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SoX(1)											   SoX(1)

NAME
       soxexam - SoX Examples (CHEAT SHEET)

CONVERSIONS
       Introduction

       In  general, SoX will attempt to take an input sound file format and convert it into a new
       file format using a similar data type and sample rate.  For instance, "sox monkey.au  mon-
       key.wav"  would	try and convert the mono 8000Hz u-law sample .au file that comes with SoX
       to a 8000Hz u-law .wav file.

       If an output format doesn't support the same data type as the input  file  then	SoX  will
       generally  select  a  default  data type to save it in.	You can override the default data
       type selection by using command line options.  This is also useful for producing an output
       file with higher or lower precision data and/or sample rate.

       Most  file  formats  that contain headers can automatically be read in.	When working with
       header-less file formats then a user must manually tell SoX the data type and sample  rate
       using command line options.

       When working with header-less files (raw files), you may take advantage of the pseudo-file
       types of .ub, .uw, .sb, .sw, .ul, and .sl.  By using these extensions  on  your	filenames
       you will not have to specify the corresponding options on the command line.

       Precision

       The  following  data  types and formats can be represented by their total uncompressed bit
       precision.  When converting from one data type to another care must be taken to insure  it
       has  an equal or greater precision.  If not then the audio quality will be degraded.  This
       is not always a bad thing when your working with things such as voice audio and	are  con-
       cerned about disk space or bandwidth of the audio data.

	       Data Format    Precision
	       ___________    _________
	       unsigned byte	8-bit
	       signed byte	8-bit
	       u-law	       14-bit
	       A-law	       13-bit
	       unsigned word   16-bit
	       signed word     16-bit
	       ADPCM	       16-bit
	       GSM	       16-bit
	       unsigned long   32-bit
	       signed long     32-bit
	       ___________    _________

       Examples

       Use the '-V' option on all your command lines.  It makes SoX print out its idea of what is
       going on.  '-V' is your friend.

       To convert from unsigned bytes at 8000 Hz to signed words at 8000 Hz:

	 sox -r 8000 -c 1 filename.ub newfile.sw

       To convert from Apple's AIFF format to Microsoft's WAV format:

	 sox filename.aiff filename.wav

       To convert from mono raw 8000 Hz 8-bit unsigned PCM data to a WAV file:

	 sox -r 8000 -u -b -c 1 filename.raw filename.wav

       SoX may even be used to convert sample rates.  Downconverting will reduce the bandwidth of
       a  sample, but will reduce storage space on your disk.  All such conversions are lossy and
       will introduce some noise.  You should really pass your sample through a low  pass  filter
       prior  to  downconverting as this will prevent alias signals (which would sound like addi-
       tional noise).  For example to convert from a sample recorded at 11025 Hz to a u-law  file
       at 8000 Hz sample rate:

	 sox infile.wav -t au -r 8000 -U -b -c 1 outputfile.au

       To  add	a low-pass filter (note use of stdout for output of the first stage and stdin for
       input on the second stage):

	 sox infile.wav -t raw -s -w -c 1 - lowpass 3700  |
	   sox -t raw -r 11025 -s -w -c 1 - -t au -r 8000 -U -b -c 1 ofile.au

       If you hear some clicks and pops when converting to u-law  or  A-law,  reduce  the  output
       level slightly, for example this will decrease it by 20%:

	 sox infile.wav -t au -r 8000 -U -b -c 1 -v .8 outputfile.au

       SoX  is	great  to  use along with other command line programs by passing data between the
       programs using pipelines.  The most common example is to use mpg123 to convert  mp3  files
       in to wav files.  The following command line will do this:

	 mpg123 -b 10000 -s filename.mp3 | sox -t raw -r 44100 -s -w -c 2 - filename.wav

       When  working  with  totally unknown audio data then the "auto" file format may be of use.
       It attempts to guess what the file type is and then you may save it  into  a  known  audio
       format.

	 sox -V -t auto filename.snd filename.wav

       It  is important to understand how the internals of SoX work with compressed audio includ-
       ing u-law, A-law, ADPCM, or GSM.  SoX takes ALL input data  types  and  converts  them  to
       uncompressed  32-bit  signed  data.   It  will then convert this internal version into the
       requested output format.  This means additional noise can be introduced from decompressing
       data  and  then	recompressing.	If applying multiple effects to audio data, it is best to
       save the intermediate data as PCM data.	After the final effect is performed, then you can
       specify it as a compressed output format.  This will keep noise introduction to a minimum.

       The  following example applies various effects to an 8000 Hz ADPCM input file and then end
       up with the final file as 44100 Hz ADPCM.

	 sox firstfile.wav -r 44100 -s -w secondfile.wav
	 sox secondfile.wav thirdfile.wav swap
	 sox thirdfile.wav -a -b finalfile.wav mask

       Under a DOS shell, you can convert several audio files to an new output format using some-
       thing similar to the following command line:

	 FOR %X IN (*.RAW) DO sox -r 11025 -w -s -t raw $X $X.wav

EFFECTS
       Special	thanks	goes  to  Juergen  Mueller  (jmeuller@uia.au.ac.be)  for this write up on
       effects.

       Introduction:

       The core problem is that you need some experience in using effects in order to  say  "that
       any  old sound file sounds with effects absolutely hip". There isn't any rule-based system
       which tell you the correct setting of all the parameters for every effect.  But after some
       time you will become an expert in using effects.

       Here  are some examples which can be used with any music sample.  (For a sample where only
       a single instrument is playing, extreme parameter setting may make well-known  "typically"
       or "classical" sounds. Likewise, for drums, vocals or guitars.)

       Single  effects	will  be  explained and some given parameter settings that can be used to
       understand the theory by listening to the sound file with the added effect.

       Using multiple effects in parallel or in series can result either in a very nice sound  or
       (mostly)  in  a dramatic overloading in variations of sounds such that your ear may follow
       the sound but you will feel unsatisfied. Hence, for the first time using  effects  try  to
       compose	them  as minimally as possible. We don't regard the composition of effects in the
       examples because too many combinations are possible  and  you  really  need  a  very  fast
       machine and a lot of memory to play them in real-time.

       However,  real-time  playing  of  sounds  will greatly speed up learning and/or tuning the
       parameter settings for your sounds in order to get that "perfect" effect.

       Basically, we will use the "play" front-end of SoX since it is  easier  to  listen  sounds
       coming out of the speaker or earphone instead of looking at cryptic data in sound files.

       For easy listening of file.xxx ("xxx" is any sound format):

	     play file.xxx effect-name effect-parameters

       Or more SoX-like (for "dsp" output on a UNIX/Linux computer):

	     sox file.xxx -t ossdsp -w -s /dev/dsp effect-name effect-parameters

       or (for "au" output):

	     sox file.xxx -t sunau -w -s /dev/audio effect-name effect-parameters

       And for date freaks:

	     sox file.xxx file.yyy effect-name effect-parameters

       Additional options can be used. However, in this case, for real-time playing you'll need a
       very fast machine.

       Notes:

       I played all examples in real-time on a Pentium 100 with 32 MB and Linux  2.0.30  using	a
       self-recorded  sample ( 3:15 min long in "wav" format with 44.1 kHz sample rate and stereo
       16 bit ).  The sample should not contain any of the effects.  However,  if  you	take  any
       recording  of a sound track from radio or tape or CD, and it sounds like a live concert or
       ten people are playing the same rhythm with their drums or funky-grooves,  then	take  any
       other  sample.  (Typically, less then four different instruments and no synthesizer in the
       sample is suitable. Likewise, the combination vocal, drums, bass and guitar.)

       Effects:

       Echo

       An echo effect can be naturally found in the mountains, standing somewhere on  a  mountain
       and  shouting  a  single  word will result in one or more repetitions of the word (if not,
       turn a bit around and try again, or climb to the next mountain).

       However, the time difference between shouting and repeating is the delay (time), its loud-
       ness is the decay. Multiple echos can have different delays and decays.

       It is very popular to use echos to play an instrument with itself together, like some gui-
       tar players (Brain May from Queen) or vocalists are doing.  For music samples of more than
       one instrument, echo can be used to add a second sample shortly after the original one.

       This  will sound as if you are doubling the number of instruments playing in the same sam-
       ple:

	     play file.xxx echo 0.8 0.88 60.0 0.4

       If the delay is very short, then it sound like a (metallic) robot playing music:

	     play file.xxx echo 0.8 0.88 6.0 0.4

       Longer delay will sound like an open air concert in the mountains:

	     play file.xxx echo 0.8 0.9 1000.0 0.3

       One mountain more, and:

	     play file.xxx echo 0.8 0.9 1000.0 0.3 1800.0 0.25

       Echos

       Like the echo effect, echos stand for "ECHO in Sequel", that is the first echos takes  the
       input, the second the input and the first echos, the third the input and the first and the
       second echos, ... and so on.  Care should be taken using many echos (see introduction);	a
       single echos has the same effect as a single echo.

       The sample will be bounced twice in symmetric echos:

	     play file.xxx echos 0.8 0.7 700.0 0.25 700.0 0.3

       The sample will be bounced twice in asymmetric echos:

	     play file.xxx echos 0.8 0.7 700.0 0.25 900.0 0.3

       The sample will sound as if played in a garage:

	     play file.xxx echos 0.8 0.7 40.0 0.25 63.0 0.3

       Chorus

       The  chorus effect has its name because it will often be used to make a single vocal sound
       like a chorus. But it can be applied to other instrument samples too.

       It works like the echo effect with a short delay, but the delay isn't constant.	The delay
       is  varied  using  a sinusoidal or triangular modulation. The modulation depth defines the
       range the modulated delay is played before or after the delay.  Hence  the  delayed  sound
       will sound slower or faster, that is the delayed sound tuned around the original one, like
       in a chorus where some vocals are a bit out of tune.

       The typical delay is around 40ms to 60ms, the speed of the modulation is best near  0.25Hz
       and the modulation depth around 2ms.

       A single delay will make the sample more overloaded:

	     play file.xxx chorus 0.7 0.9 55.0 0.4 0.25 2.0 -t

       Two delays of the original samples sound like this:

	     play file.xxx chorus 0.6 0.9 50.0 0.4 0.25 2.0 -t 60.0 0.32 0.4 1.3 -s

       A big chorus of the sample is (three additional samples):

	     play file.xxx chorus 0.5 0.9 50.0 0.4 0.25 2.0 -t 60.0 0.32 0.4 2.3 -t	     40.0
       0.3 0.3 1.3 -s

       Flanger

       The flanger effect is like the chorus effect, but the delay varies between 0ms and maximal
       5ms.  It  sound	like  wind  blowing,  sometimes faster or slower including changes of the
       speed.

       The flanger effect is widely used in funk and soul music, where the  guitar  sound  varies
       frequently slow or a bit faster.

       The typical delay is around 3ms to 5ms, the speed of the modulation is best near 0.5Hz.

       Now, let's groove the sample:

	     play file.xxx flanger 0.6 0.87 3.0 0.9 0.5 -s

       listen carefully between the difference of sinusoidal and triangular modulation:

	     play file.xxx flanger 0.6 0.87 3.0 0.9 0.5 -t

       If the decay is a bit lower, than the effect sounds more popular:

	     play file.xxx flanger 0.8 0.88 3.0 0.4 0.5 -t

       The drunken loudspeaker system:

	     play file.xxx flanger 0.9 0.9 4.0 0.23 1.3 -s

       Reverb

       The  reverb  effect  is often used in audience hall which are to small or contain too many
       many visitors which disturb (dampen) the reflection of sound at the  walls.   Reverb  will
       make  the sound be perceived as if it were in a large hall.  You can try the reverb effect
       in your bathroom or garage or sport halls by shouting loud some	words.	You'll	hear  the
       words reflected from the walls.

       The biggest problem in using the reverb effect is the correct setting of the (wall) delays
       such that the sound is realistic and doesn't sound like music playing in a tin can or  has
       overloaded  feedback  which  destroys  any illusion of playing in a big hall.  To help you
       obtain realistic reverb effects, you should decide first how long the reverb  should  take
       place  until it is not loud enough to be registered by your ears. This is be done by vary-
       ing the reverb time "t".  To simulate small halls, use 200ms.  To  simulate  large  halls,
       use  1000ms.   Clearly, the walls of such a hall aren't far away, so you should define its
       setting be given every wall its delay time.  However, if the wall is to far away  for  the
       reverb  time,  you  won't hear the reverb, so the nearest wall will be best at "t/4" delay
       and the farthest at "t/2". You can try other distances as well, but it  won't  sound  very
       realistic.  The walls shouldn't stand to close to each other and not in a multiple integer
       distance to each other ( so avoid wall like: 200.0 and 202.0, or something like 100.0  and
       200.0 ).

       Since  audience	halls  do have a lot of walls, we will start designing one beginning with
       one wall:

	     play file.xxx reverb 1.0 600.0 180.0

       One wall more:

	     play file.xxx reverb 1.0 600.0 180.0 200.0

       Next two walls:

	     play file.xxx reverb 1.0 600.0 180.0 200.0 220.0 240.0

       Now, why not a futuristic hall with six walls:

	     play file.xxx reverb 1.0 600.0 180.0 200.0 220.0 240.0 280.0 300.0

       If you run out of machine power or memory, then stop  as  many  applications  as  possible
       (every  interrupt will consume a lot of CPU time which for bigger halls is absolutely nec-
       essary).

       Phaser

       The phaser effect is like the flanger effect, but it uses a reverb instead of an echo  and
       does  phase  shifting.  You'll  hear the difference in the examples comparing both effects
       (simply change the effect name).  The delay modulation can be  sinusoidal  or  triangular,
       preferable  is the later for multiple instruments. For single instrument sounds, the sinu-
       soidal phaser effect will give a sharper phasing effect.  The decay shouldn't be to  close
       to  1.0	which  will  cause  dramatic  feedback.  A good range is about 0.5 to 0.1 for the
       decay.

       We will take a parameter setting as for the flanger before (gain-out is lower since  feed-
       back can raise the output dramatically):

	     play file.xxx phaser 0.8 0.74 3.0 0.4 0.5 -t

       The drunken loudspeaker system (now less alcohol):

	     play file.xxx phaser 0.9 0.85 4.0 0.23 1.3 -s

       A popular sound of the sample is as follows:

	     play file.xxx phaser 0.89 0.85 1.0 0.24 2.0 -t

       The sample sounds if ten springs are in your ears:

	     play file.xxx phaser 0.6 0.66 3.0 0.6 2.0 -t

       Compander

       The  compander  effect  allows the dynamic range of a signal to be compressed or expanded.
       For most situations, the attack time (response to the  music  getting  louder)  should  be
       shorter	than  the  decay  time because our ears are more sensitive to suddenly loud music
       than to suddenly soft music.

       For example, suppose you are listening to Strauss' "Also Sprach Zarathustra"  in  a  noisy
       environment  such  as  a  car.  If you turn up the volume enough to hear the soft passages
       over the road noise, the loud sections will be too loud.  You could try this:

	     play file.xxx compand 0.3,1 -90,-90,-70,-70,-60,-20,0,0 -5 0 0.2

       The transfer function ("-90,...") says that very soft sounds between -90 and -70  decibels
       (-90 is about the limit of 16-bit encoding) will remain unchanged.  That keeps the compan-
       der from boosting the volume on "silent" passages such  as  between  movements.	 However,
       sounds  in  the	range -60 decibels to 0 decibels (maximum volume) will be boosted so that
       the 60-dB dynamic range of the original music will  be  compressed  3-to-1  into  a  20-dB
       range,  which  is  wide enough to enjoy the music but narrow enough to get around the road
       noise.  The -5 dB output gain is needed to avoid clipping (the number is inexact, and  was
       derived	by experimentation).  The 0 for the initial volume will work fine for a clip that
       starts with a bit of silence, and the delay of 0.2 has the effect of causing the compander
       to react a bit more quickly to sudden volume changes.

       Changing the Rate of Playback

       You can use stretch to change the rate of playback of an audio sample while preserving the
       pitch.  For example to play at 1/2 the speed:

	     play file.wav stretch 2

       To play a file at twice the speed:

	     play file.wav stretch .5

       Other related options are "speed" to change the speed of  play  (and  changing  the  pitch
       accordingly), and pitch, to alter the pitch of a sample.  For example to speed a sample so
       it plays in 1/2 the time (for those Mickey Mouse voices):

	     play file.wav speed 2

       To raise the pitch of a sample 1 while note (100 cents):

	     play file.wav pitch 100

       Other effects (copy, rate, avg, stat, vibro, lowp, highp, band, reverb)

       The other effects are simple to use. However, an "easy to  use  manual"	should	be  given
       here.

       More effects (to do !)

       There  are  a lot of effects around like noise gates, compressors, waw-waw, stereo effects
       and so on. They should be implemented, making SoX more useful in sound  mixing  techniques
       coming together with a great variety of different sound effects.

       Combining  effects  by using them in parallel or serially on different channels needs some
       easy mechanism which is stable for use in real-time.

       Really missing are the the changing of the parameters  and  starting/stopping  of  effects
       while playing samples in real-time!

       Good luck and have fun with all the effects!

	    Juergen Mueller	     (jmueller@uia.ua.ac.be)

SEE ALSO
       sox(1), play(1), rec(1)

AUTHOR
       Juergen Mueller	   (jmueller@uia.ua.ac.be)

       Updates by Anonymous.

					December 11, 2001				   SoX(1)
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