  the
	      system and to run the commands in the root filesystem.

       /mnt   This directory contains mount points for temporarily mounted filesystems

       /opt   This directory should contain add-on packages that contain static files.

       /proc  This  is	a  mount  point for the proc filesystem, which provides information about
	      running processes and the kernel.  This pseudo-file system  is  described  in  more
	      detail in proc(5).

       /root  This directory is usually the home directory for the root user (optional).

       /sbin  Like  /bin,  this directory holds commands needed to boot the system, but which are
	      usually not executed by normal users.

       /tmp   This directory contains temporary files which may be deleted with no  notice,  such
	      as by a regular job or at system boot up.

       /usr   This  directory  is usually mounted from a separate partition.  It should hold only
	      sharable, read-only data, so that it can be mounted  by  various	machines  running

	      The X-Window system, version 11 release 6 (optional).

	      Binaries which belong to the X-Windows system; often, there is a symbolic link from
	      the more traditional /usr/bin/X11 to here.

	      Data files associated with the X-Windows system.

	      These contain miscellaneous files needed to run X;  Often, there is a symbolic link
	      from /usr/lib/X11 to this directory.

	      Contains	include  files needed for compiling programs using the X11 window system.
	      Often, there is a symbolic link from /usr/inlcude/X11 to this directory.

	      This is the primary directory for executable programs.  Most programs  executed  by
	      normal users which are not needed for booting or for repairing the system and which
	      are not installed locally should be placed in this directory.

	      is the traditional place to look for X11 executables; on Linux,  it  usually  is	a
	      symbolic link to /usr/X11R6/bin.

	      Replaced by /usr/share/dict.

	      Replaced by /usr/share/doc.

	      Site-wide  configuration	files to be shared between several machines may be stored
	      in this directory.  However, commands should always reference those files using the
	      /etc  directory.	Links from files in /etc should point to the appropriate files in

	      Binaries for games and educational programs (optional).

	      Include files for the C compiler.

	      Include files for the C compiler and the X-Windows system.  This is usually a  sym-
	      bolic link to /usr/X11R6/include/X11.

	      Include  files  which declare some assembler functions.  This used to be a symbolic
	      link to /usr/src/linux/include/asm.

	      This contains information which may change from system release  to  system  release
	      and  used to be a symbolic link to /usr/src/linux/include/linux to get at operating
	      system specific information.

	      (Note that one should have include files there that work correctly with the current
	      libc  and  in  user  space. However, Linux kernel source is not designed to be used
	      with user programs and does not know anything about the libc you are using.  It  is
	      very   likely   that   things   will   break   if   you  let  /usr/include/asm  and
	      /usr/include/linux point at a random kernel tree. Debian systems don't do this  and
	      use headers from a known good kernel version, provided in the libc*-dev package.)

	      Include files to use with the GNU C++ compiler.

	      Object  libraries, including dynamic libraries, plus some executables which usually
	      are not invoked directly.  More complicated programs may have whole  subdirectories

	      The  usual place for data files associated with X programs, and configuration files
	      for  the	X  system  itself.   On  Linux,  it  usually  is  a  symbolic	link   to

	      contains executables and include files for the GNU C compiler, gcc(1).

	      Files for the GNU groff document formatting system.

	      Files for uucp(1).

	      This is where programs which are local to the site typically go.

	      Binaries for programs local to the site.

	      Local documentation.

	      Configuration files associated with locally installed programs.

	      Binaries for locally installed games.

	      Files associated with locally installed programs.

	      Header files for the local C compiler.

	      Info pages associated with locally installed programs.

	      Man pages associated with locally installed programs.

	      Locally installed programs for system administration.

	      Local application data that can be shared among different architectures of the same

	      Source code for locally installed software.

	      Replaced by /usr/share/man.

	      This directory contains program binaries for system administration  which  are  not
	      essential for the boot process, for mounting /usr, or for system repair.

	      This  directory contains subdirectories with specific application data, that can be
	      shared among different architectures of the same OS.  Often one  finds  stuff  here
	      that used to live in /usr/doc or /usr/lib or /usr/man.

	      Contains the word lists used by spell checkers.

	      Documentation about installed programs.

	      Static data files for games in /usr/games.

	      Info pages go here.

	      Locale information goes here.

	      Manpages go here in subdirectories according to the man page sections.

	      These directories contain manual pages for the specific locale in source code form.
	      Systems which use a unique language and code set for all manual pages may omit  the
	      <locale> substring.

	      Miscellaneous data that can be shared among different architectures of the same OS.

	      The message catalogs for native language support go here.

	      Files for SGML and XML.

	      The datebase for terminfo.

	      Troff macros that are not distributed with groff.

	      Files for timezone information.

	      Source  files  for  different  parts of the system, included with some packages for
	      reference purposes. Don't work here with your own projects,  as  files  below  /usr
	      should be read-only except when installing software.

	      This  was the traditional place for the kernel source.  Some distributions put here
	      the source for the default kernel they  ship.   You  should  probably  use  another
	      directory when building your own kernel.

	      Obsolete. This should be a link to /var/tmp.  This link is present only for compat-
	      ibility reasons and shouldn't be used.

       /var   This directory contains files which may change in  size,	such  as  spool  and  log

	      This directory is superseded by /var/log and should be a symbolic link to /var/log.

	      Reserved for historical reasons.

	      Data cached for programs.

       /var/catman/cat[1-9] or /var/cache/man/cat[1-9]
	      These  directories  contain  preformatted  manual pages according to their man page
	      section. (The use of preformatted manual pages is deprecated.)

	      Reserved for historical reasons.

	      Variable state information for programs.

	      Variable data for /usr/local.

	      Lock files are placed in this directory.	The naming  convention	for  device  lock
	      files  is LCK..<device> where <device> is the device's name in the filesystem.  The
	      format used is that of HDU UUCP lock files, i.e. lock files  contain  a  PID  as	a
	      10-byte ASCII decimal number, followed by a newline character.

	      Miscellaneous log files.

	      Variable data for /opt.

	      Users' mailboxes. Replaces /var/spool/mail.

	      Reserved for historical reasons.

	      Reserved for historical reasons.

	      Run-time	variable  files, like files holding process identifiers (PIDs) and logged
	      user information (utmp).	Files in this directory are usually cleared when the sys-
	      tem boots.

	      Spooled (or queued) files for various programs.

	      Spooled jobs for at(1).

	      Spooled jobs for cron(1).

	      Spooled files for printing.

	      Replaced by /var/mail.

	      Queued outgoing mail.

	      Spool directory for news.

	      Spooled files for rwhod(8).

	      Spooled files for the smail(1) mail delivery program.

	      Spool directory for the news subsystem.

	      Spooled files for uucp(1).

	      Like /tmp, this directory holds temporary files stored for an unspecified duration.

	      Database files for NIS.

       The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard, Version 2.2 <http://www.pathname.com/fhs/>

       This list is not exhaustive; different systems may be configured differently.

       find(1), ln(1), mount(1), proc(5), The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

Linux					    2001-09-07					  HIER(7)
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