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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for groff_ms (redhat section 7)

GROFF_MS(7)			 Miscellaneous Information Manual		      GROFF_MS(7)

       groff_ms - groff ms macros

       groff -ms [ options... ] [ files... ]
       groff -m ms [ options... ] [ files... ]

       This manual page describes the GNU version of the ms macros, part of the groff typesetting
       system.	The ms macros are mostly compatible with the documented behavior of the  4.3  BSD
       Unix ms macros (see Differences from troff ms below for details).  The ms macros are suit-
       able for reports, letters, books, and technical documentation.

       The ms macro package expects files to have a certain amount of  structure.   The  simplest
       documents  can  begin  with  a  paragraph macro and consist of text separated by paragraph
       macros or even blank lines.  Longer documents have a structure as follows:

       Document type
	      If you use the RP (report) macro at the beginning of the document, groff prints the
	      cover  page information on its own page; otherwise it prints the information on the
	      first page with your document text immediately following.  Other	document  formats
	      found  in  AT&T  troff  are  specific to AT&T or Berkeley, and are not supported in
	      groff ms.

       Format and layout
	      By setting number registers, you can change your document's type (font  and  size),
	      margins,	spacing, headers and footers, and footnotes.  See Document control regis-
	      ters below for more details.

       Cover page
	      A cover page consists of a title, and optionally the author's name and institution,
	      an abstract, and the date.  See Cover page macros below for more details.

       Body   Following  the  cover  page is your document.  It consists of paragraphs, headings,
	      and lists.

       Table of contents
	      Longer documents usually include a table of contents, which you can add by  placing
	      the TC macro at the end of your document.

   Document control registers
       The  following table lists the document control number registers.  For the sake of consis-
       tency, set registers related to margins at the beginning of your document, or  just  after
       the RP macro.

       Margin settings

	      Reg.	     Definition 	  Effective    Default
	       PO     Page offset (left margin)   next page    1i
	       LL     Line length		  next para.   6i
	       LT     Header/footer length	  next para.   6i
	       HM     Top (header) margin	  next page    1i
	       FM     Bottom (footer) margin	  next page    1i

       Text settings

	      Reg.	    Definition	       Effective    Default
	       PS     Point size	       next para.   10p
	       VS     Line spacing (leading)   next para.   12p

       Paragraph settings

	      Reg.	    Definition		Effective    Default
	       PI    Initial indent		next para.   5n
	       PD    Space between paragraphs	next para.   0.3v
	       QI    Quoted paragraph indent	next para.   5n

       Footnote settings

	      Reg.     Definition	 Effective     Default
	       FL    Footnote length   next footnote   LL*5/6
	       FI    Footnote indent   next footnote   2n
	       FF    Footnote format   next footnote   0

       Other settings

	       Reg.		 Definition		Effective   Default
	       MINGW	Minimum width between columns	next page   2n

   Cover page macros
       Use the following macros to create a cover page for your document in the order shown.

       .RP [no]
	      Specifies  the  report format for your document.	The report format creates a sepa-
	      rate cover page.	With no RP macro, groff prints a subset  of  the  cover  page  on
	      page 1 of your document.

	      If  you use the optional no argument, groff prints a title page but does not repeat
	      any of the title page information (title, author, abstract, etc.) on page 1 of  the

       .P1    (P-one) Prints the header on page 1.  The default is to suppress the header.

       .DA [xxx]
	      (optional)  Print  the  current  date, or the arguments to the macro if any, on the
	      title page (if specified) and in the footers.  This is the default for nroff.

       .ND [xxx]
	      (optional) Print the current date, or the arguments to the macro	if  any,  on  the
	      title page (if specified) but not in the footers.  This is the default for troff.

       .TL    Specifies  the document title.  Groff collects text following the TL macro into the
	      title, until reaching the author name or abstract.

       .AU    Specifies the author's name.  You can specify multiple authors by using an AU macro
	      for each author.

       .AI    Specifies the author's institution.  You can specify multiple institutions.

       .AB [no]
	      Begins  the  abstract.   The default is to print the word ABSTRACT, centered and in
	      italics, above the text of the abstract.	The option no suppresses this heading.

       .AE    End the abstract.

       Use the PP macro to create indented paragraphs, and the LP macro to create paragraphs with
       no initial indent.

       The  QP macro indents all text at both left and right margins.  The effect is identical to
       the HTML <BLOCKQUOTE> element.  The next paragraph or heading returns margins to normal.

       The XP macro produces an exdented paragraph.  The first line of the  paragraph  begins  at
       the left margin, and subsequent lines are indented (the opposite of PP).

       Use  headings  to  create a hierarchical structure for your document.  The ms macros print
       headings in bold using the same font family and point size as the body text.

       The following heading macros are available:

       .NH xx Numbered heading.  The argument xx is either a numeric  argument	to  indicate  the
	      level  of  the heading, or S xx xx "..."	to set the section number explicitly.  If
	      you specify heading levels out of sequence, such as  invoking  .NH 3  after  .NH 1,
	      groff prints a warning on standard error.

       .SH    Unnumbered subheading.

       The ms macros provide a variety of methods to highlight or emphasize text:

       .B [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets  its  first	argument  in  bold type.  If you specify a second argument, groff
	      prints it in the previous font after the bold text, with no intervening space (this
	      allows  you  to set punctuation after the highlighted text without highlighting the
	      punctuation).  Similarly, it prints the third argument (if  any)	in  the  previous
	      font before the first argument.  For example,

		     .B foo ) (

	      prints (foo).

	      If  you give this macro no arguments, groff prints all text following in bold until
	      the next highlighting, paragraph, or heading macro.

       .R [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in roman (or regular) type.  It operates similarly to the B
	      macro otherwise.

       .I [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets  its first argument in italic type.	It operates similarly to the B macro oth-

       .CW [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in a constant width face.  It operates similarly to  the	B
	      macro otherwise.

       .BI [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets  its first argument in bold italic type.  It operates similarly to the B macro

       .BX [txt]
	      Prints its argument and draws a box around it.  If you want to box  a  string  that
	      contains spaces, use a digit-width space (\0).

       .UL [txt [post]]
	      Prints  its  first  argument  with an underline.	If you specify a second argument,
	      groff prints it in the previous font after the underlined text, with no intervening

       .LG    Prints  all  text  following in larger type (2 points larger than the current point
	      size) until the next font size, highlighting, paragraph, or heading macro.  You can
	      specify this macro multiple times to enlarge the point size as needed.

       .SM    Prints  all text following in smaller type (2 points smaller than the current point
	      size) until the next type size, highlighting, paragraph, or heading macro.  You can
	      specify this macro multiple times to reduce the point size as needed.

       .NL    Prints  all  text  following in the normal point size (that is, the value of the PS

	      Print the enclosed text as a superscript.

       You may need to indent sections of text.  A typical use for indents is  to  create  nested
       lists and sublists.

       Use  the  RS and RE macros to start and end a section of indented text, respectively.  The
       PI register controls the amount of indent.

       You can nest indented sections as deeply as needed by using multiple, nested pairs  of  RS
       and RE.

       The IP macro handles duties for all lists.  Its syntax is as follows:

       .IP [marker [width]]

	      The  marker  is  usually	a bullet character \(bu for unordered lists, a number (or
	      auto-incrementing number register) for numbered lists, or  a  word  or  phrase  for
	      indented (glossary-style) lists.

	      The width specifies the indent for the body of each list item.  Once specified, the
	      indent remains the same for all list items in the document until specified again.

   Tab stops
       Use the ta request to set tab stops as needed.  Use the TA macro  to  reset  tabs  to  the
       default	(every	5n).   You can redefine the TA macro to create a different set of default
       tab stops.

   Displays and keeps
       Use displays to show text-based examples or figures (such  as  code  listings).	 Displays
       turn off filling, so lines of code can be displayed as-is without inserting br requests in
       between each line.  Displays can be kept on a single page,  or  allowed	to  break  across
       pages.  The following table shows the display types available.

		   Display macro		  Type of display
		With keep      No keep
	      .DS L	       .LD	 Left-justified.
	      .DS I [indent]   .ID	 Indented (default indent in the DI
	      .DS B	       .BD	 Block-centered (left-justified,
					 longest line centered).
	      .DS C	       .CD	 Centered.
	      .DS R	       .RD	 Right-justified.

       Use the DE macro to end any display type.

       To  keep  text together on a page, such as a paragraph that refers to a table (or list, or
       other item) immediately following, use the KS and KE macros.  The KS macro begins a  block
       of text to be kept on a single page, and the KE macro ends the block.

       You can specify a floating keep using the KF and KE macros.  If the keep cannot fit on the
       current page, groff holds the contents of the keep and allows text following the keep  (in
       the  source  file)  to  fill  in the remainder of the current page.  When the page breaks,
       whether by an explicit bp request or by reaching the end of the	page,  groff  prints  the
       floating  keep  at the top of the new page.  This is useful for printing large graphics or
       tables that do not need to appear exactly where specified.

   Tables, figures, equations, and references
       The -ms macros support the standard groff preprocessors: tbl, pic, eqn, and  refer.   Mark
       text meant for preprocessors by enclosing it in pairs of tags as follows:

       .TS [H] and .TE
	      Denotes  a table, to be processed by the tbl preprocessor.  The optional H argument
	      instructs groff to create a running header with the information up to the TH macro.
	      Groff  prints  the  header  at  the  beginning of the table; if the table runs onto
	      another page, groff prints the header on the next page as well.

       .PS and .PE
	      Denotes a graphic, to be processed by the pic preprocessor.  You can create  a  pic
	      file  by hand, using the AT&T pic manual available on the Web as a reference, or by
	      using a graphics program such as xfig.

       .EQ [align] and .EN
	      Denotes an equation, to be processed by the eqn preprocessor.  The  optional  align
	      argument	can  be  C,  L, or I to center (the default), left-justify, or indent the

       .[ and .]
	      Denotes a reference, to be processed by the refer preprocessor.  The  GNU  refer(1)
	      manual  page  provides a comprehensive reference to the preprocessor and the format
	      of the bibliographic database.

       The ms macros provide a flexible footnote system.  You can specify a numbered footnote  by
       using the \** escape, followed by the text of the footnote enclosed by FS and FE macros.

       You  can  specify  symbolic  footnotes by placing the mark character (such as \(dg for the
       dagger character) in the body text, followed by the  text  of  the  footnote  enclosed  by
       FS \(dg and FE macros.

       You can control how groff prints footnote numbers by changing the value of the FF register
       as follows:

	      0      Prints the footnote number as a superscript; indents the footnote (default).

	      1      Prints the number followed by a period (like 1.) and indents the footnote.

	      2      Like 1, without an indent.

	      3      Like 1, but prints the footnote number as a hanging paragraph.

       You can use footnotes safely within keeps and displays, but avoid using numbered footnotes
       within  floating keeps.	You can set a second \** between a \** and its corresponding .FS;
       as long as each .FS occurs after the corresponding \** and the occurrences of .FS  are  in
       the same order as the corresponding occurrences of \**.

   Headers and footers
       There are two ways to define headers and footers:

       o  Use  the strings LH, CH, and RH to set the left, center, and right headers; use LF, CF,
	  and RF to set the left, center, and right footers.  This works best for documents  that
	  do not distinguish between odd and even pages.

       o  Use  the  OH	and EH macros to define headers for the odd and even pages; and OF and EF
	  macros to define footers for the odd and even pages.	This is more flexible than defin-
	  ing the individual strings.  The syntax for these macros is as follows:

		 .OH 'left'center'right'

	  You  can  replace the quote (') marks with any character not appearing in the header or
	  footer text.

       You control margins using a set of number registers.  The following table lists the regis-
       ter names and defaults:

	      Reg.	     Definition 	  Effective    Default
	       PO     Page offset (left margin)   next page    1i
	       LL     Line length		  next para.   6i
	       LT     Header/footer length	  next para.   6i
	       HM     Top (header) margin	  next page    1i
	       FM     Bottom (footer) margin	  next page    1i

       Note  that  there  is  no  right  margin setting.  The combination of page offset and line
       length provide the information necessary to derive the right margin.

   Multiple columns
       The ms macros can set text in as many columns as will reasonably fit  on  the  page.   The
       following  macros are available.  All of them force a page break if a multi-column mode is
       already set.  However, if the current mode is single-column, starting a multi-column  mode
       does not force a page break.

       .1C    Single-column mode.

       .2C    Two-column mode.

       .MC [width [gutter]]
	      Multi-column  mode.  If you specify no arguments, it is equivalent to the 2C macro.
	      Otherwise, width is the width of each column and gutter is the space  between  col-
	      umns.  The MINGW number register is the default gutter width.

   Creating a table of contents
       Wrap  text  that you want to appear in the table of contents in XS and XE macros.  Use the
       TC macro to print the table of contents at the end of the  document,  resetting	the  page
       number to i (Roman numeral 1).

       You can manually create a table of contents by specifying a page number as the first argu-
       ment to XS.  Add subsequent entries using the XA macro.	For example:

	      .XS 1
	      .XA 2
	      A Brief History of the Universe
	      .XA 729
	      Details of Galactic Formation

       Use the PX macro to print a manually-generated table of	contents  without  resetting  the
       page number.

       If you give the argument no to either PX or TC, groff suppresses printing the title speci-
       fied by the \*[TOC] string.

       The groff ms macros are a complete re-implementation, using no original AT&T code.   Since
       they  take  advantage  of  the  extended  features in groff, they cannot be used with AT&T
       troff.  Other differences include:

       o  The internals of groff ms differ from the internals of Unix ms.  Documents that  depend
	  upon implementation details of Unix ms may not format properly with groff ms.

       o  The  error-handling  policy  of  groff  ms  is to detect and report errors, rather than
	  silently to ignore them.

       o  Bell Labs localisms are not implemented.

       o  Berkeley localisms, in particular the TM and CT macros, are not implemented.

       o  Groff ms does not work in compatibility mode (e.g. with the -C option).

       o  There is no support for typewriter-like devices.

       o  Groff ms does not provide cut marks.

       o  Multiple line spacing is not supported (use a larger vertical spacing instead).

       o  Some Unix ms documentation says that the CW and GW number registers can be used to con-
	  trol	the  column  width and gutter width respectively.  These number registers are not
	  used in groff ms.

       o  Macros that cause a reset (paragraphs, headings, etc.)  may change the indent.   Macros
	  that	change	the  indent  do  not increment or decrement the indent, but rather set it
	  absolutely.  This can cause problems for documents that  define  additional  macros  of
	  their own.  The solution is to use not the in request but instead the RS and RE macros.

       o  The  number register GS is set to 1 by the groff ms macros, but is not used by the Unix
	  ms macros.  Documents that need to determine whether they are being formatted with Unix
	  ms or groff ms should use this number register.

       You  can  redefine  the	following strings to adapt the groff ms macros to languages other
       than English:

				       String	     Default Value
				     REFERENCES    References
				     TOC	   Table of Contents
				     MONTH1	   January
				     MONTH2	   February
				     MONTH3	   March
				     MONTH4	   April
				     MONTH5	   May
				     MONTH6	   June
				     MONTH7	   July
				     MONTH8	   August
				     MONTH9	   September
				     MONTH10	   October
				     MONTH11	   November

				     MONTH12	   December

       The \*- string produces an em dash -- like this.

   Text Settings
       The FAM string sets the default font family.  If this string is undefined  at  initializa-
       tion, it is set to Times.

       The point size, vertical spacing, and inter-paragraph spacing for footnotes are controlled
       by the number registers FPS, FVS, and FPD; at initialization these  are	set  to  \n(PS-2,
       \n[FPS]+2,  and	\n(PD/2  respectively.	If any of these registers are defined before ini-
       tialization, the initialization macro does not change them.

       The hyphenation flags (as set by the hy request) are set from the HY register; the default
       is 14.

       Improved  accent  marks	(as originally defined in Berkeley's ms version) are available by
       specifying the AM macro at the beginning of your document.  You can place an  accent  over
       most characters by specifying the string defining the accent directly after the character.
       For example, n\*~ produces an n with a tilde over it.

       The following conventions are used for names of	macros,  strings  and  number  registers.
       External  names available to documents that use the groff ms macros contain only uppercase
       letters and digits.

       Internally the macros are divided into modules; naming conventions are as follows:

       o  Names used only within one module are of the form module*name.

       o  Names used outside the module in which they are defined are of the form module@name.

       o  Names associated with a particular environment are of the form environment:name;  these
	  are used only within the par module.

       o  name does not have a module prefix.

       o  Constructed names used to implement arrays are of the form array!index.

       Thus the groff ms macros reserve the following names:

       o  Names containing the characters *, @, and :.

       o  Names containing only uppercase letters and digits.

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/ms.tmac (a wrapper file for s.tmac)

       groff(1),  troff(1),  tbl(1),  pic(1),  eqn(1), refer(1), Groff: The GNU Implementation of
       troff by Trent Fisher and Werner Lemberg.

       Original  manual  page  by  James  Clark  et  al;  rewritten  by   Larry   Kollar   (lkol-

Groff Version 1.18.1			  09 March 2002 			      GROFF_MS(7)

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