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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for mfree (netbsd section 9)

MBUF(9) 						   BSD Kernel Developer's Manual						   MBUF(9)

NAME
mbuf, m_get, m_getclr, m_gethdr, m_devget, m_copym, m_copypacket, m_copydata, m_copyback, m_copyback_cow, m_cat, m_dup, m_makewritable, m_prepend, m_pulldown, m_pullup, m_split, m_adj, m_apply, m_free, m_freem, mtod, MGET, MGETHDR, MEXTMALLOC, MEXTADD, MCLGET, M_COPY_PKTHDR, M_MOVE_PKTHDR, M_ALIGN, MH_ALIGN, M_LEADINGSPACE, M_TRAILINGSPACE, M_PREPEND, MCHTYPE, MFREE -- functions and macros for managing memory used by networking code
SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/mbuf.h> struct mbuf * m_get(int nowait, int type); struct mbuf * m_getclr(int nowait, int type); struct mbuf * m_gethdr(int nowait, int type); struct mbuf * m_devget(char *buf, int totlen, int off0, struct ifnet *ifp, void (*copy)(const void *, void *, size_t)); struct mbuf * m_copym(struct mbuf *m, int off0, int len, int wait); struct mbuf * m_copypacket(struct mbuf *m, int how); void m_copydata(struct mbuf *m, int off, int len, void *cp); void m_copyback(struct mbuf *m0, int off, int len, void *cp); struct mbuf * m_copyback_cow(struct mbuf *m0, int off, int len, void *cp, int how); int m_makewritable(struct mbuf **mp, int off, int len, int how); void m_cat(struct mbuf *m, struct mbuf *n); struct mbuf * m_dup(struct mbuf *m, int off0, int len, int wait); struct mbuf * m_prepend(struct mbuf *m, int len, int how); struct mbuf * m_pulldown(struct mbuf *m, int off, int len, int *offp); struct mbuf * m_pullup(struct mbuf *n, int len); struct mbuf * m_split(struct mbuf *m0, int len0, int wait); void m_adj(struct mbuf *mp, int req_len); int m_apply(struct mbuf *m, int off, int len, int *f(void *, void *, unsigned int), void *arg); struct mbuf * m_free(struct mbuf *m); void m_freem(struct mbuf *m); datatype mtod(struct mbuf *m, datatype); void MGET(struct mbuf *m, int how, int type); void MGETHDR(struct mbuf *m, int how, int type); void MEXTMALLOC(struct mbuf *m, int len, int how); void MEXTADD(struct mbuf *m, void *buf, int size, int type, void (*free)(struct mbuf *, void *, size_t, void *), void *arg); void MCLGET(struct mbuf *m, int how); void M_COPY_PKTHDR(struct mbuf *to, struct mbuf *from); void M_MOVE_PKTHDR(struct mbuf *to, struct mbuf *from); void M_ALIGN(struct mbuf *m, int len); void MH_ALIGN(struct mbuf *m, int len); int M_LEADINGSPACE(struct mbuf *m); int M_TRAILINGSPACE(struct mbuf *m); void M_PREPEND(struct mbuf *m, int plen, int how); void MCHTYPE(struct mbuf *m, int type); void MFREE(struct mbuf *m, struct mbuf *n);
DESCRIPTION
The mbuf functions and macros provide an easy and consistent way to handle a networking stack's memory management needs. An mbuf consists of a header and a data area. It is of a fixed size, MSIZE (defined in <machine/param.h>), which includes overhead. The header contains a pointer to the next mbuf in the 'mbuf chain', a pointer to the next 'mbuf chain', a pointer to the data area, the amount of data in this mbuf, its type and a flags field. The type variable can signify: MT_FREE the mbuf should be on the ``free'' list MT_DATA data was dynamically allocated MT_HEADER data is a packet header MT_SONAME data is a socket name MT_SOOPTS data is socket options MT_FTABLE data is the fragment reassembly header MT_CONTROL mbuf contains ancillary (protocol control) data MT_OOBDATA mbuf contains out-of-band data. The flags variable contains information describing the mbuf, notably: M_EXT has external storage M_PKTHDR is start of record M_EOR is end of record M_CLUSTER external storage is a cluster. If an mbuf designates the start of a record (M_PKTHDR), its flags field may contain additional information describing the content of the record: M_BCAST sent/received as link-level broadcast M_MCAST sent/received as link-level multicast M_LINK0, M_LINK1, M_LINK2 three link-level specific flags. An mbuf may add a single 'mbuf cluster' of MCLBYTES bytes (also defined in <machine/param.h>), which has no additional overhead and is used instead of the internal data area; this is done when at least MINCLSIZE bytes of data must be stored. When the M_EXT flag is raised for an mbuf, the external storage area could be shared among multiple mbufs. Be careful when you attempt to overwrite the data content of the mbuf. m_get(int nowait, int type) Allocates an mbuf and initializes it to contain internal data. The nowait parameter is a choice of M_WAIT / M_DONTWAIT from caller. M_WAIT means the call cannot fail, but may take forever. The type parameter is an mbuf type. m_getclr(int nowait, int type) Allocates an mbuf and initializes it to contain internal data, then zeros the data area. The nowait parameter is a choice of M_WAIT / M_DONTWAIT from caller. The type parameter is an mbuf type. m_gethdr(int nowait, int type) Allocates an mbuf and initializes it to contain a packet header and internal data. The nowait parameter is a choice of M_WAIT / M_DONTWAIT from caller. The type parameter is an mbuf type. m_devget(char *buf, int totlen, int off0, struct ifnet *ifp, void (*copy)(const void *, void *, size_t)) Copies len bytes from device local memory into mbufs using copy routine copy. If parameter off is non-zero, the packet is supposed to be trailer-encapsulated and off bytes plus the type and length fields will be skipped before copying. Returns the top of the mbuf chain it created. m_copym(struct mbuf *m, int off0, int len, int wait) Creates a copy of an mbuf chain starting off0 bytes from the beginning, continuing for len bytes. If the len requested is M_COPYALL, the complete mbuf chain will be copied. The wait parameter is a choice of M_WAIT / M_DONTWAIT from caller. m_copypacket(struct mbuf *m, int how) Copies an entire packet, including header (which must be present). This function is an optimization of the common case m_copym(m, 0, M_COPYALL, how). m_copydata(struct mbuf *m, int off, int len, void *cp) Copies len bytes data from mbuf chain m into the buffer cp, starting off bytes from the beginning. m_copyback(struct mbuf *m0, int off, int len, void *cp) Copies len bytes data from buffer cp back into the mbuf chain m0, starting off bytes from the beginning of the chain, extending the mbuf chain if necessary. m_copyback() can only fail when extending the chain. The caller should check for this kind of failure by checking the resulting length of the chain in that case. It is an error to use m_copyback() on read-only mbufs. m_copyback_cow(struct mbuf *m0, int off, int len, void *cp, int how) Copies len bytes data from buffer cp back into the mbuf chain m0 as m_copyback() does. Unlike m_copyback(), it is safe to use m_copyback_cow() on read-only mbufs. If needed, m_copyback_cow() automatically allocates new mbufs and adjusts the chain. On suc- cess, it returns a pointer to the resulting mbuf chain, and frees the original mbuf m0. Otherwise, it returns NULL. The how param- eter is a choice of M_WAIT / M_DONTWAIT from the caller. Unlike m_copyback(), extending the mbuf chain isn't supported. It is an error to attempt to extend the mbuf chain using m_copyback_cow(). m_makewritable(struct mbuf **mp, int off, int len, int how) Rearranges an mbuf chain so that len bytes from offset off are writable. When it meets read-only mbufs, it allocates new mbufs, adjusts the chain as m_copyback_cow() does, and copies the original content into them. m_makewritable() does not guarantee that all len bytes at off are consecutive. The how parameter is a choice of M_WAIT / M_DONTWAIT from the caller. m_makewritable() preserves the contents of the mbuf chain even in the case of failure. It updates a pointer to the mbuf chain pointed to by mp. It returns 0 on success. Otherwise, it returns an error code, typically ENOBUFS. m_cat(struct mbuf *m, struct mbuf *n) Concatenates mbuf chain n to m. Both chains must be of the same type; packet headers will not be updated if present. m_dup(struct mbuf *m, int off0, int len, int wait) Similarly to m_copym(), the function creates a copy of an mbuf chain starting off0 bytes from the beginning, continuing for len bytes. While m_copym() tries to share external storage for mbufs with M_EXT flag, m_dup() will deep-copy the whole data content into new mbuf chain and avoids shared external storage. m_prepend(struct mbuf *m, int len, int how) Lesser-used path for M_PREPEND(): allocates new mbuf m of size len to prepend to the chain, copying junk along. The how parameter is a choice of M_WAIT / M_DONTWAIT from caller. m_pulldown(struct mbuf *m, int off, int len, int *offp) Rearranges an mbuf chain so that len bytes from offset off are contiguous and in the data area of an mbuf. The return value points to an mbuf in the middle of the mbuf chain m. If we call the return value n, the contiguous data region is available at mtod(n, void *) + *offp, or mtod(n, void *) if offp is NULL. The top of the mbuf chain m, and mbufs up to off, will not be modified. On successful return, it is guaranteed that the mbuf pointed to by n does not have a shared external storage, therefore it is safe to update the contiguous region. Returns NULL and frees the mbuf chain on failure. len must be smaller or equal than MCLBYTES. m_pullup(struct mbuf *m, int len) Rearranges an mbuf chain so that len bytes are contiguous and in the data area of an mbuf (so that mtod() will work for a structure of size len). Returns the resulting mbuf chain on success, frees it and returns NULL on failure. If there is room, it will add up to max_protohdr - len extra bytes to the contiguous region to possibly avoid being called again. len must be smaller or equal than MHLEN. m_split(struct mbuf *m0, int len0, int wait) Partitions an mbuf chain in two pieces, returning the tail, which is all but the first len0 bytes. In case of failure, it returns NULL and attempts to restore the chain to its original state. m_adj(struct mbuf *mp, int req_len) Shaves off req_len bytes from head or tail of the (valid) data area. If req_len is greater than zero, front bytes are being shaved off, if it's smaller, from the back (and if it is zero, the mbuf will stay bearded). This function does not move data in any way, but is used to manipulate the data area pointer and data length variable of the mbuf in a non-clobbering way. m_apply(struct mbuf *m, int off, int len, int (*f)(void *, void *, unsigned int), void *arg) Apply function f to the data in an mbuf chain starting off bytes from the beginning, continuing for len bytes. Neither off nor len may be negative. arg will be supplied as first argument for f, the second argument will be the pointer to the data buffer of a packet (starting after off bytes in the stream), and the third argument is the amount of data in bytes in this call. If f returns something not equal to zero m_apply() will bail out, returning the return code of f. Upon successful completion it will return zero. m_free(struct mbuf *m) Frees mbuf m. m_freem(struct mbuf *m) Frees the mbuf chain beginning with m. This function contains the elementary sanity check for a NULL pointer. mtod(struct mbuf *m, datatype) Returns a pointer to the data contained in the specified mbuf m, type-casted to the specified data type datatype. Implemented as a macro. MGET(struct mbuf *m, int how, int type) Allocates mbuf m and initializes it to contain internal data. See m_get(). Implemented as a macro. MGETHDR(struct mbuf *m, int how, int type) Allocates mbuf m and initializes it to contain a packet header. See m_gethdr(). Implemented as a macro. MEXTMALLOC(struct mbuf *m, int len, int how) Allocates external storage of size len for mbuf m. The how parameter is a choice of M_WAIT / M_DONTWAIT from caller. The flag M_EXT is set upon success. Implemented as a macro. MEXTADD(struct mbuf *m, void *buf, int size, int type, void (*free)(struct mbuf *, void *, size_t, void *), void *arg) Adds pre-allocated external storage buf to a normal mbuf m; the parameters size, type, free and arg describe the external storage. size is the size of the storage, type describes its malloc(9) type, free is a free routine (if not the usual one), and arg is a pos- sible argument to the free routine. The flag M_EXT is set upon success. Implemented as a macro. If a free routine is specified, it will be called when the mbuf is freed. In the case of former, the first argument for a free routine is the mbuf m and the rou- tine is expected to free it in addition to the external storage pointed by second argument. In the case of latter, the first argu- ment for the routine is NULL. MCLGET(struct mbuf *m, int how) Allocates and adds an mbuf cluster to a normal mbuf m. The how parameter is a choice of M_WAIT / M_DONTWAIT from caller. The flag M_EXT is set upon success. Implemented as a macro. M_COPY_PKTHDR(struct mbuf *to, struct mbuf *from) Copies the mbuf pkthdr from mbuf from to mbuf to. from must have the type flag M_PKTHDR set, and to must be empty. Implemented as a macro. M_MOVE_PKTHDR(struct mbuf *to, struct mbuf *from) Moves the mbuf pkthdr from mbuf from to mbuf to. from must have the type flag M_PKTHDR set, and to must be empty. The flag M_PKTHDR in mbuf from will be cleared. M_ALIGN(struct mbuf *m, int len) Sets the data pointer of a newly allocated mbuf m to len bytes from the end of the mbuf data area, so that len bytes of data written to the mbuf m, starting at the data pointer, will be aligned to the end of the data area. Implemented as a macro. MH_ALIGN(struct mbuf *m, int len) Sets the data pointer of a newly allocated packetheader mbuf m to len bytes from the end of the mbuf data area, so that len bytes of data written to the mbuf m, starting at the data pointer, will be aligned to the end of the data area. Implemented as a macro. M_LEADINGSPACE(struct mbuf *m) Returns the amount of space available before the current start of valid data in mbuf m. Returns 0 if the mbuf data part is shared across multiple mbufs (i.e. not writable). Implemented as a macro. M_TRAILINGSPACE(struct mbuf *m) Returns the amount of space available after the current end of valid data in mbuf m. Returns 0 if the mbuf data part is shared across multiple mbufs (i.e. not writable). Implemented as a macro. M_PREPEND(struct mbuf *m, int plen, int how) Prepends space of size plen to mbuf m. If a new mbuf must be allocated, how specifies whether to wait. If how is M_DONTWAIT and allocation fails, the original mbuf chain is freed and m is set to NULL. Implemented as a macro. MCHTYPE(struct mbuf *m, int type) Change mbuf m to new type type. Implemented as a macro. MFREE(struct mbuf *m, struct mbuf *n) Frees a single mbuf m and places the successor, if any, in mbuf n. Implemented as a macro.
CODE REFERENCES
The mbuf management functions are implemented within the file sys/kern/uipc_mbuf.c. Function prototypes, and the functions implemented as macros are located in sys/sys/mbuf.h.
SEE ALSO
/usr/share/doc/smm/18.net, netstat(1), m_tag(9), malloc(9) Jun-ichiro Hagino, "Mbuf issues in 4.4BSD IPv6/IPsec support (experiences from KAME IPv6/IPsec implementation)", Proceedings of the freenix track: 2000 USENIX annual technical conference, June 2000.
AUTHORS
The original mbuf data structures were designed by Rob Gurwitz when he did the initial TCP/IP implementation at BBN. Further extensions and enhancements were made by Bill Joy, Sam Leffler, and Mike Karels at CSRG. Current implementation of external storage by Matt Thomas <matt@3am-software.com> and Jason R. Thorpe <thorpej@NetBSD.org>.
BSD
March 24, 2008 BSD

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