Home Man
Today's Posts

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages

RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for math::bigint (redhat section 3pm)

Math::BigInt(3pm)		 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		Math::BigInt(3pm)

       Math::BigInt - Arbitrary size integer math package

	 use Math::BigInt;

	 # Number creation
	 $x = Math::BigInt->new($str);	       # defaults to 0
	 $nan  = Math::BigInt->bnan();	       # create a NotANumber
	 $zero = Math::BigInt->bzero();        # create a +0
	 $inf = Math::BigInt->binf();	       # create a +inf
	 $inf = Math::BigInt->binf('-');       # create a -inf
	 $one = Math::BigInt->bone();	       # create a +1
	 $one = Math::BigInt->bone('-');       # create a -1

	 # Testing (don't modify their arguments)
	 # (return true if the condition is met, otherwise false)

	 $x->is_zero();        # if $x is +0
	 $x->is_nan();	       # if $x is NaN
	 $x->is_one();	       # if $x is +1
	 $x->is_one('-');      # if $x is -1
	 $x->is_odd();	       # if $x is odd
	 $x->is_even();        # if $x is even
	 $x->is_positive();    # if $x >= 0
	 $x->is_negative();    # if $x <  0
	 $x->is_inf(sign);     # if $x is +inf, or -inf (sign is default '+')
	 $x->is_int();	       # if $x is an integer (not a float)

	 # comparing and digit/sign extration
	 $x->bcmp($y);	       # compare numbers (undef,<0,=0,>0)
	 $x->bacmp($y);        # compare absolutely (undef,<0,=0,>0)
	 $x->sign();	       # return the sign, either +,- or NaN
	 $x->digit($n);        # return the nth digit, counting from right
	 $x->digit(-$n);       # return the nth digit, counting from left

	 # The following all modify their first argument:

	 $x->bzero();	       # set $x to 0
	 $x->bnan();	       # set $x to NaN
	 $x->bone();	       # set $x to +1
	 $x->bone('-');        # set $x to -1
	 $x->binf();	       # set $x to inf
	 $x->binf('-');        # set $x to -inf

	 $x->bneg();	       # negation
	 $x->babs();	       # absolute value
	 $x->bnorm();	       # normalize (no-op in BigInt)
	 $x->bnot();	       # two's complement (bit wise not)
	 $x->binc();	       # increment $x by 1
	 $x->bdec();	       # decrement $x by 1

	 $x->badd($y);	       # addition (add $y to $x)
	 $x->bsub($y);	       # subtraction (subtract $y from $x)
	 $x->bmul($y);	       # multiplication (multiply $x by $y)
	 $x->bdiv($y);	       # divide, set $x to quotient
			       # return (quo,rem) or quo if scalar

	 $x->bmod($y);		  # modulus (x % y)
	 $x->bmodpow($exp,$mod);  # modular exponentation (($num**$exp) % $mod))
	 $x->bmodinv($mod);	  # the inverse of $x in the given modulus $mod

	 $x->bpow($y);		  # power of arguments (x ** y)
	 $x->blsft($y); 	  # left shift
	 $x->brsft($y); 	  # right shift
	 $x->blsft($y,$n);	  # left shift, by base $n (like 10)
	 $x->brsft($y,$n);	  # right shift, by base $n (like 10)

	 $x->band($y);		  # bitwise and
	 $x->bior($y);		  # bitwise inclusive or
	 $x->bxor($y);		  # bitwise exclusive or
	 $x->bnot();		  # bitwise not (two's complement)

	 $x->bsqrt();		  # calculate square-root
	 $x->bfac();		  # factorial of $x (1*2*3*4*..$x)

	 $x->round($A,$P,$mode);  # round to accuracy or precision using mode $r
	 $x->bround($N);	  # accuracy: preserve $N digits
	 $x->bfround($N);	  # round to $Nth digit, no-op for BigInts

	 # The following do not modify their arguments in BigInt,
	 # but do so in BigFloat:

	 $x->bfloor();		  # return integer less or equal than $x
	 $x->bceil();		  # return integer greater or equal than $x

	 # The following do not modify their arguments:

	 bgcd(@values); 	  # greatest common divisor (no OO style)
	 blcm(@values); 	  # lowest common multiplicator (no OO style)

	 $x->length();		  # return number of digits in number
	 ($x,$f) = $x->length();  # length of number and length of fraction part,
				  # latter is always 0 digits long for BigInt's

	 $x->exponent();	  # return exponent as BigInt
	 $x->mantissa();	  # return (signed) mantissa as BigInt
	 $x->parts();		  # return (mantissa,exponent) as BigInt
	 $x->copy();		  # make a true copy of $x (unlike $y = $x;)
	 $x->as_number();	  # return as BigInt (in BigInt: same as copy())

	 # conversation to string (do not modify their argument)
	 $x->bstr();		  # normalized string
	 $x->bsstr();		  # normalized string in scientific notation
	 $x->as_hex();		  # as signed hexadecimal string with prefixed 0x
	 $x->as_bin();		  # as signed binary string with prefixed 0b

	 # precision and accuracy (see section about rounding for more)
	 $x->precision();	  # return P of $x (or global, if P of $x undef)
	 $x->precision($n);	  # set P of $x to $n
	 $x->accuracy();	  # return A of $x (or global, if A of $x undef)
	 $x->accuracy($n);	  # set A $x to $n

	 # Global methods
	 Math::BigInt->precision(); # get/set global P for all BigInt objects
	 Math::BigInt->accuracy();  # get/set global A for all BigInt objects
	 Math::BigInt->config();    # return hash containing configuration

       All operators (inlcuding basic math operations) are overloaded if you declare your big
       integers as

	 $i = new Math::BigInt '123_456_789_123_456_789';

       Operations with overloaded operators preserve the arguments which is exactly what you

       Canonical notation
	 Big integer values are strings of the form "/^[+-]\d+$/" with leading zeros suppressed.

	    '-0'			    canonical value '-0', normalized '0'
	    '	-123_123_123'		    canonical value '-123123123'
	    '1_23_456_7890'		    canonical value '1234567890'

	 Input values to these routines may be either Math::BigInt objects or strings of the form

	 You can include one underscore between any two digits.

	 This means integer values like 1.01E2 or even 1000E-2 are also accepted.  Non integer
	 values result in NaN.

	 Math::BigInt::new() defaults to 0, while Math::BigInt::new('') results in 'NaN'.

	 bnorm() on a BigInt object is now effectively a no-op, since the numbers are always
	 stored in normalized form. On a string, it creates a BigInt object.

	 Output values are BigInt objects (normalized), except for bstr(), which returns a string
	 in normalized form.  Some routines ("is_odd()", "is_even()", "is_zero()", "is_one()",
	 "is_nan()") return true or false, while others ("bcmp()", "bacmp()") return either
	 undef, <0, 0 or >0 and are suited for sort.

       Each of the methods below (except config(), accuracy() and precision()) accepts three
       additional parameters. These arguments $A, $P and $R are accuracy, precision and
       round_mode. Please see the section about "ACCURACY and PRECISION" for more information.


	       use Data::Dumper;

	       print Dumper ( Math::BigInt->config() );
	       print Math::BigInt->config()->{lib},"\n";

       Returns a hash containing the configuration, e.g. the version number, lib loaded etc. The
       following hash keys are currently filled in with the appropriate information.

	       key	       Description
	       lib	       Name of the Math library
	       lib_version     Version of 'lib'
	       class	       The class of config you just called
	       upgrade	       To which class numbers are upgraded
	       downgrade       To which class numbers are downgraded
	       precision       Global precision
	       accuracy        Global accuracy
	       round_mode      Global round mode
	       version	       version number of the class you used
	       div_scale       Fallback acccuracy for div

       It is currently not supported to set the configuration parameters by passing a hash ref to


	       $x->accuracy(5); 	       # local for $x
	       CLASS->accuracy(5);	       # global for all members of CLASS
	       $A = $x->accuracy();	       # read out
	       $A = CLASS->accuracy();	       # read out

       Set or get the global or local accuracy, aka how many significant digits the results have.

       Please see the section about "ACCURACY AND PRECISION" for further details.

       Value must be greater than zero. Pass an undef value to disable it:


       Returns the current accuracy. For "$x-"accuracy()> it will return either the local accu-
       racy, or if not defined, the global. This means the return value represents the accuracy
       that will be in effect for $x:

	       $y = Math::BigInt->new(1234567);        # unrounded
	       print Math::BigInt->accuracy(4),"\n";   # set 4, print 4
	       $x = Math::BigInt->new(123456);	       # will be automatically rounded
	       print "$x $y\n"; 		       # '123500 1234567'
	       print $x->accuracy(),"\n";	       # will be 4
	       print $y->accuracy(),"\n";	       # also 4, since global is 4
	       print Math::BigInt->accuracy(5),"\n";   # set to 5, print 5
	       print $x->accuracy(),"\n";	       # still 4
	       print $y->accuracy(),"\n";	       # 5, since global is 5

       Note: Works also for subclasses like Math::BigFloat. Each class has it's own globals sepa-
       rated from Math::BigInt, but it is possible to subclass Math::BigInt and make the globals
       of the subclass aliases to the ones from Math::BigInt.


	       $x->precision(-2);	       # local for $x, round right of the dot
	       $x->precision(2);	       # ditto, but round left of the dot
	       CLASS->accuracy(5);	       # global for all members of CLASS
	       CLASS->precision(-5);	       # ditto
	       $P = CLASS->precision();        # read out
	       $P = $x->precision();	       # read out

       Set or get the global or local precision, aka how many digits the result has after the dot
       (or where to round it when passing a positive number). In Math::BigInt, passing a negative
       number precision has no effect since no numbers have digits after the dot.

       Please see the section about "ACCURACY AND PRECISION" for further details.

       Value must be greater than zero. Pass an undef value to disable it:


       Returns the current precision. For "$x-"precision()> it will return either the local pre-
       cision of $x, or if not defined, the global. This means the return value represents the
       accuracy that will be in effect for $x:

	       $y = Math::BigInt->new(1234567);        # unrounded
	       print Math::BigInt->precision(4),"\n";  # set 4, print 4
	       $x = Math::BigInt->new(123456);	       # will be automatically rounded

       Note: Works also for subclasses like Math::BigFloat. Each class has it's own globals sepa-
       rated from Math::BigInt, but it is possible to subclass Math::BigInt and make the globals
       of the subclass aliases to the ones from Math::BigInt.



       Shifts $x right by $y in base $n. Default is base 2, used are usually 10 and 2, but others
       work, too.

       Right shifting usually amounts to dividing $x by $n ** $y and truncating the result:

	       $x = Math::BigInt->new(10);
	       $x->brsft(1);		       # same as $x >> 1: 5
	       $x = Math::BigInt->new(1234);
	       $x->brsft(2,10); 	       # result 12

       There is one exception, and that is base 2 with negative $x:

	       $x = Math::BigInt->new(-5);
	       print $x->brsft(1);

       This will print -3, not -2 (as it would if you divide -5 by 2 and truncate the result).


	       $x = Math::BigInt->new($str,$A,$P,$R);

       Creates a new BigInt object from a string or another BigInt object. The input is accepted
       as decimal, hex (with leading '0x') or binary (with leading '0b').


	       $x = Math::BigInt->bnan();

       Creates a new BigInt object representing NaN (Not A Number).  If used on an object, it
       will set it to NaN:



	       $x = Math::BigInt->bzero();

       Creates a new BigInt object representing zero.  If used on an object, it will set it to



	       $x = Math::BigInt->binf($sign);

       Creates a new BigInt object representing infinity. The optional argument is either '-' or
       '+', indicating whether you want infinity or minus infinity.  If used on an object, it
       will set it to infinity:



	       $x = Math::BigInt->binf($sign);

       Creates a new BigInt object representing one. The optional argument is either '-' or '+',
       indicating whether you want one or minus one.  If used on an object, it will set it to

	       $x->bone();	       # +1
	       $x->bone('-');	       # -1


	       $x->is_zero();		       # true if arg is +0
	       $x->is_nan();		       # true if arg is NaN
	       $x->is_one();		       # true if arg is +1
	       $x->is_one('-'); 	       # true if arg is -1
	       $x->is_inf();		       # true if +inf
	       $x->is_inf('-'); 	       # true if -inf (sign is default '+')

       These methods all test the BigInt for beeing one specific value and return true or false
       depending on the input. These are faster than doing something like:

	       if ($x == 0)


	       $x->is_positive();	       # true if >= 0
	       $x->is_negative();	       # true if <  0

       The methods return true if the argument is positive or negative, respectively.  "NaN" is
       neither positive nor negative, while "+inf" counts as positive, and "-inf" is negative. A
       "zero" is positive.

       These methods are only testing the sign, and not the value.


	       $x->is_odd();		       # true if odd, false for even
	       $x->is_even();		       # true if even, false for odd
	       $x->is_int();		       # true if $x is an integer

       The return true when the argument satisfies the condition. "NaN", "+inf", "-inf" are not
       integers and are neither odd nor even.



       Compares $x with $y and takes the sign into account.  Returns -1, 0, 1 or undef.



       Compares $x with $y while ignoring their. Returns -1, 0, 1 or undef.



       Return the sign, of $x, meaning either "+", "-", "-inf", "+inf" or NaN.


	 $x->digit($n); 	       # return the nth digit, counting from right



       Negate the number, e.g. change the sign between '+' and '-', or between '+inf' and '-inf',
       respectively. Does nothing for NaN or zero.



       Set the number to it's absolute value, e.g. change the sign from '-' to '+' and from
       '-inf' to '+inf', respectively. Does nothing for NaN or positive numbers.


	       $x->bnorm();		       # normalize (no-op)


	       $x->bnot();		       # two's complement (bit wise not)


	       $x->binc();		       # increment x by 1


	       $x->bdec();		       # decrement x by 1


	       $x->badd($y);		       # addition (add $y to $x)


	       $x->bsub($y);		       # subtraction (subtract $y from $x)


	       $x->bmul($y);		       # multiplication (multiply $x by $y)


	       $x->bdiv($y);		       # divide, set $x to quotient
					       # return (quo,rem) or quo if scalar


	       $x->bmod($y);		       # modulus (x % y)


	       num->bmodinv($mod);	       # modular inverse

       Returns the inverse of $num in the given modulus $mod.  '"NaN"' is returned unless $num is
       relatively prime to $mod, i.e. unless "bgcd($num, $mod)==1".


	       $num->bmodpow($exp,$mod);       # modular exponentation
					       # ($num**$exp % $mod)

       Returns the value of $num taken to the power $exp in the modulus $mod using binary expo-
       nentation.  "bmodpow" is far superior to writing

	       $num ** $exp % $mod

       because "bmodpow" is much faster--it reduces internal variables into the modulus whenever
       possible, so it operates on smaller numbers.

       "bmodpow" also supports negative exponents.

	       bmodpow($num, -1, $mod)

       is exactly equivalent to

	       bmodinv($num, $mod)


	       $x->bpow($y);		       # power of arguments (x ** y)


	       $x->blsft($y);	       # left shift
	       $x->blsft($y,$n);       # left shift, in base $n (like 10)


	       $x->brsft($y);	       # right shift
	       $x->brsft($y,$n);       # right shift, in base $n (like 10)


	       $x->band($y);		       # bitwise and


	       $x->bior($y);		       # bitwise inclusive or


	       $x->bxor($y);		       # bitwise exclusive or


	       $x->bnot();		       # bitwise not (two's complement)


	       $x->bsqrt();		       # calculate square-root


	       $x->bfac();		       # factorial of $x (1*2*3*4*..$x)



       Round $x to accuracy $A or precision $P using the round mode $round_mode.


	       $x->bround($N);		     # accuracy: preserve $N digits


	       $x->bfround($N); 	     # round to $Nth digit, no-op for BigInts



       Set $x to the integer less or equal than $x. This is a no-op in BigInt, but does change $x
       in BigFloat.



       Set $x to the integer greater or equal than $x. This is a no-op in BigInt, but does change
       $x in BigFloat.


	       bgcd(@values);	       # greatest common divisor (no OO style)


	       blcm(@values);	       # lowest common multiplicator (no OO style)

       head2 length

	       ($xl,$fl) = $x->length();

       Returns the number of digits in the decimal representation of the number.  In list con-
       text, returns the length of the integer and fraction part. For BigInt's, the length of the
       fraction part will always be 0.



       Return the exponent of $x as BigInt.



       Return the signed mantissa of $x as BigInt.


	       $x->parts();	       # return (mantissa,exponent) as BigInt


	       $x->copy();	       # make a true copy of $x (unlike $y = $x;)


	       $x->as_number();        # return as BigInt (in BigInt: same as copy())


	       $x->bstr();	       # return normalized string


	       $x->bsstr();	       # normalized string in scientific notation


	       $x->as_hex();	       # as signed hexadecimal string with prefixed 0x


	       $x->as_bin();	       # as signed binary string with prefixed 0b

       Since version v1.33, Math::BigInt and Math::BigFloat have full support for accuracy and
       precision based rounding, both automatically after every operation as well as manually.

       This section describes the accuracy/precision handling in Math::Big* as it used to be and
       as it is now, complete with an explanation of all terms and abbreviations.

       Not yet implemented things (but with correct description) are marked with '!', things that
       need to be answered are marked with '?'.

       In the next paragraph follows a short description of terms used here (because these may
       differ from terms used by others people or documentation).

       During the rest of this document, the shortcuts A (for accuracy), P (for precision), F
       (fallback) and R (rounding mode) will be used.

       Precision P

       A fixed number of digits before (positive) or after (negative) the decimal point. For
       example, 123.45 has a precision of -2. 0 means an integer like 123 (or 120). A precision
       of 2 means two digits to the left of the decimal point are zero, so 123 with P = 1 becomes
       120. Note that numbers with zeros before the decimal point may have different precisions,
       because 1200 can have p = 0, 1 or 2 (depending on what the inital value was). It could
       also have p < 0, when the digits after the decimal point are zero.

       The string output (of floating point numbers) will be padded with zeros:

	       Initial value   P       A       Result	       String
	       1234.01	       -3	       1000	       1000
	       1234	       -2	       1200	       1200
	       1234.5	       -1	       1230	       1230
	       1234.001        1	       1234	       1234.0
	       1234.01	       0	       1234	       1234
	       1234.01	       2	       1234.01	       1234.01
	       1234.01	       5	       1234.01	       1234.01000

       For BigInts, no padding occurs.

       Accuracy A

       Number of significant digits. Leading zeros are not counted. A number may have an accuracy
       greater than the non-zero digits when there are zeros in it or trailing zeros. For exam-
       ple, 123.456 has A of 6, 10203 has 5, 123.0506 has 7, 123.450000 has 8 and 0.000123 has 3.

       The string output (of floating point numbers) will be padded with zeros:

	       Initial value   P       A       Result	       String
	       1234.01		       3       1230	       1230
	       1234.01		       6       1234.01	       1234.01
	       1234.1		       8       1234.1	       1234.1000

       For BigInts, no padding occurs.

       Fallback F

       When both A and P are undefined, this is used as a fallback accuracy when dividing num-

       Rounding mode R

       When rounding a number, different 'styles' or 'kinds' of rounding are possible. (Note that
       random rounding, as in Math::Round, is not implemented.)

	 truncation invariably removes all digits following the rounding place, replacing them
	 with zeros. Thus, 987.65 rounded to tens (P=1) becomes 980, and rounded to the fourth
	 sigdig becomes 987.6 (A=4). 123.456 rounded to the second place after the decimal point
	 (P=-2) becomes 123.46.

	 All other implemented styles of rounding attempt to round to the "nearest digit." If the
	 digit D immediately to the right of the rounding place (skipping the decimal point) is
	 greater than 5, the number is incremented at the rounding place (possibly causing a cas-
	 cade of incrementation): e.g. when rounding to units, 0.9 rounds to 1, and -19.9 rounds
	 to -20. If D < 5, the number is similarly truncated at the rounding place: e.g. when
	 rounding to units, 0.4 rounds to 0, and -19.4 rounds to -19.

	 However the results of other styles of rounding differ if the digit immediately to the
	 right of the rounding place (skipping the decimal point) is 5 and if there are no dig-
	 its, or no digits other than 0, after that 5. In such cases:

	 rounds the digit at the rounding place to 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 if it is not already. E.g.,
	 when rounding to the first sigdig, 0.45 becomes 0.4, -0.55 becomes -0.6, but 0.4501
	 becomes 0.5.

	 rounds the digit at the rounding place to 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9 if it is not already. E.g.,
	 when rounding to the first sigdig, 0.45 becomes 0.5, -0.55 becomes -0.5, but 0.5501
	 becomes 0.6.

	 round to plus infinity, i.e. always round up. E.g., when rounding to the first sigdig,
	 0.45 becomes 0.5, -0.55 becomes -0.5, and 0.4501 also becomes 0.5.

	 round to minus infinity, i.e. always round down. E.g., when rounding to the first
	 sigdig, 0.45 becomes 0.4, -0.55 becomes -0.6, but 0.4501 becomes 0.5.

	 round to zero, i.e. positive numbers down, negative ones up.  E.g., when rounding to the
	 first sigdig, 0.45 becomes 0.4, -0.55 becomes -0.5, but 0.4501 becomes 0.5.

       The handling of A & P in MBI/MBF (the old core code shipped with Perl versions <= 5.7.2)
       is like this:

	   * ffround($p) is able to round to $p number of digits after the decimal
	   * otherwise P is unused

       Accuracy (significant digits)
	   * fround($a) rounds to $a significant digits
	   * only fdiv() and fsqrt() take A as (optional) paramater
	     + other operations simply create the same number (fneg etc), or more (fmul)
	       of digits
	     + rounding/truncating is only done when explicitly calling one of fround
	       or ffround, and never for BigInt (not implemented)
	   * fsqrt() simply hands its accuracy argument over to fdiv.
	   * the documentation and the comment in the code indicate two different ways
	     on how fdiv() determines the maximum number of digits it should calculate,
	     and the actual code does yet another thing
	       result has at most max(scale, length(dividend), length(divisor)) digits
	     Actual code:
	       scale = max(scale, length(dividend)-1,length(divisor)-1);
	       scale += length(divisior) - length(dividend);
	     So for lx = 3, ly = 9, scale = 10, scale will actually be 16 (10+9-3).
	     Actually, the 'difference' added to the scale is calculated from the
	     number of "significant digits" in dividend and divisor, which is derived
	     by looking at the length of the mantissa. Which is wrong, since it includes
	     the + sign (oups) and actually gets 2 for '+100' and 4 for '+101'. Oups
	     again. Thus 124/3 with div_scale=1 will get you '41.3' based on the strange
	     assumption that 124 has 3 significant digits, while 120/7 will get you
	     '17', not '17.1' since 120 is thought to have 2 significant digits.
	     The rounding after the division then uses the remainder and $y to determine
	     wether it must round up or down.
	  ?  I have no idea which is the right way. That's why I used a slightly more
	  ?  simple scheme and tweaked the few failing testcases to match it.

       This is how it works now:

	   * You can set the A global via Math::BigInt->accuracy() or
	     Math::BigFloat->accuracy() or whatever class you are using.
	   * You can also set P globally by using Math::SomeClass->precision() likewise.
	   * Globals are classwide, and not inherited by subclasses.
	   * to undefine A, use Math::SomeCLass->accuracy(undef);
	   * to undefine P, use Math::SomeClass->precision(undef);
	   * Setting Math::SomeClass->accuracy() clears automatically
	     Math::SomeClass->precision(), and vice versa.
	   * To be valid, A must be > 0, P can have any value.
	   * If P is negative, this means round to the P'th place to the right of the
	     decimal point; positive values mean to the left of the decimal point.
	     P of 0 means round to integer.
	   * to find out the current global A, take Math::SomeClass->accuracy()
	   * to find out the current global P, take Math::SomeClass->precision()
	   * use $x->accuracy() respective $x->precision() for the local setting of $x.
	   * Please note that $x->accuracy() respecive $x->precision() fall back to the
	     defined globals, when $x's A or P is not set.

       Creating numbers
	   * When you create a number, you can give it's desired A or P via:
	     $x = Math::BigInt->new($number,$A,$P);
	   * Only one of A or P can be defined, otherwise the result is NaN
	   * If no A or P is give ($x = Math::BigInt->new($number) form), then the
	     globals (if set) will be used. Thus changing the global defaults later on
	     will not change the A or P of previously created numbers (i.e., A and P of
	     $x will be what was in effect when $x was created)
	   * If given undef for A and P, B<no> rounding will occur, and the globals will
	     B<not> be used. This is used by subclasses to create numbers without
	     suffering rounding in the parent. Thus a subclass is able to have it's own
	     globals enforced upon creation of a number by using
	     $x = Math::BigInt->new($number,undef,undef):

		 use Math::Bigint::SomeSubclass;
		 use Math::BigInt;

		 $x = Math::BigInt::SomeSubClass->new(1234);

	     $x is now 1230, and not 1200. A subclass might choose to implement
	     this otherwise, e.g. falling back to the parent's A and P.

	   * If A or P are enabled/defined, they are used to round the result of each
	     operation according to the rules below
	   * Negative P is ignored in Math::BigInt, since BigInts never have digits
	     after the decimal point
	   * Math::BigFloat uses Math::BigInts internally, but setting A or P inside
	     Math::BigInt as globals should not tamper with the parts of a BigFloat.
	     Thus a flag is used to mark all Math::BigFloat numbers as 'never round'

	   * It only makes sense that a number has only one of A or P at a time.
	     Since you can set/get both A and P, there is a rule that will practically
	     enforce only A or P to be in effect at a time, even if both are set.
	     This is called precedence.
	   * If two objects are involved in an operation, and one of them has A in
	     effect, and the other P, this results in an error (NaN).
	   * A takes precendence over P (Hint: A comes before P). If A is defined, it
	     is used, otherwise P is used. If neither of them is defined, nothing is
	     used, i.e. the result will have as many digits as it can (with an
	     exception for fdiv/fsqrt) and will not be rounded.
	   * There is another setting for fdiv() (and thus for fsqrt()). If neither of
	     A or P is defined, fdiv() will use a fallback (F) of $div_scale digits.
	     If either the dividend's or the divisor's mantissa has more digits than
	     the value of F, the higher value will be used instead of F.
	     This is to limit the digits (A) of the result (just consider what would
	     happen with unlimited A and P in the case of 1/3 :-)
	   * fdiv will calculate (at least) 4 more digits than required (determined by
	     A, P or F), and, if F is not used, round the result
	     (this will still fail in the case of a result like 0.12345000000001 with A
	     or P of 5, but this can not be helped - or can it?)
	   * Thus you can have the math done by on Math::Big* class in three modes:
	     + never round (this is the default):
	       This is done by setting A and P to undef. No math operation
	       will round the result, with fdiv() and fsqrt() as exceptions to guard
	       against overflows. You must explicitely call bround(), bfround() or
	       round() (the latter with parameters).
	       Note: Once you have rounded a number, the settings will 'stick' on it
	       and 'infect' all other numbers engaged in math operations with it, since
	       local settings have the highest precedence. So, to get SaferRound[tm],
	       use a copy() before rounding like this:

		 $x = Math::BigFloat->new(12.34);
		 $y = Math::BigFloat->new(98.76);
		 $z = $x * $y;				 # 1218.6984
		 print $x->copy()->fround(3);		 # 12.3 (but A is now 3!)
		 $z = $x * $y;				 # still 1218.6984, without
							 # copy would have been 1210!

	     + round after each op:
	       After each single operation (except for testing like is_zero()), the
	       method round() is called and the result is rounded appropriately. By
	       setting proper values for A and P, you can have all-the-same-A or
	       all-the-same-P modes. For example, Math::Currency might set A to undef,
	       and P to -2, globally.

	  ?Maybe an extra option that forbids local A & P settings would be in order,
	  ?so that intermediate rounding does not 'poison' further math?

       Overriding globals
	   * you will be able to give A, P and R as an argument to all the calculation
	     routines; the second parameter is A, the third one is P, and the fourth is
	     R (shift right by one for binary operations like badd). P is used only if
	     the first parameter (A) is undefined. These three parameters override the
	     globals in the order detailed as follows, i.e. the first defined value
	     (local: per object, global: global default, parameter: argument to sub)
	       + parameter A
	       + parameter P
	       + local A (if defined on both of the operands: smaller one is taken)
	       + local P (if defined on both of the operands: bigger one is taken)
	       + global A
	       + global P
	       + global F
	   * fsqrt() will hand its arguments to fdiv(), as it used to, only now for two
	     arguments (A and P) instead of one

       Local settings
	   * You can set A and P locally by using $x->accuracy() and $x->precision()
	     and thus force different A and P for different objects/numbers.
	   * Setting A or P this way immediately rounds $x to the new value.
	   * $x->accuracy() clears $x->precision(), and vice versa.

	   * the rounding routines will use the respective global or local settings.
	     fround()/bround() is for accuracy rounding, while ffround()/bfround()
	     is for precision
	   * the two rounding functions take as the second parameter one of the
	     following rounding modes (R):
	     'even', 'odd', '+inf', '-inf', 'zero', 'trunc'
	   * you can set and get the global R by using Math::SomeClass->round_mode()
	     or by setting $Math::SomeClass::round_mode
	   * after each operation, $result->round() is called, and the result may
	     eventually be rounded (that is, if A or P were set either locally,
	     globally or as parameter to the operation)
	   * to manually round a number, call $x->round($A,$P,$round_mode);
	     this will round the number by using the appropriate rounding function
	     and then normalize it.
	   * rounding modifies the local settings of the number:

		 $x = Math::BigFloat->new(123.456);

	     Here 4 takes precedence over 5, so 123.5 is the result and $x->accuracy()
	     will be 4 from now on.

       Default values
	   * R: 'even'
	   * F: 40
	   * A: undef
	   * P: undef

	   * The defaults are set up so that the new code gives the same results as
	     the old code (except in a few cases on fdiv):
	     + Both A and P are undefined and thus will not be used for rounding
	       after each operation.
	     + round() is thus a no-op, unless given extra parameters A and P

       The actual numbers are stored as unsigned big integers (with seperate sign).  You should
       neither care about nor depend on the internal representation; it might change without
       notice. Use only method calls like "$x->sign();" instead relying on the internal hash keys
       like in "$x->{sign};".


       Math with the numbers is done (by default) by a module called Math::BigInt::Calc. This is
       equivalent to saying:

	       use Math::BigInt lib => 'Calc';

       You can change this by using:

	       use Math::BigInt lib => 'BitVect';

       The following would first try to find Math::BigInt::Foo, then Math::BigInt::Bar, and when
       this also fails, revert to Math::BigInt::Calc:

	       use Math::BigInt lib => 'Foo,Math::BigInt::Bar';

       Calc.pm uses as internal format an array of elements of some decimal base (usually 1e5 or
       1e7) with the least significant digit first, while BitVect.pm uses a bit vector of base 2,
       most significant bit first. Other modules might use even different means of representing
       the numbers. See the respective module documentation for further details.


       The sign is either '+', '-', 'NaN', '+inf' or '-inf' and stored seperately.

       A sign of 'NaN' is used to represent the result when input arguments are not numbers or as
       a result of 0/0. '+inf' and '-inf' represent plus respectively minus infinity. You will
       get '+inf' when dividing a positive number by 0, and '-inf' when dividing any negative
       number by 0.

       mantissa(), exponent() and parts()

       "mantissa()" and "exponent()" return the said parts of the BigInt such that:

	       $m = $x->mantissa();
	       $e = $x->exponent();
	       $y = $m * ( 10 ** $e );
	       print "ok\n" if $x == $y;

       "($m,$e) = $x->parts()" is just a shortcut that gives you both of them in one go. Both the
       returned mantissa and exponent have a sign.

       Currently, for BigInts $e will be always 0, except for NaN, +inf and -inf, where it will
       be NaN; and for $x == 0, where it will be 1 (to be compatible with Math::BigFloat's inter-
       nal representation of a zero as 0E1).

       $m will always be a copy of the original number. The relation between $e and $m might
       change in the future, but will always be equivalent in a numerical sense, e.g. $m might
       get minimized.

	 use Math::BigInt;

	 sub bint { Math::BigInt->new(shift); }

	 $x = Math::BigInt->bstr("1234")       # string "1234"
	 $x = "$x";			       # same as bstr()
	 $x = Math::BigInt->bneg("1234");      # Bigint "-1234"
	 $x = Math::BigInt->babs("-12345");    # Bigint "12345"
	 $x = Math::BigInt->bnorm("-0 00");    # BigInt "0"
	 $x = bint(1) + bint(2);	       # BigInt "3"
	 $x = bint(1) + "2";		       # ditto (auto-BigIntify of "2")
	 $x = bint(1);			       # BigInt "1"
	 $x = $x + 5 / 2;		       # BigInt "3"
	 $x = $x ** 3;			       # BigInt "27"
	 $x *= 2;			       # BigInt "54"
	 $x = Math::BigInt->new(0);	       # BigInt "0"
	 $x--;				       # BigInt "-1"
	 $x = Math::BigInt->badd(4,5)	       # BigInt "9"
	 print $x->bsstr();		       # 9e+0

       Examples for rounding:

	 use Math::BigFloat;
	 use Test;

	 $x = Math::BigFloat->new(123.4567);
	 $y = Math::BigFloat->new(123.456789);
	 Math::BigFloat->accuracy(4);	       # no more A than 4

	 ok ($x->copy()->fround(),123.4);      # even rounding
	 print $x->copy()->fround(),"\n";      # 123.4
	 Math::BigFloat->round_mode('odd');    # round to odd
	 print $x->copy()->fround(),"\n";      # 123.5
	 Math::BigFloat->accuracy(5);	       # no more A than 5
	 Math::BigFloat->round_mode('odd');    # round to odd
	 print $x->copy()->fround(),"\n";      # 123.46
	 $y = $x->copy()->fround(4),"\n";      # A = 4: 123.4
	 print "$y, ",$y->accuracy(),"\n";     # 123.4, 4

	 Math::BigFloat->accuracy(undef);      # A not important now
	 Math::BigFloat->precision(2);	       # P important
	 print $x->copy()->bnorm(),"\n";       # 123.46
	 print $x->copy()->fround(),"\n";      # 123.46

       Examples for converting:

	 my $x = Math::BigInt->new('0b1'.'01' x 123);
	 print "bin: ",$x->as_bin()," hex:",$x->as_hex()," dec: ",$x,"\n";

Autocreating constants
       After "use Math::BigInt ':constant'" all the integer decimal, hexadecimal and binary con-
       stants in the given scope are converted to "Math::BigInt".  This conversion happens at
       compile time.

       In particular,

	 perl -MMath::BigInt=:constant -e 'print 2**100,"\n"'

       prints the integer value of "2**100". Note that without conversion of constants the
       expression 2**100 will be calculated as perl scalar.

       Please note that strings and floating point constants are not affected, so that

	       use Math::BigInt qw/:constant/;

	       $x = 1234567890123456789012345678901234567890
		       + 123456789123456789;
	       $y = '1234567890123456789012345678901234567890'
		       + '123456789123456789';

       do not work. You need an explicit Math::BigInt->new() around one of the operands. You
       should also quote large constants to protect loss of precision:

	       use Math::Bigint;

	       $x = Math::BigInt->new('1234567889123456789123456789123456789');

       Without the quotes Perl would convert the large number to a floating point constant at
       compile time and then hand the result to BigInt, which results in an truncated result or a

       This also applies to integers that look like floating point constants:

	       use Math::BigInt ':constant';

	       print ref(123e2),"\n";
	       print ref(123.2e2),"\n";

       will print nothing but newlines. Use either bignum or Math::BigFloat to get this to work.

       Using the form $x += $y; etc over $x = $x + $y is faster, since a copy of $x must be made
       in the second case. For long numbers, the copy can eat up to 20% of the work (in the case
       of addition/subtraction, less for multiplication/division). If $y is very small compared
       to $x, the form $x += $y is MUCH faster than $x = $x + $y since making the copy of $x
       takes more time then the actual addition.

       With a technique called copy-on-write, the cost of copying with overload could be mini-
       mized or even completely avoided. A test implementation of COW did show performance gains
       for overloaded math, but introduced a performance loss due to a constant overhead for all
       other operatons.

       The rewritten version of this module is slower on certain operations, like new(), bstr()
       and numify(). The reason are that it does now more work and handles more cases. The time
       spent in these operations is usually gained in the other operations so that programs on
       the average should get faster. If they don't, please contect the author.

       Some operations may be slower for small numbers, but are significantly faster for big num-
       bers. Other operations are now constant (O(1), like bneg(), babs() etc), instead of O(N)
       and thus nearly always take much less time. These optimizations were done on purpose.

       If you find the Calc module to slow, try to install any of the replacement modules and see
       if they help you.

       Alternative math libraries

       You can use an alternative library to drive Math::BigInt via:

	       use Math::BigInt lib => 'Module';

       See "MATH LIBRARY" for more information.

       For more benchmark results see <http://bloodgate.com/perl/benchmarks.html>.


Subclassing Math::BigInt
       The basic design of Math::BigInt allows simple subclasses with very little work, as long
       as a few simple rules are followed:

       o The public API must remain consistent, i.e. if a sub-class is overloading addition, the
	 sub-class must use the same name, in this case badd(). The reason for this is that
	 Math::BigInt is optimized to call the object methods directly.

       o The private object hash keys like "$x-"{sign}> may not be changed, but additional keys
	 can be added, like "$x-"{_custom}>.

       o Accessor functions are available for all existing object hash keys and should be used
	 instead of directly accessing the internal hash keys. The reason for this is that
	 Math::BigInt itself has a pluggable interface which permits it to support different
	 storage methods.

       More complex sub-classes may have to replicate more of the logic internal of Math::BigInt
       if they need to change more basic behaviors. A subclass that needs to merely change the
       output only needs to overload "bstr()".

       All other object methods and overloaded functions can be directly inherited from the par-
       ent class.

       At the very minimum, any subclass will need to provide it's own "new()" and can store
       additional hash keys in the object. There are also some package globals that must be
       defined, e.g.:

	 # Globals
	 $accuracy = undef;
	 $precision = -2;	# round to 2 decimal places
	 $round_mode = 'even';
	 $div_scale = 40;

       Additionally, you might want to provide the following two globals to allow auto-upgrading
       and auto-downgrading to work correctly:

	 $upgrade = undef;
	 $downgrade = undef;

       This allows Math::BigInt to correctly retrieve package globals from the subclass, like
       $SubClass::precision.  See t/Math/BigInt/Subclass.pm or t/Math/BigFloat/SubClass.pm com-
       pletely functional subclass examples.

       Don't forget to

	       use overload;

       in your subclass to automatically inherit the overloading from the parent. If you like,
       you can change part of the overloading, look at Math::String for an example.

       When used like this:

	       use Math::BigInt upgrade => 'Foo::Bar';

       certain operations will 'upgrade' their calculation and thus the result to the class
       Foo::Bar. Usually this is used in conjunction with Math::BigFloat:

	       use Math::BigInt upgrade => 'Math::BigFloat';

       As a shortcut, you can use the module "bignum":

	       use bignum;

       Also good for oneliners:

	       perl -Mbignum -le 'print 2 ** 255'

       This makes it possible to mix arguments of different classes (as in 2.5 + 2) as well es
       preserve accuracy (as in sqrt(3)).

       Beware: This feature is not fully implemented yet.


       The following methods upgrade themselves unconditionally; that is if upgrade is in effect,
       they will always hand up their work:


       Beware: This list is not complete.

       All other methods upgrade themselves only when one (or all) of their arguments are of the
       class mentioned in $upgrade (This might change in later versions to a more sophisticated

       Out of Memory!
	 Under Perl prior to 5.6.0 having an "use Math::BigInt ':constant';" and "eval()" in your
	 code will crash with "Out of memory". This is probably an overload/exporter bug. You can
	 workaround by not having "eval()" and ':constant' at the same time or upgrade your Perl
	 to a newer version.

       Fails to load Calc on Perl prior 5.6.0
	 Since eval(' use ...') can not be used in conjunction with ':constant', BigInt will fall
	 back to eval { require ... } when loading the math lib on Perls prior to 5.6.0. This
	 simple replaces '::' with '/' and thus might fail on filesystems using a different

       Some things might not work as you expect them. Below is documented what is known to be

       stringify, bstr(), bsstr() and 'cmp'
	Both stringify and bstr() now drop the leading '+'. The old code would return '+3', the
	new returns '3'. This is to be consistent with Perl and to make cmp (especially with
	overloading) to work as you expect. It also solves problems with Test.pm, it's ok() uses
	'eq' internally.

	Mark said, when asked about to drop the '+' altogether, or make only cmp work:

		I agree (with the first alternative), don't add the '+' on positive
		numbers.  It's not as important anymore with the new internal
		form for numbers.  It made doing things like abs and neg easier,
		but those have to be done differently now anyway.

	So, the following examples will now work all as expected:

		use Test;
		BEGIN { plan tests => 1 }
		use Math::BigInt;

		my $x = new Math::BigInt 3*3;
		my $y = new Math::BigInt 3*3;

		ok ($x,3*3);
		print "$x eq 9" if $x eq $y;
		print "$x eq 9" if $x eq '9';
		print "$x eq 9" if $x eq 3*3;

	Additionally, the following still works:

		print "$x == 9" if $x == $y;
		print "$x == 9" if $x == 9;
		print "$x == 9" if $x == 3*3;

	There is now a "bsstr()" method to get the string in scientific notation aka 1e+2 instead
	of 100. Be advised that overloaded 'eq' always uses bstr() for comparisation, but Perl
	will represent some numbers as 100 and others as 1e+308. If in doubt, convert both argu-
	ments to Math::BigInt before doing eq:

		use Test;
		BEGIN { plan tests => 3 }
		use Math::BigInt;

		$x = Math::BigInt->new('1e56'); $y = 1e56;
		ok ($x,$y);			# will fail
		ok ($x->bsstr(),$y);		# okay
		$y = Math::BigInt->new($y);
		ok ($x,$y);			# okay

	Alternatively, simple use <=> for comparisations, that will get it always right. There is
	not yet a way to get a number automatically represented as a string that matches exactly
	the way Perl represents it.

	"int()" will return (at least for Perl v5.7.1 and up) another BigInt, not a Perl scalar:

		$x = Math::BigInt->new(123);
		$y = int($x);				# BigInt 123
		$x = Math::BigFloat->new(123.45);
		$y = int($x);				# BigInt 123

	In all Perl versions you can use "as_number()" for the same effect:

		$x = Math::BigFloat->new(123.45);
		$y = $x->as_number();			# BigInt 123

	This also works for other subclasses, like Math::String.

	It is yet unlcear whether overloaded int() should return a scalar or a BigInt.

	The following will probably not do what you expect:

		$c = Math::BigInt->new(123);
		print $c->length(),"\n";		# prints 30

	It prints both the number of digits in the number and in the fraction part since print
	calls "length()" in list context. Use something like:

		print scalar $c->length(),"\n"; 	# prints 3

	The following will probably not do what you expect:

		print $c->bdiv(10000),"\n";

	It prints both quotient and remainder since print calls "bdiv()" in list context. Also,
	"bdiv()" will modify $c, so be carefull. You probably want to use

		print $c / 10000,"\n";
		print scalar $c->bdiv(10000),"\n";  # or if you want to modify $c


	The quotient is always the greatest integer less than or equal to the real-valued quo-
	tient of the two operands, and the remainder (when it is nonzero) always has the same
	sign as the second operand; so, for example,

		  1 / 4  => ( 0, 1)
		  1 / -4 => (-1,-3)
		 -3 / 4  => (-1, 1)
		 -3 / -4 => ( 0,-3)
		-11 / 2  => (-5,1)
		 11 /-2  => (-5,-1)

	As a consequence, the behavior of the operator % agrees with the behavior of Perl's
	built-in % operator (as documented in the perlop manpage), and the equation

		$x == ($x / $y) * $y + ($x % $y)

	holds true for any $x and $y, which justifies calling the two return values of bdiv() the
	quotient and remainder. The only exception to this rule are when $y == 0 and $x is nega-
	tive, then the remainder will also be negative. See below under "infinity handling" for
	the reasoning behing this.

	Perl's 'use integer;' changes the behaviour of % and / for scalars, but will not change
	BigInt's way to do things. This is because under 'use integer' Perl will do what the
	underlying C thinks is right and this is different for each system. If you need BigInt's
	behaving exactly like Perl's 'use integer', bug the author to implement it ;)

       infinity handling
	Here are some examples that explain the reasons why certain results occur while handling

	The following table shows the result of the division and the remainder, so that the equa-
	tion above holds true. Some "ordinary" cases are strewn in to show more clearly the rea-

		A /  B	=   C,	   R so that C *    B +    R =	  A
		5 /   8 =   0,	   5	     0 *    8 +    5 =	  5
		0 /   8 =   0,	   0	     0 *    8 +    0 =	  0
		0 / inf =   0,	   0	     0 *  inf +    0 =	  0
		0 /-inf =   0,	   0	     0 * -inf +    0 =	  0
		5 / inf =   0,	   5	     0 *  inf +    5 =	  5
		5 /-inf =   0,	   5	     0 * -inf +    5 =	  5
		-5/ inf =   0,	  -5	     0 *  inf +   -5 =	 -5
		-5/-inf =   0,	  -5	     0 * -inf +   -5 =	 -5
	       inf/   5 =  inf,    0	   inf *    5 +    0 =	inf
	      -inf/   5 = -inf,    0	  -inf *    5 +    0 = -inf
	       inf/  -5 = -inf,    0	  -inf *   -5 +    0 =	inf
	      -inf/  -5 =  inf,    0	   inf *   -5 +    0 = -inf
		 5/   5 =    1,    0	     1 *    5 +    0 =	  5
		-5/  -5 =    1,    0	     1 *   -5 +    0 =	 -5
	       inf/ inf =    1,    0	     1 *  inf +    0 =	inf
	      -inf/-inf =    1,    0	     1 * -inf +    0 = -inf
	       inf/-inf =   -1,    0	    -1 * -inf +    0 =	inf
	      -inf/ inf =   -1,    0	     1 * -inf +    0 = -inf
		 8/   0 =  inf,    8	   inf *    0 +    8 =	  8
	       inf/   0 =  inf,  inf	   inf *    0 +  inf =	inf
		 0/   0 =  NaN

	These cases below violate the "remainder has the sign of the second of the two argu-
	ments", since they wouldn't match up otherwise.

		A /  B	=   C,	   R so that C *    B +    R =	  A
	      -inf/   0 = -inf, -inf	  -inf *    0 +  inf = -inf
		-8/   0 = -inf,   -8	  -inf *    0 +    8 = -8

       Modifying and =
	Beware of:

		$x = Math::BigFloat->new(5);
		$y = $x;

	It will not do what you think, e.g. making a copy of $x. Instead it just makes a second
	reference to the same object and stores it in $y. Thus anything that modifies $x (except
	overloaded operators) will modify $y, and vice versa.  Or in other words, "=" is only
	safe if you modify your BigInts only via overloaded math. As soon as you use a method
	call it breaks:

		print "$x, $y\n";	# prints '10, 10'

	If you want a true copy of $x, use:

		$y = $x->copy();

	You can also chain the calls like this, this will make first a copy and then multiply it
	by 2:

		$y = $x->copy()->bmul(2);

	See also the documentation for overload.pm regarding "=".

	"bpow()" (and the rounding functions) now modifies the first argument and returns it,
	unlike the old code which left it alone and only returned the result. This is to be con-
	sistent with "badd()" etc. The first three will modify $x, the last one won't:

		print bpow($x,$i),"\n"; 	# modify $x
		print $x->bpow($i),"\n";	# ditto
		print $x **= $i,"\n";		# the same
		print $x ** $i,"\n";		# leave $x alone

	The form "$x **= $y" is faster than "$x = $x ** $y;", though.

       Overloading -$x
	The following:

		$x = -$x;

	is slower than


	since overload calls "sub($x,0,1);" instead of "neg($x)". The first variant needs to pre-
	serve $x since it does not know that it later will get overwritten.  This makes a copy of
	$x and takes O(N), but $x->bneg() is O(1).

	With Copy-On-Write, this issue would be gone, but C-o-W is not implemented since it is
	slower for all other things.

       Mixing different object types
	In Perl you will get a floating point value if you do one of the following:

		$float = 5.0 + 2;
		$float = 2 + 5.0;
		$float = 5 / 2;

	With overloaded math, only the first two variants will result in a BigFloat:

		use Math::BigInt;
		use Math::BigFloat;

		$mbf = Math::BigFloat->new(5);
		$mbi2 = Math::BigInteger->new(5);
		$mbi = Math::BigInteger->new(2);

						# what actually gets called:
		$float = $mbf + $mbi;		# $mbf->badd()
		$float = $mbf / $mbi;		# $mbf->bdiv()
		$integer = $mbi + $mbf; 	# $mbi->badd()
		$integer = $mbi2 / $mbi;	# $mbi2->bdiv()
		$integer = $mbi2 / $mbf;	# $mbi2->bdiv()

	This is because math with overloaded operators follows the first (dominating) operand,
	and the operation of that is called and returns thus the result. So, Math::BigInt::bdiv()
	will always return a Math::BigInt, regardless whether the result should be a
	Math::BigFloat or the second operant is one.

	To get a Math::BigFloat you either need to call the operation manually, make sure the op-
	erands are already of the proper type or casted to that type via Math::BigFloat->new():

		$float = Math::BigFloat->new($mbi2) / $mbi;	# = 2.5

	Beware of simple "casting" the entire expression, this would only convert the already
	computed result:

		$float = Math::BigFloat->new($mbi2 / $mbi);	# = 2.0 thus wrong!

	Beware also of the order of more complicated expressions like:

		$integer = ($mbi2 + $mbi) / $mbf;		# int / float => int
		$integer = $mbi2 / Math::BigFloat->new($mbi);	# ditto

	If in doubt, break the expression into simpler terms, or cast all operands to the desired
	resulting type.

	Scalar values are a bit different, since:

		$float = 2 + $mbf;
		$float = $mbf + 2;

	will both result in the proper type due to the way the overloaded math works.

	This section also applies to other overloaded math packages, like Math::String.

	One solution to you problem might be autoupgrading.

	"bsqrt()" works only good if the result is a big integer, e.g. the square root of 144 is
	12, but from 12 the square root is 3, regardless of rounding mode.

	If you want a better approximation of the square root, then use:

		$x = Math::BigFloat->new(12);
		print $x->copy->bsqrt(),"\n";		# 4

		print $x->bsqrt(),"\n"; 		# 3.46
		print $x->bsqrt(3),"\n";		# 3.464

	For negative numbers in base see also brsft.

       This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.

       Math::BigFloat and Math::Big as well as Math::BigInt::BitVect, Math::BigInt::Pari and

       The package at <http://search.cpan.org/search?mode=module&query=Math%3A%3ABigInt> contains
       more documentation including a full version history, testcases, empty subclass files and

       Original code by Mark Biggar, overloaded interface by Ilya Zakharevich.	Completely
       rewritten by Tels http://bloodgate.com in late 2000, 2001.

perl v5.8.0				    2002-06-01				Math::BigInt(3pm)

All times are GMT -4. The time now is 08:27 AM.

Unix & Linux Forums Content Copyrightę1993-2018. All Rights Reserved.
Show Password