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WATCH(1) Linux User's Manual WATCH(1)
watch - execute a program periodically, showing output fullscreen
watch [-dhv] [-n <seconds>] [--differences[=cumulative]] [--help] [--interval=<seconds>]
watch runs command repeatedly, displaying its output (the first screenfull). This allows
you to watch the program output change over time. By default, the program is run every 2
seconds; use -n or --interval to specify a different interval.
The -d or --differences flag will highlight the differences between successive updates.
The --cumulative option makes highlighting "sticky", presenting a running display of all
positions that have ever changed.
watch will run until interrupted.
Note that command is given to "sh -c" which means that you may need to use extra quoting
to get the desired effect.
Note that POSIX option processing is used (i.e., option processing stops at the first non-
option argument). This means that flags after command don't get interpreted by watch
To watch for mail, you might do
watch -n 60 from
To watch the contents of a directory change, you could use
watch -d ls -l
If you're only interested in files owned by user joe, you might use
watch -d 'ls -l | fgrep joe'
To see the effects of quoting, try these out
watch echo $$
watch echo '$$'
watch echo "'"'$$'"'"
You can watch for your administrator to install the latest kernel with
watch uname -r
Upon terminal resize, the screen will not be correctly repainted until the next scheduled
update. All --differences highlighting is lost on that update as well.
Non-printing characters are stripped from program output. Use "cat -v" as part of the
command pipeline if you want to see them.
The original watch was written by Tony Rems <firstname.lastname@example.org> in 1991, with mods and
corrections by Francois Pinard. It was reworked and new features added by Mike Coleman
<email@example.com> in 1999.
1999 Apr 3 WATCH(1)
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