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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for file::glob (redhat section 3pm)

File::Glob(3pm) 		 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		  File::Glob(3pm)

NAME
       File::Glob - Perl extension for BSD glob routine

SYNOPSIS
	 use File::Glob ':glob';
	 @list = bsd_glob('*.[ch]');
	 $homedir = bsd_glob('~gnat', GLOB_TILDE | GLOB_ERR);
	 if (GLOB_ERROR) {
	   # an error occurred reading $homedir
	 }

	 ## override the core glob (CORE::glob() does this automatically
	 ## by default anyway, since v5.6.0)
	 use File::Glob ':globally';
	 my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>

	 ## override the core glob, forcing case sensitivity
	 use File::Glob qw(:globally :case);
	 my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>

	 ## override the core glob forcing case insensitivity
	 use File::Glob qw(:globally :nocase);
	 my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>

DESCRIPTION
       File::Glob::bsd_glob() implements the FreeBSD glob(3) routine, which is a superset of the
       POSIX glob() (described in IEEE Std 1003.2 "POSIX.2").  bsd_glob() takes a mandatory "pat-
       tern" argument, and an optional "flags" argument, and returns a list of filenames matching
       the pattern, with interpretation of the pattern modified by the "flags" variable.

       Since v5.6.0, Perl's CORE::glob() is implemented in terms of bsd_glob().  Note that they
       don't share the same prototype--CORE::glob() only accepts a single argument.  Due to his-
       torical reasons, CORE::glob() will also split its argument on whitespace, treating it as
       multiple patterns, whereas bsd_glob() considers them as one pattern.

       The POSIX defined flags for bsd_glob() are:

       "GLOB_ERR"
	   Force bsd_glob() to return an error when it encounters a directory it cannot open or
	   read.  Ordinarily bsd_glob() continues to find matches.

       "GLOB_LIMIT"
	   Make bsd_glob() return an error (GLOB_NOSPACE) when the pattern expands to a size big-
	   ger than the system constant "ARG_MAX" (usually found in limits.h).	If your system
	   does not define this constant, bsd_glob() uses "sysconf(_SC_ARG_MAX)" or
	   "_POSIX_ARG_MAX" where available (in that order).  You can inspect these values using
	   the standard "POSIX" extension.

       "GLOB_MARK"
	   Each pathname that is a directory that matches the pattern has a slash appended.

       "GLOB_NOCASE"
	   By default, file names are assumed to be case sensitive; this flag makes bsd_glob()
	   treat case differences as not significant.

       "GLOB_NOCHECK"
	   If the pattern does not match any pathname, then bsd_glob() returns a list consisting
	   of only the pattern.  If "GLOB_QUOTE" is set, its effect is present in the pattern
	   returned.

       "GLOB_NOSORT"
	   By default, the pathnames are sorted in ascending ASCII order; this flag prevents that
	   sorting (speeding up bsd_glob()).

       The FreeBSD extensions to the POSIX standard are the following flags:

       "GLOB_BRACE"
	   Pre-process the string to expand "{pat,pat,...}" strings like csh(1).  The pattern
	   '{}' is left unexpanded for historical reasons (and csh(1) does the same thing to ease
	   typing of find(1) patterns).

       "GLOB_NOMAGIC"
	   Same as "GLOB_NOCHECK" but it only returns the pattern if it does not contain any of
	   the special characters "*", "?" or "[".  "NOMAGIC" is provided to simplify implement-
	   ing the historic csh(1) globbing behaviour and should probably not be used anywhere
	   else.

       "GLOB_QUOTE"
	   Use the backslash ('\') character for quoting: every occurrence of a backslash fol-
	   lowed by a character in the pattern is replaced by that character, avoiding any spe-
	   cial interpretation of the character.  (But see below for exceptions on DOSISH sys-
	   tems).

       "GLOB_TILDE"
	   Expand patterns that start with '~' to user name home directories.

       "GLOB_CSH"
	   For convenience, "GLOB_CSH" is a synonym for "GLOB_BRACE | GLOB_NOMAGIC | GLOB_QUOTE |
	   GLOB_TILDE | GLOB_ALPHASORT".

       The POSIX provided "GLOB_APPEND", "GLOB_DOOFFS", and the FreeBSD extensions "GLOB_ALTDIR-
       FUNC", and "GLOB_MAGCHAR" flags have not been implemented in the Perl version because they
       involve more complex interaction with the underlying C structures.

       The following flag has been added in the Perl implementation for csh compatibility:

       "GLOB_ALPHASORT"
	   If "GLOB_NOSORT" is not in effect, sort filenames is alphabetical order (case does not
	   matter) rather than in ASCII order.

DIAGNOSTICS
       bsd_glob() returns a list of matching paths, possibly zero length.  If an error occurred,
       &File::Glob::GLOB_ERROR will be non-zero and $! will be set.  &File::Glob::GLOB_ERROR is
       guaranteed to be zero if no error occurred, or one of the following values otherwise:

       "GLOB_NOSPACE"
	   An attempt to allocate memory failed.

       "GLOB_ABEND"
	   The glob was stopped because an error was encountered.

       In the case where bsd_glob() has found some matching paths, but is interrupted by an
       error, it will return a list of filenames and set &File::Glob::ERROR.

       Note that bsd_glob() deviates from POSIX and FreeBSD glob(3) behaviour by not considering
       "ENOENT" and "ENOTDIR" as errors - bsd_glob() will continue processing despite those
       errors, unless the "GLOB_ERR" flag is set.

       Be aware that all filenames returned from File::Glob are tainted.

NOTES
       o   If you want to use multiple patterns, e.g. "bsd_glob "a* b*"", you should probably
	   throw them in a set as in "bsd_glob "{a*,b*}"".  This is because the argument to
	   bsd_glob() isn't subjected to parsing by the C shell.  Remember that you can use a
	   backslash to escape things.

       o   On DOSISH systems, backslash is a valid directory separator character.  In this case,
	   use of backslash as a quoting character (via GLOB_QUOTE) interferes with the use of
	   backslash as a directory separator. The best (simplest, most portable) solution is to
	   use forward slashes for directory separators, and backslashes for quoting. However,
	   this does not match "normal practice" on these systems. As a concession to user expec-
	   tation, therefore, backslashes (under GLOB_QUOTE) only quote the glob metacharacters
	   '[', ']', '{', '}', '-', '~', and backslash itself.	All other backslashes are passed
	   through unchanged.

       o   Win32 users should use the real slash.  If you really want to use backslashes, con-
	   sider using Sarathy's File::DosGlob, which comes with the standard Perl distribution.

       o   Mac OS (Classic) users should note a few differences. Since Mac OS is not Unix, when
	   the glob code encounters a tilde glob (e.g.	~user) and the "GLOB_TILDE" flag is used,
	   it simply returns that pattern without doing any expansion.

	   Glob on Mac OS is case-insensitive by default (if you don't use any flags). If you
	   specify any flags at all and still want glob to be case-insensitive, you must include
	   "GLOB_NOCASE" in the flags.

	   The path separator is ':' (aka colon), not '/' (aka slash). Mac OS users should be
	   careful about specifying relative pathnames. While a full path always begins with a
	   volume name, a relative pathname should always begin with a ':'.  If specifying a vol-
	   ume name only, a trailing ':' is required.

	   The specification of pathnames in glob patterns adheres to the usual Mac OS conven-
	   tions: The path separator is a colon ':', not a slash '/'. A full path always begins
	   with a volume name. A relative pathname on Mac OS must always begin with a ':', except
	   when specifying a file or directory name in the current working directory, where the
	   leading colon is optional. If specifying a volume name only, a trailing ':' is
	   required. Due to these rules, a glob like <*:> will find all mounted volumes, while a
	   glob like <*> or <:*> will find all files and directories in the current directory.

	   Note that updirs in the glob pattern are resolved before the matching begins, i.e. a
	   pattern like "*HD:t?p::a*" will be matched as "*HD:a*". Note also, that a single
	   trailing ':' in the pattern is ignored (unless it's a volume name pattern like
	   "*HD:"), i.e. a glob like <:*:> will find both directories and files (and not, as one
	   might expect, only directories).  You can, however, use the "GLOB_MARK" flag to dis-
	   tinguish (without a file test) directory names from file names.

	   If the "GLOB_MARK" flag is set, all directory paths will have a ':' appended.  Since a
	   directory like 'lib:' is not a valid relative path on Mac OS, both a leading and a
	   trailing colon will be added, when the directory name in question doesn't contain any
	   colons (e.g. 'lib' becomes ':lib:').

AUTHOR
       The Perl interface was written by Nathan Torkington <gnat@frii.com>, and is released under
       the artistic license.  Further modifications were made by Greg Bacon <gbacon@cs.uah.edu>,
       Gurusamy Sarathy <gsar@activestate.com>, and Thomas Wegner <wegner_thomas@yahoo.com>.  The
       C glob code has the following copyright:

	   Copyright (c) 1989, 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
	   All rights reserved.

	   This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
	   Guido van Rossum.

	   Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
	   modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
	   are met:

	   1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
	      notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
	   2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
	      notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
	      documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
	   3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
	      may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
	      without specific prior written permission.

	   THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
	   ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
	   IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
	   ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
	   FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
	   DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
	   OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
	   HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
	   LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
	   OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
	   SUCH DAMAGE.

perl v5.8.0				    2002-06-01				  File::Glob(3pm)


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