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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for test::harness (redhat section 3pm)

Test::Harness(3pm)		 Perl Programmers Reference Guide	       Test::Harness(3pm)

NAME
       Test::Harness - run perl standard test scripts with statistics

SYNOPSIS
	 use Test::Harness;

	 runtests(@test_files);

DESCRIPTION
       STOP! If all you want to do is write a test script, consider using Test::Simple.  Other-
       wise, read on.

       (By using the Test module, you can write test scripts without knowing the exact output
       this module expects.  However, if you need to know the specifics, read on!)

       Perl test scripts print to standard output "ok N" for each single test, where "N" is an
       increasing sequence of integers. The first line output by a standard test script is "1..M"
       with "M" being the number of tests that should be run within the test script. Test::Har-
       ness::runtests(@tests) runs all the testscripts named as arguments and checks standard
       output for the expected "ok N" strings.

       After all tests have been performed, runtests() prints some performance statistics that
       are computed by the Benchmark module.

       The test script output

       The following explains how Test::Harness interprets the output of your test program.

       '1..M'
	   This header tells how many tests there will be.  For example, 1..10 means you plan on
	   running 10 tests.  This is a safeguard in case your test dies quietly in the middle of
	   its run.

	   It should be the first non-comment line output by your test program.

	   In certain instances, you may not know how many tests you will ultimately be running.
	   In this case, it is permitted for the 1..M header to appear as the last line output by
	   your test (again, it can be followed by further comments).

	   Under no circumstances should 1..M appear in the middle of your output or more than
	   once.

       'ok', 'not ok'.	Ok?
	   Any output from the testscript to standard error is ignored and bypassed, thus will be
	   seen by the user. Lines written to standard output containing "/^(not\s+)?ok\b/" are
	   interpreted as feedback for runtests().  All other lines are discarded.

	   "/^not ok/" indicates a failed test.  "/^ok/" is a successful test.

       test numbers
	   Perl normally expects the 'ok' or 'not ok' to be followed by a test number.	It is
	   tolerated if the test numbers after 'ok' are omitted. In this case Test::Harness main-
	   tains temporarily its own counter until the script supplies test numbers again. So the
	   following test script

	       print <<END;
	       1..6
	       not ok
	       ok
	       not ok
	       ok
	       ok
	       END

	   will generate

	       FAILED tests 1, 3, 6
	       Failed 3/6 tests, 50.00% okay

       test names
	   Anything after the test number but before the # is considered to be the name of the
	   test.

	     ok 42 this is the name of the test

	   Currently, Test::Harness does nothing with this information.

       Skipping tests
	   If the standard output line contains the substring " # Skip" (with variations in spac-
	   ing and case) after "ok" or "ok NUMBER", it is counted as a skipped test.  If the
	   whole testscript succeeds, the count of skipped tests is included in the generated
	   output.  "Test::Harness" reports the text after " # Skip\S*\s+" as a reason for skip-
	   ping.

	     ok 23 # skip Insufficient flogiston pressure.

	   Similarly, one can include a similar explanation in a 1..0 line emitted if the test
	   script is skipped completely:

	     1..0 # Skipped: no leverage found

       Todo tests
	   If the standard output line contains the substring " # TODO" after "not ok" or "not ok
	   NUMBER", it is counted as a todo test.  The text afterwards is the thing that has to
	   be done before this test will succeed.

	     not ok 13 # TODO harness the power of the atom

	   These tests represent a feature to be implemented or a bug to be fixed and act as
	   something of an executable "thing to do" list.  They are not expected to succeed.
	   Should a todo test begin succeeding, Test::Harness will report it as a bonus.  This
	   indicates that whatever you were supposed to do has been done and you should promote
	   this to a normal test.

       Bail out!
	   As an emergency measure, a test script can decide that further tests are useless (e.g.
	   missing dependencies) and testing should stop immediately. In that case the test
	   script prints the magic words

	     Bail out!

	   to standard output. Any message after these words will be displayed by "Test::Harness"
	   as the reason why testing is stopped.

       Comments
	   Additional comments may be put into the testing output on their own lines.  Comment
	   lines should begin with a '#', Test::Harness will ignore them.

	     ok 1
	     # Life is good, the sun is shining, RAM is cheap.
	     not ok 2
	     # got 'Bush' expected 'Gore'

       Anything else
	   Any other output Test::Harness sees it will silently ignore BUT WE PLAN TO CHANGE
	   THIS! If you wish to place additional output in your test script, please use a com-
	   ment.

       Taint mode

       Test::Harness will honor the "-T" in the #! line on your test files.  So if you begin a
       test with:

	   #!perl -T

       the test will be run with taint mode on.

       Configuration variables.

       These variables can be used to configure the behavior of Test::Harness.	They are exported
       on request.

       $Test::Harness::verbose
	   The global variable $Test::Harness::verbose is exportable and can be used to let
	   runtests() display the standard output of the script without altering the behavior
	   otherwise.

       $Test::Harness::switches
	   The global variable $Test::Harness::switches is exportable and can be used to set perl
	   command line options used for running the test script(s). The default value is "-w".

       Failure

       It will happen, your tests will fail.  After you mop up your ego, you can begin examining
       the summary report:

	 t/base..............ok
	 t/nonumbers.........ok
	 t/ok................ok
	 t/test-harness......ok
	 t/waterloo..........dubious
		 Test returned status 3 (wstat 768, 0x300)
	 DIED. FAILED tests 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19
		 Failed 10/20 tests, 50.00% okay
	 Failed Test  Stat Wstat Total Fail  Failed  List of Failed
	 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
	 t/waterloo.t	 3   768    20	 10  50.00%  1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19
	 Failed 1/5 test scripts, 80.00% okay. 10/44 subtests failed, 77.27% okay.

       Everything passed but t/waterloo.t.  It failed 10 of 20 tests and exited with non-zero
       status indicating something dubious happened.

       The columns in the summary report mean:

       Failed Test
	   The test file which failed.

       Stat
	   If the test exited with non-zero, this is its exit status.

       Wstat
	   The wait status of the test umm, I need a better explanation here.

       Total
	   Total number of tests expected to run.

       Fail
	   Number which failed, either from "not ok" or because they never ran.

       Failed
	   Percentage of the total tests which failed.

       List of Failed
	   A list of the tests which failed.  Successive failures may be abbreviated (ie. 15-20
	   to indicate that tests 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 failed).

       Functions

       Test::Harness currently only has one function, here it is.

       runtests
	     my $allok = runtests(@test_files);

	   This runs all the given @test_files and divines whether they passed or failed based on
	   their output to STDOUT (details above).  It prints out each individual test which
	   failed along with a summary report and a how long it all took.

	   It returns true if everything was ok.  Otherwise it will die() with one of the mes-
	   sages in the DIAGNOSTICS section.

EXPORT
       &runtests is exported by Test::Harness per default.

       $verbose and $switches are exported upon request.

DIAGNOSTICS
       "All tests successful.\nFiles=%d,  Tests=%d, %s"
	   If all tests are successful some statistics about the performance are printed.

       "FAILED tests %s\n\tFailed %d/%d tests, %.2f%% okay."
	   For any single script that has failing subtests statistics like the above are printed.

       "Test returned status %d (wstat %d)"
	   Scripts that return a non-zero exit status, both "$? >> 8" and $? are printed in a
	   message similar to the above.

       "Failed 1 test, %.2f%% okay. %s"
       "Failed %d/%d tests, %.2f%% okay. %s"
	   If not all tests were successful, the script dies with one of the above messages.

       "FAILED--Further testing stopped: %s"
	   If a single subtest decides that further testing will not make sense, the script dies
	   with this message.

ENVIRONMENT
       "HARNESS_ACTIVE"
	   Harness sets this before executing the individual tests.  This allows the tests to
	   determine if they are being executed through the harness or by any other means.

       "HARNESS_COLUMNS"
	   This value will be used for the width of the terminal. If it is not set then it will
	   default to "COLUMNS". If this is not set, it will default to 80. Note that users of
	   Bourne-sh based shells will need to "export COLUMNS" for this module to use that vari-
	   able.

       "HARNESS_COMPILE_TEST"
	   When true it will make harness attempt to compile the test using "perlcc" before run-
	   ning it.

	   NOTE This currently only works when sitting in the perl source directory!

       "HARNESS_FILELEAK_IN_DIR"
	   When set to the name of a directory, harness will check after each test whether new
	   files appeared in that directory, and report them as

	     LEAKED FILES: scr.tmp 0 my.db

	   If relative, directory name is with respect to the current directory at the moment
	   runtests() was called.  Putting absolute path into "HARNESS_FILELEAK_IN_DIR" may give
	   more predictable results.

       "HARNESS_IGNORE_EXITCODE"
	   Makes harness ignore the exit status of child processes when defined.

       "HARNESS_NOTTY"
	   When set to a true value, forces it to behave as though STDOUT were not a console.
	   You may need to set this if you don't want harness to output more frequent progress
	   messages using carriage returns.  Some consoles may not handle carriage returns prop-
	   erly (which results in a somewhat messy output).

       "HARNESS_PERL_SWITCHES"
	   Its value will be prepended to the switches used to invoke perl on each test.  For
	   example, setting "HARNESS_PERL_SWITCHES" to "-W" will run all tests with all warnings
	   enabled.

       "HARNESS_VERBOSE"
	   If true, Test::Harness will output the verbose results of running its tests.  Setting
	   $Test::Harness::verbose will override this.

EXAMPLE
       Here's how Test::Harness tests itself

	 $ cd ~/src/devel/Test-Harness
	 $ perl -Mblib -e 'use Test::Harness qw(&runtests $verbose);
	   $verbose=0; runtests @ARGV;' t/*.t
	 Using /home/schwern/src/devel/Test-Harness/blib
	 t/base..............ok
	 t/nonumbers.........ok
	 t/ok................ok
	 t/test-harness......ok
	 All tests successful.
	 Files=4, Tests=24, 2 wallclock secs ( 0.61 cusr + 0.41 csys = 1.02 CPU)

SEE ALSO
       Test and Test::Simple for writing test scripts, Benchmark for the underlying timing rou-
       tines, Devel::CoreStack to generate core dumps from failed tests and Devel::Cover for test
       coverage analysis.

AUTHORS
       Either Tim Bunce or Andreas Koenig, we don't know. What we know for sure is, that it was
       inspired by Larry Wall's TEST script that came with perl distributions for ages. Numerous
       anonymous contributors exist.  Andreas Koenig held the torch for many years.

       Current maintainer is Michael G Schwern <schwern@pobox.com>

TODO
       Provide a way of running tests quietly (ie. no printing) for automated validation of
       tests.  This will probably take the form of a version of runtests() which rather than
       printing its output returns raw data on the state of the tests.	(Partially done in
       Test::Harness::Straps)

       Fix HARNESS_COMPILE_TEST without breaking its core usage.

       Figure a way to report test names in the failure summary.

       Rework the test summary so long test names are not truncated as badly.  (Partially done
       with new skip test styles)

       Deal with VMS's "not \nok 4\n" mistake.

       Add option for coverage analysis.

BUGS
       HARNESS_COMPILE_TEST currently assumes it's run from the Perl source directory.

perl v5.8.0				    2002-06-01			       Test::Harness(3pm)


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