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       zshzftpsys - zftp function front-end

       This  describes	the  set  of  shell functions supplied with the source distribution as an
       interface to the zftp builtin command, allowing you to perform  FTP  operations	from  the
       shell  command  line or within functions or scripts.  The interface is similar to a tradi-
       tional FTP client (e.g. the ftp command itself, see ftp(1)), but as it  is  entirely  done
       within  the  shell  all the familiar completion, editing and globbing features, and so on,
       are present, and macros are particularly simple to write as they are just  ordinary  shell

       The  prerequisite is that the zftp command, as described in zshmodules(1) , must be avail-
       able in the version of zsh installed at your site.  If the shell is configured to load new
       commands  at  run time, it probably is: typing `zmodload zsh/zftp' will make sure (if that
       runs silently, it has worked).  If this is not the case, it is possible	zftp  was  linked
       into  the  shell anyway: to test this, type `which zftp' and if zftp is available you will
       get the message `zftp: shell built-in command'.

       Commands given directly with zftp builtin may be interspersed  between  the  functions  in
       this  suite;  in a few cases, using zftp directly may cause some of the status information
       stored in shell parameters to become invalid.  Note in particular the description  of  the
       variables $ZFTP_TMOUT, $ZFTP_PREFS and $ZFTP_VERBOSE for zftp.

       You  should  make  sure	all the functions from the Functions/Zftp directory of the source
       distribution are available; they all begin with the two letters `zf'.   They  may  already
       have  been  installed on your system; otherwise, you will need to find them and copy them.
       The directory should appear as one of the  elements  of	the  $fpath  array  (this  should
       already	be  the  case if they were installed), and at least the function zfinit should be
       autoloaded; it will autoload the rest.  Finally, to initialize the use of the  system  you
       need  to  call  the  zfinit  function.  The following code in your .zshrc will arrange for
       this; assume the functions are stored in the directory ~/myfns:

	      fpath=(~/myfns $fpath)
	      autoload -U zfinit

       Note that zfinit assumes you are using the zmodload method to load the zftp  command.   If
       it is already built into the shell, change zfinit to zfinit -n.	It is helpful (though not
       essential) if the call to zfinit appears after any code to initialize the  new  completion
       system, else unnecessary compctl commands will be given.

       The  sequence  of operations in performing a file transfer is essentially the same as that
       in a standard FTP client.  Note that, due to a quirk of the shell's getopts  builtin,  for
       those  functions  that  handle  options	you  must  use `--' rather than `-' to ensure the
       remaining arguments are treated literally (a single `-' is treated as an argument).

   Opening a connection
       zfparams [ host [ user [ password ... ] ] ]
	      Set or show the parameters for a future zfopen with no arguments.  If no	arguments
	      are  given,  the	current parameters are displayed (the password will be shown as a
	      line of asterisks).  If a host is given, and either the user or  password  is  not,
	      they  will  be prompted for; also, any parameter given as `?' will be prompted for,
	      and if the `?' is followed by a string, that will be used as the prompt.	As zfopen
	      calls zfparams to store the parameters, this usually need not be called directly.

	      A  single argument `-' will delete the stored parameters.  This will also cause the
	      memory of the last directory (and so on) on the other host to be deleted.

       zfopen [ -1 ] [ host [ user [ password [ account ] ] ] ]
	      If host is present, open a connection to that host under username user  with  pass-
	      word  password  (and, on the rare occasions when it is necessary, account account).
	      If a necessary parameter is missing or given as `?' it will be  prompted	for.   If
	      host is not present, use a previously stored set of parameters.

	      If  the  command	was  successful,  and the terminal is compatible with xterm or is
	      sun-cmd, a summary will appear in the title bar, giving  the  local  host:directory
	      and  the	remote	host:directory;  this  is  handled  by	the  function zftp_chpwd,
	      described below.

	      Normally, the host, user and password are internally recorded for later re-opening,
	      either  by  a  zfopen  with  no  arguments, or automatically (see below).  With the
	      option `-1', no information is stored.  Also, if an  open  command  with	arguments
	      failed,  the parameters will not be retained (and any previous parameters will also
	      be deleted).  A zfopen on its own, or a zfopen -1, never alters the stored  parame-

	      Both   zfopen   and   zfanon  (but  not  zfparams)  understand  URLs  of	the  form
	      ftp://host/path... as meaning to connect to the host, then change directory to path
	      (which must be a directory, not a file).	The `ftp://' can be omitted; the trailing
	      `/' is enough to trigger recognition of the path.  Note prefixes other than  `ftp:'
	      are  not	recognized, and that all characters after the first slash beyond host are
	      significant in path.

       zfanon [ -1 ] host
	      Open a connection host for anonymous FTP.  The username used is  `anonymous'.   The
	      password (which will be reported the first time) is generated as user@host; this is
	      then stored in the shell parameter $EMAIL_ADDR which can alternatively be set manu-
	      ally to a suitable string.

   Directory management
       zfcd [ dir ]
       zfcd -
       zfcd old new
	      Change  the  current  directory  on the remote server:  this is implemented to have
	      many of the features of the shell builtin cd.

	      In the first form with dir present, change to the directory dir.	The command `zfcd
	      ..'  is  treated specially, so is guaranteed to work on non-UNIX servers (note this
	      is handled internally by zftp).  If dir is omitted, has the effect of `zfcd ~'.

	      The second form changes to the directory previously current.

	      The third form attempts to change the current  directory	by  replacing  the  first
	      occurrence of the string old with the string new in the current directory.

	      Note  that  in this command, and indeed anywhere a remote filename is expected, the
	      string which on the local host corresponds to `~' is converted back to a `~' before
	      being  passed  to the remote machine.  This is convenient because of the way expan-
	      sion is performed on the command line before zfcd receives a string.  For  example,
	      suppose  the  command  is  `zfcd ~/foo'.	The shell will expand this to a full path
	      such as `zfcd /home/user2/pws/foo'.  At this stage,  zfcd  recognises  the  initial
	      path  as	corresponding  to  `~'	and will send the directory to the remote host as
	      ~/foo, so that the `~' will be expanded by the server to the  correct  remote  host
	      directory.   Other  named  directories  of the form `~name' are not treated in this

       zfhere Change directory on the remote server to the one corresponding to the current local
	      directory,  with	special  handling of `~' as in zfcd.  For example, if the current
	      local directory is ~/foo/bar, then zfhere performs the effect of `zfcd ~/foo/bar'.

       zfdir [ -rfd ] [ - ] [ dir-options ] [ dir ]
	      Produce a long directory listing.  The arguments dir-options  and  dir  are  passed
	      directly to the server and their effect is implementation dependent, but specifying
	      a particular remote directory dir  is  usually  possible.   The  output  is  passed
	      through  a pager given by the environment variable $PAGER, or `more' if that is not

	      The directory is usually cached for re-use.  In fact, two  caches  are  maintained.
	      One is for use when there is no dir-options or dir, i.e. a full listing of the cur-
	      rent remote directory; it is flushed when the  current  remote  directory  changes.
	      The  other  is kept for repeated use of zfdir with the same arguments; for example,
	      repeated use of `zfdir /pub/gnu' will only require the directory to be retrieved on
	      the first call.  Alternatively, this cache can be re-viewed with the -r option.  As
	      relative directories will confuse zfdir, the -f option can be  used  to  force  the
	      cache to be flushed before the directory is listed.  The option -d will delete both
	      caches without showing a directory listing; it will also delete the cache  of  file
	      names in the current remote directory, if any.

       zfls [ ls-options ] [ dir ]
	      List  files  on  the  remote server.  With no arguments, this will produce a simple
	      list of file names for the current remote  directory.   Any  arguments  are  passed
	      directly to the server.  No pager and no caching is used.

   Status commands
       zftype [ type ]
	      With  no	arguments,  show  the  type  of  data to be transferred, usually ASCII or
	      binary.  With an argument, change the type: the types `A' or `ASCII' for ASCII data
	      and  `B'	or  `BINARY', `I' or `IMAGE' for binary data are understood case-insensi-

       zfstat [ -v ]
	      Show the status of the current or last connection, as well as the status of some of
	      zftp's status variables.	With the -v option, a more verbose listing is produced by
	      querying the server for its version of events, too.

   Retrieving files
       The commands for retrieving files all take at least  two  options.  -G  suppresses  remote
       filename  expansion  which  would  otherwise  be  performed (see below for a more detailed
       description of that).  -t attempts to set the modification time of the local file to  that
       of  the	remote file: this requires version 5 of perl, see the description of the function
       zfrtime below for more information.

       zfget [ -Gtc ] file1 ...
	      Retrieve all the listed files file1 ... one at a time from the remote server.  If a
	      file  contains a `/', the full name is passed to the remote server, but the file is
	      stored locally under the name given by the part after the final `/'.  The option -c
	      (cat)  forces  all  files to be sent as a single stream to standard output; in this
	      case the -t option has no effect.

       zfuget [ -Gvst ] file1 ...
	      As zfget, but only retrieve files where the version on the remote server	is  newer
	      (has  a  later  modification time), or where the local file does not exist.  If the
	      remote file is older but the files have different sizes, or if the  sizes  are  the
	      same  but  the  remote  file  is newer, the user will usually be queried.  With the
	      option -s, the command runs silently and will always retrieve the file in either of
	      those two cases.	With the option -v, the command prints more information about the
	      files while it is working out whether or not to transfer them.

       zfcget [ -Gt ] file1 ...
	      As zfget, but if any of the local files exists, and is shorter than the correspond-
	      ing remote file, the command assumes that it is the result of a partially completed
	      transfer and attempts to transfer the rest of the file.  This is useful on  a  poor
	      connection which keeps failing.

	      Note  that  this	requires a commonly implemented, but non-standard, version of the
	      FTP protocol, so is not guaranteed to work on all servers.

       zfgcp [ -Gt ] remote-file local-file
       zfgcp [ -Gt ] rfile1 ... ldir
	      This retrieves files from the remote server with arguments  behaving  similarly  to
	      the cp command.

	      In the first form, copy remote-file from the server to the local file local-file.

	      In  the  second form, copy all the remote files rfile1 ... into the local directory
	      ldir retaining the same basenames.  This assumes UNIX directory semantics.

   Sending files
       zfput [ -r ] file1 ...
	      Send all the file1 ... given separately to the remote server.  If a  filename  con-
	      tains a `/', the full filename is used locally to find the file, but only the base-
	      name is used for the remote file name.

	      With the option -r, if any of the files are directories they are	sent  recursively
	      with  all  their subdirectories, including files beginning with `.'.  This requires
	      that the remote machine understand UNIX file semantics, since  `/'  is  used  as	a
	      directory separator.

       zfuput [ -vs ] file1 ...
	      As  zfput,  but only send files which are newer than their local equivalents, or if
	      the remote file does not exist.  The logic is the same as for zfuget, but  reversed
	      between local and remote files.

       zfcput file1 ...
	      As  zfput,  but  if  any	remote	file already exists and is shorter than the local
	      equivalent, assume it is the result of an incomplete transfer and send the rest  of
	      the  file to append to the existing part.  As the FTP append command is part of the
	      standard set, this is in principle more likely to work than zfcget.

       zfpcp local-file remote-file
       zfpcp lfile1 ... rdir
	      This sends files to the remote server with arguments behaving similarly to  the  cp

	      With two arguments, copy local-file to the server as remote-file.

	      With more than two arguments, copy all the local files lfile1 ... into the existing
	      remote directory rdir retaining the same basenames.  This  assumes  UNIX	directory

	      A  problem  arises if you attempt to use zfpcp lfile1 rdir, i.e. the second form of
	      copying but with two arguments, as the command has no simple way of knowing if rdir
	      corresponds  to  a directory or a filename.  It attempts to resolve this in various
	      ways.  First, if the rdir argument is `.' or `..' or ends in a slash, it is assumed
	      to  be  a directory.  Secondly, if the operation of copying to a remote file in the
	      first form failed, and the remote server sends back the expected failure	code  553
	      and  a reply including the string `Is a directory', then zfpcp will retry using the
	      second form.

   Closing the connection
	      Close the connection.

   Session management
       zfsession [ -lvod ] [ sessname ]
	      Allows you to manage multiple FTP sessions at once.  By default,	connections  take
	      place in a session called `default'; by giving the command `zfsession sessname' you
	      can change to a new or existing session with a name of your choice.  The	new  ses-
	      sion remembers its own connection, as well as associated shell parameters, and also
	      the host/user parameters set by zfparams.  Hence you can	have  different  sessions
	      set  up  to connect to different hosts, each remembering the appropriate host, user
	      and password.

	      With no arguments, zfsession prints the name  of	the  current  session;	with  the
	      option  -l  it  lists all sessions which currently exist, and with the option -v it
	      gives a verbose list showing the host and directory for  each  session,  where  the
	      current  session	is  marked with an asterisk.  With -o, it will switch to the most
	      recent previous session.

	      With -d, the given session (or else the current one) is removed; everything  to  do
	      with  it is completely forgotten.  If it was the only session, a new session called
	      `default' is created and made current.  It is safest not to delete  sessions  while
	      background commands using zftp are active.

       zftransfer sess1:file1 sess2:file2
	      Transfer	files between two sessions; no local copy is made.  The file is read from
	      the session sess1 as file1 and written to session sess2 as file  file2;  file1  and
	      file2  may  be relative to the current directories of the session.  Either sess1 or
	      sess2 may be omitted (though the colon should be retained if there is a possibility
	      of  a  colon appearing in the file name) and defaults to the current session; file2
	      may be omitted or may end with a slash, in which case the basename of file1 will be
	      added.  The sessions sess1 and sess2 must be distinct.

	      The  operation  is  performed  using  pipes, so it is required that the connections
	      still be valid in a subshell, which is not the case under versions of some  operat-
	      ing systems, presumably due to a system bug.

       The  two  functions  zfmark and zfgoto allow you to `bookmark' the present location (host,
       user and directory) of the current FTP connection for later use.  The file to be used  for
       storing	and  retrieving bookmarks is given by the parameter $ZFTP_BMFILE; if not set when
       one of the two functions is called, it will be set to the file .zfbkmarks in the directory
       where your zsh startup files live (usually ~).

       zfmark [ bookmark ]
	      If  given  an  argument,	mark  the current host, user and directory under the name
	      bookmark for later use by zfgoto.  If there is no connection open, use  the  values
	      for  the	last connection immediately before it was closed; it is an error if there
	      was none.  Any existing bookmark under the same name will be silently replaced.

	      If not given an argument, list the existing bookmarks and the points to which  they
	      refer in the form user@host:directory; this is the format in which they are stored,
	      and the file may be edited directly.

       zfgoto [ -n ] bookmark
	      Return to the location given by bookmark, as previously  set  by	zfmark.   If  the
	      location has user `ftp' or `anonymous', open the connection with zfanon, so that no
	      password is required.  If the user and host parameters match those stored  for  the
	      current  session,  if  any,  those will be used, and again no password is required.
	      Otherwise a password will be prompted for.

	      With the option -n, the bookmark is taken to be a nickname stored by the ncftp pro-
	      gram in its bookmark file, which is assumed to be ~/.ncftp/bookmarks.  The function
	      works identically in other ways.	Note that there is no  mechanism  for  adding  or
	      modifying ncftp bookmarks from the zftp functions.

   Other functions
       Mostly, these functions will not be called directly (apart from zfinit), but are described
       here for completeness.  You may wish to alter zftp_chpwd and zftp_progress, in particular.

       zfinit [ -n ]
	      As described above, this is used to initialize the zftp function	system.   The  -n
	      option should be used if the zftp command is already built into the shell.

       zfautocheck [ -dn ]
	      This function is called to implement automatic reopening behaviour, as described in
	      more detail below.  The options must appear in the first argument; -n prevents  the
	      command  from  changing to the old directory, while -d prevents it from setting the
	      variable do_close, which it otherwise does as a flag for automatically closing  the
	      connection  after  a  transfer.	The  host  and directory for the last session are
	      stored in the variable $zflastsession, but the internal host/user/password  parame-
	      ters must also be correctly set.

       zfcd_match prefix suffix
	      This  performs  matching	for  completion of remote directory names.  If the remote
	      server is UNIX, it will attempt to persuade the server to list the remote directory
	      with  subdirectories  marked,  which usually works but is not guaranteed.  On other
	      hosts it simply calls zfget_match and hence completes all files, not just  directo-
	      ries.  On some systems, directories may not even look like filenames.

       zfget_match prefix suffix
	      This performs matching for completion of remote filenames.  It caches files for the
	      current directory (only) in the shell parameter $zftp_fcache.  It is in the form to
	      be  called  by  the  -K  option  of compctl, but also works when called from a wid-
	      get-style completion function with prefix and suffix set appropriately.

       zfrglob varname
	      Perform remote globbing, as describes in more detail below.  varname is the name of
	      a  variable  containing  the pattern to be expanded; if there were any matches, the
	      same variable will be set to the expanded set of filenames on return.

       zfrtime lfile rfile [ time ]
	      Set the local file lfile to have the same modification  time  as	the  remote  file
	      rfile, or the explicit time time in FTP format CCYYMMDDhhmmSS for the GMT timezone.

	      Currently  this requires perl version 5 to perform the conversion from GMT to local
	      time.  This is unfortunately difficult to do using shell code alone.

	      This function is called every time a connection is opened, or closed, or the remote
	      directory  changes.   This  version  alters the title bar of an xterm-compatible or
	      sun-cmd terminal emulator to reflect the local and  remote  hostnames  and  current
	      directories.   It works best when combined with the function chpwd.  In particular,
	      a function of the form

		     chpwd() {
		       if [[ -n $ZFTP_USER ]]; then
			 # usual chpwd e.g put host:directory in title bar

	      fits in well.

	      This function shows the status of the transfer.  It will not write anything  unless
	      the  output  is  going  to  a terminal; however, if you transfer files in the back-
	      ground, you should turn off  progress  reports  by  hand	using  `zstyle	':zftp:*'
	      progress	none'.	 Note  also  that if you alter it, any output must be to standard
	      error, as standard output may be a file being received.  The form of  the  progress
	      meter,  or  whether it is used at all, can be configured without altering the func-
	      tion, as described in the next section.

	      This is used to implement caching of files in the current directory for  each  ses-
	      sion separately.	It is used by zfget_match and zfrglob.

       Various	styles	are available using the standard shell style mechanism, described in zsh-
       modules(1). Briefly, the command `zstyle ':zftp:*' style value ...'.  defines the style to
       have  value  value;  more  than one value may be given, although that is not useful in the
       cases described here.  These values will then be used throughout the zftp function system.
       For  more  precise  control,  the first argument, which gives a context in which the style
       applies, can be modified to include a particular function, as for  example  `:zftp:zfget':
       the  style will then have the given value only in the zfget function.  Values for the same
       style in different contexts may be set; the most specific function  will  be  used,  where
       strings	are  held to be more specific than patterns, and longer patterns and shorter pat-
       terns.  Note that only the top level function name, as called by the user, is used;  call-
       ing of lower level functions is transparent to the user.  Hence modifications to the title
       bar in zftp_chpwd use the contexts :zftp:zfopen, :zftp:zfcd, etc., depending where it  was
       called from.  The following styles are understood:

	      Controls	the  way  that	zftp_progress  reports on the progress of a transfer.  If
	      empty, unset, or `none', no progress report is made; if  `bar'  a  growing  bar  of
	      inverse  video  is shown; if `percent' (or any other string, though this may change
	      in future), the percentage of  the  file	transferred  is  shown.   The  bar  meter
	      requires	that  the  width  of the terminal be available via the $COLUMNS parameter
	      (normally this is set automatically).  If the size of the file being transferred is
	      not  available,  bar and percent meters will simply show the number of bytes trans-
	      ferred so far.

	      When zfinit is run, if this style is not defined for the context :zftp:*,  it  will
	      be set to `bar'.

       update Specifies  the  minimum time interval between updates of the progress meter in sec-
	      onds.  No update is made unless new data has been  received,  so	the  actual  time
	      interval is limited only by $ZFTP_TIMEOUT.

	      As described for progress, zfinit will force this to default to 1.

	      If  set to `1', `yes' or `true', filename generation (globbing) is performed on the
	      remote machine instead of by zsh itself; see below.

	      If set to `1', `yes' or `true', zftp_chpwd will put  the	remote	host  and  remote
	      directory  into  the  titlebar  of terminal emulators such as xterm or sun-cmd that
	      allow this.

	      As described for progress, zfinit will force this to default to 1.

       chpwd  If set to `1' `yes' or `true', zftp_chpwd will call the function chpwd when a  con-
	      nection  is  closed.   This  is useful if the remote host details were put into the
	      terminal title bar by zftp_chpwd and your usual chpwd also modifies the title bar.

	      When zfinit is run, it will determine whether chpwd exists and if so  it	will  set
	      the default value for the style to 1 if none exists already.

       Note  that  there  is also an associative array zfconfig which contains values used by the
       function system.  This should not be modified or overwritten.

   Remote globbing
       The commands for retrieving files usually perform filename generation (globbing) on  their
       arguments;  this can be turned off by passing the option -G to each of the commands.  Nor-
       mally this operates by retrieving a complete list of files for the directory in	question,
       then matching these locally against the pattern supplied.  This has the advantage that the
       full range of zsh patterns (respecting the setting of the  option  EXTENDED_GLOB)  can  be
       used.   However,  it  means that the directory part of a filename will not be expanded and
       must be given exactly.  If the remote server does not support the  UNIX	directory  seman-
       tics,  directory  handling is problematic and it is recommended that globbing only be used
       within the current directory.  The list of files in the current directory,  if  retrieved,
       will be cached, so that subsequent globs in the same directory without an intervening zfcd
       are much faster.

       If the remote-glob style (see above) is set, globbing is instead performed on  the  remote
       host:  the  server is asked for a list of matching files.  This is highly dependent on how
       the server is implemented, though typically UNIX servers will provide  support  for  basic
       glob  patterns.	This may in some cases be faster, as it avoids retrieving the entire list
       of directory contents.

   Automatic and temporary reopening
       As described for the zfopen command, a subsequent zfopen with no  parameters  will  reopen
       the  connection to the last host (this includes connections made with the zfanon command).
       Opened in this fashion, the connection starts in the default  remote  directory	and  will
       remain open until explicitly closed.

       Automatic  re-opening is also available.  If a connection is not currently open and a com-
       mand requiring a connection is given, the last connection is implicitly reopened.  In this
       case the directory which was current when the connection was closed again becomes the cur-
       rent directory (unless, of course, the command given  changes  it).   Automatic	reopening
       will  also take place if the connection was close by the remote server for whatever reason
       (e.g. a timeout).  It is not available if the -1 option to zfopen or zfanon was used.

       Furthermore, if the command issued is a file transfer, the connection will be closed after
       the  transfer  is  finished, hence providing a one-shot mode for transfers.  This does not
       apply to directory changing or listing commands; for example a zfdir may reopen a  connec-
       tion  but  will	leave it open.	Also, automatic closure will only ever happen in the same
       command as automatic opening, i.e a zfdir directly followed by a zfget  will  never  close
       the connection automatically.

       Information  about the previous connection is given by the zfstat function.  So, for exam-
       ple, if that reports:

	      Session:	      default
	      Not connected.
	      Last session:   ftp.bar.com:/pub/textfiles

       then the command zfget file.txt will  attempt  to  reopen  a  connection  to  ftp.bar.com,
       retrieve the file /pub/textfiles/file.txt, and immediately close the connection again.  On
       the other hand, zfcd ..	will open the connection in the directory /pub and leave it open.

       Note that all the above is local to each session; if you return to a previous session, the
       connection for that session is the one which will be reopened.

       Completion  of  local  and remote files, directories, sessions and bookmarks is supported.
       The older, compctl-style completion is defined when zfinit is called; support for the  new
       widget-based  completion  system is provided in the function Completion/Zsh/Command/_zftp,
       which should be installed with the other functions of  the  completion  system  and  hence
       should automatically be available.

zsh 4.0.6				 August 14, 2002			    ZSHZFTPSYS(1)
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