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STRTOUL(3)			    Linux Programmer's Manual			       STRTOUL(3)

       strtoul, strtoull, strtouq - convert a string to an unsigned long integer

       #include <stdlib.h>

       unsigned long int
       strtoul(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

       unsigned long long int
       strtoull(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

       The strtoul() function converts the initial part of the string in nptr to an unsigned long
       integer value according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be
       the special value 0.

       The  string  must  begin  with  an  arbitrary amount of white space (as determined by iss-
       pace(3)) followed by a single optional `+' or `-' sign.	If base is zero or 16, the string
       may  then include a `0x' prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero
       base is taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is `0', in which case it is  taken
       as 8 (octal).

       The remainder of the string is converted to an unsigned long int value in the obvious man-
       ner, stopping at the first character which is not a valid digit in the  given  base.   (In
       bases above 10, the letter `A' in either upper or lower case represents 10, `B' represents
       11, and so forth, with `Z' representing 35.)

       If endptr is not NULL, strtoul() stores the address of  the  first  invalid  character  in
       *endptr.   If  there were no digits at all, strtoul() stores the original value of nptr in
       *endptr (and returns 0).  In particular, if *nptr is not `\0'  but  **endptr  is  `\0'  on
       return, the entire string is valid.

       The  strtoull()	function  works  just like the strtoul() function but returns an unsigned
       long long integer value.

       The strtoul() function returns either the result of the conversion  or,	if  there  was	a
       leading	minus  sign,  the  negation  of the result of the conversion, unless the original
       (non-negated) value would overflow; in the latter case, strtoul()  returns  ULONG_MAX  and
       sets  the  global variable errno to ERANGE.  Precisely the same holds for strtoull() (with
       ULLONG_MAX instead of ULONG_MAX).

       ERANGE The resulting value was out of range.

       EINVAL (not in C99) The given base contains an unsupported value.

       The implementation may also set errno to EINVAL in case no conversion  was  performed  (no
       digits seen, and 0 returned).

       In  locales  other than the "C" locale, also other strings may be accepted.  (For example,
       the thousands separator of the current locale may be supported.)

       BSD also has

	   strtouq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

       with completely analogous definition.  Depending on the wordsize of the current	architec-
       ture, this may be equivalent to strtoull() or to strtoul().

       strtoul()  conforms  to	SVID  3, BSD 4.3, ISO 9899 (C99) and POSIX, and strtoull() to ISO
       9899 (C99) and POSIX-2001.

       atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtod(3), strtol(3)

GNU					    2002-05-30				       STRTOUL(3)
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