RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for xcalc (redhat section 1)

```XCALC(1)						      General Commands Manual							  XCALC(1)

NAME
xcalc - scientific calculator for X

SYNOPSIS
xcalc [-stipple] [-rpn] [-toolkitoption...]

DESCRIPTION
xcalc is a scientific calculator desktop accessory that can emulate a TI-30 or an HP-10C.

OPTIONS
xcalc accepts all of the standard toolkit command line options along with two additional options:

-stipple
This  option  indicates that the background of the calculator should be drawn using a stipple of the foreground and background col-
ors.  On monochrome displays improves the appearance.

-rpn    This option indicates that Reverse Polish Notation should be used.  In this mode the  calculator  will  look  and  behave  like	an
HP-10C.	Without this flag, it will emulate a TI-30.

OPERATION
Pointer	Usage:	Operations may be performed with pointer button 1, or in some cases, with the keyboard.  Many common calculator operations
have keyboard accelerators.  To quit, press pointer button 3 on the AC key of the TI calculator, or the ON key of the HP calculator.

Calculator Key Usage (TI mode): The numbered keys, the +/- key, and the +, -, *, /, and = keys all do exactly what you  would  expect  them
to.   It should be noted that the operators obey the standard rules of precedence.  Thus, entering "3+4*5=" results in "23", not "35".  The
parentheses can be used to override this.  For example, "(1+2+3)*(4+5+6)=" results in "6*15=90".

The entire number in the calculator display can be selected, in order to paste the result of a calculation into text.

The action procedures associated with each function are given below.  These are useful if you are interested in defining a custom  calcula-
tor.  The action used for all digit keys is digit(n), where n is the corresponding digit, 0..9.

1/x	 Replaces the number in the display with its reciprocal.  The corresponding action procedure is reciprocal().

x^2	 Squares the number in the display.  The corresponding action procedure is square().

SQRT	 Takes the square root of the number in the display.  The corresponding action procedure is squareRoot().

CE/C	 When  pressed	once, clears the number in the display without clearing the state of the machine.  Allows you to re-enter a number
if you make a mistake.  Pressing it twice clears the state, also.  The corresponding action procedure for TI mode is clear().

AC	 Clears the display, the state, and the memory.  Pressing it with the third pointer button turns off the calculator,  in  that	it
exits the program.  The action procedure to clear the state is off(); to quit, quit().

INV	 Invert function.  See the individual function keys for details.  The corresponding action procedure is inverse().

sin	 Computes  the	sine  of the number in the display, as interpreted by the current DRG mode (see DRG, below).  If inverted, it com-
putes the arcsine.  The corresponding action procedure is sine().

cos	 Computes the cosine, or arccosine when inverted.  The corresponding action procedure is cosine().

tan	 Computes the tangent, or arctangent when inverted.  The corresponding action procedure is tangent().

DRG	 Changes the DRG mode, as indicated by 'DEG', 'RAD', or 'GRAD' at the bottom of of  the  calculator  ``liquid  crystal''  display.
When  in  'DEG'  mode,  numbers  in the display are taken as being degrees.  In 'RAD' mode, numbers are in radians, and in 'GRAD'
mode, numbers are in grads.  When inverted, the DRG key has a feature of converting degrees to radians to grads  and  vice-versa.
Example:   put  the calculator into 'DEG' mode, and enter "45 INV DRG".  The display should now show something along the lines of
".785398", which is 45 degrees converted to radians.  The corresponding action procedure is degree().

e	 The constant 'e'.  (2.7182818...).  The corresponding action procedure is e().

EE	 Used for entering exponential numbers.  For example, to get "-2.3E-4" you'd enter "2 . 3 +/- EE 4 +/-".  The corresponding action
procedure is scientific().

log	 Calculates  the  log  (base 10) of the number in the display.	When inverted, it raises "10.0" to the number in the display.  For
example, entering "3 INV log" should result in "1000".  The corresponding action procedure is logarithm().

ln	 Calculates the log (base e) of the number in the display.  When inverted, it raises "e" to the number in the display.	For  exam-
ple, entering "e ln" should result in "1".  The corresponding action procedure is naturalLog().

y^x	 Raises  the  number  on  the left to the power of the number on the right.  For example "2 y^x 3 =" results in "8", which is 2^3.
For a further example, "(1+2+3) y^x (1+2) =" equals "6 y^x 3" which equals "216".  The corresponding action procedure is power().

PI	 The constant 'pi'.  (3.1415927....)  The corresponding action procedure is pi().

x!	 Computes the factorial of the number in the display.  The number in the display must be an integer in the  range  0-500,  though,
depending on your math library, it might overflow long before that.  The corresponding action procedure is factorial().

(	 Left parenthesis.  The corresponding action procedure for TI calculators is leftParen().

)	 Right parenthesis.  The corresponding action procedure for TI calculators is rightParen().

/	 Division.  The corresponding action procedure is divide().

*	 Multiplication.  The corresponding action procedure is multiply().

-	 Subtraction.  The corresponding action procedure is subtract().

=	 Perform calculation.  The TI-specific action procedure is equal().

STO	 Copies the number in the display to the memory location.  The corresponding action procedure is store().

RCL	 Copies the number from the memory location to the display.  The corresponding action procedure is recall().

SUM	 Adds the number in the display to the number in the memory location.  The corresponding action procedure is sum().

EXC	 Swaps the number in the display with the number in the memory location.  The corresponding action procedure for the TI calculator
is exchange().

+/-	 Negate; change sign.  The corresponding action procedure is negate().

.	 Decimal point.  The action procedure is decimal().

Calculator Key Usage (RPN mode): The number keys, CHS (change sign), +, -, *, /, and ENTR keys all do exactly what you would expect them to
do.   Many of the remaining keys are the same as in TI mode.  The differences are detailed below.  The action procedure for the ENTR key is
enter().

<-	 This is a backspace key that can be used if you make a mistake while entering a number.  It will erase digits from  the  display.
(See BUGS).  Inverse backspace will clear the X register.  The corresponding action procedure is back().

ON	 Clears  the  display,	the state, and the memory.  Pressing it with the third pointer button turns off the calculator, in that it
exits the program.  To clear state, the action procedure is off; to quit, quit().

INV	 Inverts the meaning of the function keys.  This would be the  f key on an HP calculator, but xcalc does not display multiple leg-
ends on each key.  See the individual function keys for details.

10^x	 Raises  "10.0"  to  the number in the top of the stack.  When inverted, it calculates the log (base 10) of the number in the dis-
play.	The corresponding action procedure is tenpower().

e^x	 Raises "e" to the number in the top of the stack.  When inverted, it calculates the log (base e) of the number  in  the  display.
The action procedure is epower().

STO	 Copies  the number in the top of the stack to a memory location.  There are 10 memory locations.  The desired memory is specified
by following this key with a digit key.

RCL	 Pushes the number from the specified memory location onto the stack.

SUM	 Adds the number on top of the stack to the number in the specified memory location.

x:y	 Exchanges the numbers in the top two stack positions, the X and Y registers.  The corresponding action procedure is XexchangeY().

R v	 Rolls the stack downward.  When inverted, it rolls the stack upward.  The corresponding action procedure is roll().

blank	 These keys were used for programming functions on the HP-10C.	Their functionality has not been duplicated in xcalc.

Finally, there are two additional action procedures: bell(), which rings the bell; and selection(), which performs a cut on the entire num-
ber in the calculator's ``liquid crystal'' display.

ACCELERATORS
Accelerators are shortcuts for entering commands.  xcalc provides some sample keyboard accelerators; also users can customize accelerators.
The numeric keypad accelerators provided by xcalc should be intuitively correct.  The accelerators defined by xcalc on  the  main  keyboard
are given below:

TI Key    HP Key	Keyboard Accelerator	 TI Function	HP Function

SQRT SQRT r 	     squareRoot()   squareRoot()
AC	 ON   space		  clear()	 clear()
AC	 <-   Delete		  clear()	 back()
AC	 <-   Backspace      clear()	    back()
AC	 <-   Control-H      clear()	    back()
AC	      Clear		  clear()
AC	 ON   q 	     quit()	    quit()
AC	 ON   Control-C      quit()	    quit()

INV  i    i 	     inverse()	    inverse()
sin  s    s 	     sine()	    sine()
cos  c    c 	     cosine()	    cosine()
tan  t    t 	     tangent() tangent()
DRG  DRG  d 	     degree()	    degree()

e	      e 	     e()
ln	 ln   l 	     naturalLog()   naturalLog()
y^x  y^x  ^ 	     power()	    power()

PI	 PI   p 	     pi()      pi()
x!	 x!   ! 	     factorial()    factorial()
(	      ( 	     leftParen()
)	      ) 	     rightParen()

/	 /    / 	     divide()	    divide()
*	 *    * 	     multiply()     multiply()
-	 -    - 	     subtract()     subtract()
=	      = 	     equal()

0..9 0..9 0..9	     digit()	    digit()
.	 .    . 	     decimal() decimal()
+/-  CHS  n 	     negate()	    negate()

x:y  x 		       XexchangeY()
ENTR Return			    enter()
ENTR Linefeed			    enter()

CUSTOMIZATION
The application class name is XCalc.

xcalc  has  an enormous application defaults file which specifies the position, label, and function of each key on the calculator.  It also
gives translations to serve as keyboard accelerators.  Because these resources are not specified in the source code, you can create a  cus-
tomized	calculator  by writing a private application defaults file, using the Athena Command and Form widget resources to specify the size
and position of buttons, the label for each button, and the function of each button.

The foreground and background colors of each calculator key can be individually specified.   For  the  TI  calculator,  a  classical  color
resource specification might be:

XCalc.ti.Command.background:  gray50
XCalc.ti.Command.foreground:  white

For each of buttons 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, specify:
XCalc.ti.button20.background: black
XCalc.ti.button20.foreground: white

For each of buttons 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38, and 39:
XCalc.ti.button22.background: white
XCalc.ti.button22.foreground: black

WIDGET HIERARCHY
In  order  to specify resources, it is useful to know the hierarchy of the widgets which compose xcalc.	In the notation below, indentation
indicates hierarchical structure.  The widget class name is given first, followed by the widget instance name.

XCalc xcalc
Form  ti  or  hp	(the name depends on the mode)
Form  bevel
Form  screen
Label  M
Toggle  LCD
Label  INV
Label  DEG
Label  P
Command  button1
Command  button2
Command  button3
and so on, ...
Command  button38
Command  button39
Command  button40

APPLICATION RESOURCES
rpn (Class Rpn)
Specifies that the rpn mode should be used.  The default is TI mode.

stipple (Class Stipple)
Indicates that the background should be stippled.  The default is ``on'' for monochrome displays, and ``off'' for color displays.

cursor (Class Cursor)
The name of the symbol used to represent the pointer.  The default is ``hand2''.

COLORS
If you would like xcalc to use its ti colors, include the following in the #ifdef COLOR section of the file you read with xrdb:

*customization:		       -color

This will cause xcalc to pick up the colors in the app-defaults color customization file: /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/XCalc-color.

X(7x), xrdb(1), the Athena Widget Set

BUGS
HP mode:  A bug report claims that the sequence of keys 5, ENTER, <- should clear the display, but it doesn't.