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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for benchmark (redhat section 3pm)

Benchmark(3pm)			 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		   Benchmark(3pm)

       Benchmark - benchmark running times of Perl code

	   use Benchmark qw(:all) ;

	   timethis ($count, "code");

	   # Use Perl code in strings...
	   timethese($count, {
	       'Name1' => '...code1...',
	       'Name2' => '...code2...',

	   # ... or use subroutine references.
	   timethese($count, {
	       'Name1' => sub { ...code1... },
	       'Name2' => sub { ...code2... },

	   # cmpthese can be used both ways as well
	   cmpthese($count, {
	       'Name1' => '...code1...',
	       'Name2' => '...code2...',

	   cmpthese($count, {
	       'Name1' => sub { ...code1... },
	       'Name2' => sub { ...code2... },

	   # ...or in two stages
	   $results = timethese($count,
		   'Name1' => sub { ...code1... },
		   'Name2' => sub { ...code2... },
	   cmpthese( $results ) ;

	   $t = timeit($count, '...other code...')
	   print "$count loops of other code took:",timestr($t),"\n";

	   $t = countit($time, '...other code...')
	   $count = $t->iters ;
	   print "$count loops of other code took:",timestr($t),"\n";

	   # enable hires wallclock timing if possible
	   use Benchmark ':hireswallclock';

       The Benchmark module encapsulates a number of routines to help you figure out how long it
       takes to execute some code.

       timethis - run a chunk of code several times

       timethese - run several chunks of code several times

       cmpthese - print results of timethese as a comparison chart

       timeit - run a chunk of code and see how long it goes

       countit - see how many times a chunk of code runs in a given time


       new	 Returns the current time.   Example:

		     use Benchmark;
		     $t0 = new Benchmark;
		     # ... your code here ...
		     $t1 = new Benchmark;
		     $td = timediff($t1, $t0);
		     print "the code took:",timestr($td),"\n";

       debug	 Enables or disable debugging by setting the $Benchmark::Debug flag:

		     debug Benchmark 1;
		     $t = timeit(10, ' 5 ** $Global ');
		     debug Benchmark 0;

       iters	 Returns the number of iterations.

       Standard Exports

       The following routines will be exported into your namespace if you use the Benchmark mod-

       timeit(COUNT, CODE)
		 Arguments: COUNT is the number of times to run the loop, and CODE is the code to
		 run.  CODE may be either a code reference or a string to be eval'd; either way
		 it will be run in the caller's package.

		 Returns: a Benchmark object.

       timethis ( COUNT, CODE, [ TITLE, [ STYLE ]] )
		 Time COUNT iterations of CODE. CODE may be a string to eval or a code reference;
		 either way the CODE will run in the caller's package.	Results will be printed
		 to STDOUT as TITLE followed by the times.  TITLE defaults to "timethis COUNT" if
		 none is provided. STYLE determines the format of the output, as described for
		 timestr() below.

		 The COUNT can be zero or negative: this means the minimum number of CPU seconds
		 to run.  A zero signifies the default of 3 seconds.  For example to run at least
		 for 10 seconds:

			 timethis(-10, $code)

		 or to run two pieces of code tests for at least 3 seconds:

			 timethese(0, { test1 => '...', test2 => '...'})

		 CPU seconds is, in UNIX terms, the user time plus the system time of the process
		 itself, as opposed to the real (wallclock) time and the time spent by the child
		 processes.  Less than 0.1 seconds is not accepted (-0.01 as the count, for exam-
		 ple, will cause a fatal runtime exception).

		 Note that the CPU seconds is the minimum time: CPU scheduling and other operat-
		 ing system factors may complicate the attempt so that a little bit more time is
		 spent.  The benchmark output will, however, also tell the number of $code
		 runs/second, which should be a more interesting number than the actually spent

		 Returns a Benchmark object.

       timethese ( COUNT, CODEHASHREF, [ STYLE ] )
		 The CODEHASHREF is a reference to a hash containing names as keys and either a
		 string to eval or a code reference for each value.  For each (KEY, VALUE) pair
		 in the CODEHASHREF, this routine will call

			 timethis(COUNT, VALUE, KEY, STYLE)

		 The routines are called in string comparison order of KEY.

		 The COUNT can be zero or negative, see timethis().

		 Returns a hash of Benchmark objects, keyed by name.

       timediff ( T1, T2 )
		 Returns the difference between two Benchmark times as a Benchmark object suit-
		 able for passing to timestr().

       timestr ( TIMEDIFF, [ STYLE, [ FORMAT ] ] )
		 Returns a string that formats the times in the TIMEDIFF object in the requested
		 STYLE. TIMEDIFF is expected to be a Benchmark object similar to that returned by

		 STYLE can be any of 'all', 'none', 'noc', 'nop' or 'auto'. 'all' shows each of
		 the 5 times available ('wallclock' time, user time, system time, user time of
		 children, and system time of children). 'noc' shows all except the two children
		 times. 'nop' shows only wallclock and the two children times. 'auto' (the
		 default) will act as 'all' unless the children times are both zero, in which
		 case it acts as 'noc'.  'none' prevents output.

		 FORMAT is the printf(3)-style format specifier (without the leading '%') to use
		 to print the times. It defaults to '5.2f'.

       Optional Exports

       The following routines will be exported into your namespace if you specifically ask that
       they be imported:

       clearcache ( COUNT )
		 Clear the cached time for COUNT rounds of the null loop.

       clearallcache ( )
		 Clear all cached times.

       cmpthese ( COUNT, CODEHASHREF, [ STYLE ] )
       cmpthese ( RESULTSHASHREF, [ STYLE ] )
		 Optionally calls timethese(), then outputs comparison chart.  This:

		     cmpthese( -1, { a => "++\$i", b => "\$i *= 2" } ) ;

		 outputs a chart like:

			    Rate    b	 a
		     b 2831802/s   -- -61%
		     a 7208959/s 155%	--

		 This chart is sorted from slowest to fastest, and shows the percent speed dif-
		 ference between each pair of tests.

		 c<cmpthese> can also be passed the data structure that timethese() returns:

		     $results = timethese( -1, { a => "++\$i", b => "\$i *= 2" } ) ;
		     cmpthese( $results );

		 in case you want to see both sets of results.

		 Returns a reference to an ARRAY of rows, each row is an ARRAY of cells from the
		 above chart, including labels. This:

		     my $rows = cmpthese( -1, { a => '++$i', b => '$i *= 2' }, "none" );

		 returns a data structure like:

			 [ '',	     'Rate',   'b',    'a' ],
			 [ 'b', '2885232/s',  '--', '-59%' ],
			 [ 'a', '7099126/s', '146%',  '--' ],

		 NOTE: This result value differs from previous versions, which returned the
		 "timethese()" result structure.  If you want that, just use the two statement
		 "timethese"..."cmpthese" idiom shown above.

		 Incidently, note the variance in the result values between the two examples;
		 this is typical of benchmarking.  If this were a real benchmark, you would prob-
		 ably want to run a lot more iterations.

       countit(TIME, CODE)
		 Arguments: TIME is the minimum length of time to run CODE for, and CODE is the
		 code to run.  CODE may be either a code reference or a string to be eval'd;
		 either way it will be run in the caller's package.

		 TIME is not negative.	countit() will run the loop many times to calculate the
		 speed of CODE before running it for TIME.  The actual time run for will usually
		 be greater than TIME due to system clock resolution, so it's best to look at the
		 number of iterations divided by the times that you are concerned with, not just
		 the iterations.

		 Returns: a Benchmark object.

       disablecache ( )
		 Disable caching of timings for the null loop. This will force Benchmark to
		 recalculate these timings for each new piece of code timed.

       enablecache ( )
		 Enable caching of timings for the null loop. The time taken for COUNT rounds of
		 the null loop will be calculated only once for each different COUNT used.

       timesum ( T1, T2 )
		 Returns the sum of two Benchmark times as a Benchmark object suitable for pass-
		 ing to timestr().


       If the Time::HiRes module has been installed, you can specify the special tag ":hireswall-
       clock" for Benchmark (if Time::HiRes is not available, the tag will be silently ignored).
       This tag will cause the wallclock time to be measured in microseconds, instead of integer
       seconds.  Note though that the speed computations are still conducted in CPU time, not
       wallclock time.

       The data is stored as a list of values from the time and times functions:

	     ($real, $user, $system, $children_user, $children_system, $iters)

       in seconds for the whole loop (not divided by the number of rounds).

       The timing is done using time(3) and times(3).

       Code is executed in the caller's package.

       The time of the null loop (a loop with the same number of rounds but empty loop body) is
       subtracted from the time of the real loop.

       The null loop times can be cached, the key being the number of rounds. The caching can be
       controlled using calls like these:



       Caching is off by default, as it can (usually slightly) decrease accuracy and does not
       usually noticably affect runtimes.

       For example,

	   use Benchmark qw( cmpthese ) ;
	   $x = 3;
	   cmpthese( -5, {
	       a => sub{$x*$x},
	       b => sub{$x**2},
	   } );

       outputs something like this:

	  Benchmark: running a, b, each for at least 5 CPU seconds...
		 Rate	 b    a
	  b 1559428/s	-- -62%
	  a 4152037/s 166%   --


	   use Benchmark qw( timethese cmpthese ) ;
	   $x = 3;
	   $r = timethese( -5, {
	       a => sub{$x*$x},
	       b => sub{$x**2},
	   } );
	   cmpthese $r;

       outputs something like this:

	   Benchmark: running a, b, each for at least 5 CPU seconds...
		    a: 10 wallclock secs ( 5.14 usr +  0.13 sys =  5.27 CPU) @ 3835055.60/s (n=20210743)
		    b:	5 wallclock secs ( 5.41 usr +  0.00 sys =  5.41 CPU) @ 1574944.92/s (n=8520452)
		  Rate	  b    a
	   b 1574945/s	 -- -59%
	   a 3835056/s 144%   --

       Benchmark inherits from no other class, except of course for Exporter.

       Comparing eval'd strings with code references will give you inaccurate results: a code
       reference will show a slightly slower execution time than the equivalent eval'd string.

       The real time timing is done using time(2) and the granularity is therefore only one sec-

       Short tests may produce negative figures because perl can appear to take longer to execute
       the empty loop than a short test; try:


       The system time of the null loop might be slightly more than the system time of the loop
       with the actual code and therefore the difference might end up being < 0.

       Devel::DProf - a Perl code profiler

       Jarkko Hietaniemi <jhi@iki.fi>, Tim Bunce <Tim.Bunce@ig.co.uk>

       September 8th, 1994; by Tim Bunce.

       March 28th, 1997; by Hugo van der Sanden: added support for code references and the
       already documented 'debug' method; revamped documentation.

       April 04-07th, 1997: by Jarkko Hietaniemi, added the run-for-some-time functionality.

       September, 1999; by Barrie Slaymaker: math fixes and accuracy and efficiency tweaks.
       Added cmpthese().  A result is now returned from timethese().  Exposed countit() (was run-

       December, 2001; by Nicholas Clark: make timestr() recognise the style 'none' and return an
       empty string. If cmpthese is calling timethese, make it pass the style in. (so that 'none'
       will suppress output). Make sub new dump its debugging output to STDERR, to be consistent
       with everything else.  All bugs found while writing a regression test.

       September, 2002; by Jarkko Hietaniemi: add ':hireswallclock' special tag.

perl v5.8.0				    2002-06-01				   Benchmark(3pm)

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