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SCREEN(1)										SCREEN(1)

       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation

       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

       Screen  is  a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical terminal between sev-
       eral processes (typically interactive shells).  Each virtual terminal provides  the  func-
       tions  of  a  DEC  VT100 terminal and, in addition, several control functions from the ISO
       6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI X3.64) and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple  character sets).  There is a scrollback history buffer for each virtual terminal
       and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a shell in  it  (or  the	specified
       command)  and  then  gets  out of your way so that you can use the program as you normally
       would.  Then, at any time, you can create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in
       them  (including  more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn output
       logging on and off, copy-and-paste text between	windows,  view	the  scrollback  history,
       switch  between	windows  in whatever manner you wish, etc. All windows run their programs
       completely independent of each other. Programs continue to run when their window  is  cur-
       rently not visible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's ter-
       minal.  When a program terminates, screen (per default) kills the  window  that	contained
       it.  If this window was in the foreground, the display switches to the previous window; if
       none are left, screen exits.

       Everything you type is sent to the program running in the current window.  The only excep-
       tion  to  this  is the one keystroke that is used to initiate a command to the window man-
       ager.  By default, each command begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and
       is followed by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings can be
       fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always two characters in length.

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control.  Please use the caret notation
       ("^A"  instead of "C-a") as arguments to e.g. the escape command or the -e option.  Screen
       will also print out control characters in caret notation.

       The standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This  creates  a  new  window
       running	a  shell  and switches to that window immediately, regardless of the state of the
       process running in the current window.  Similarly, you can create a new window with a cus-
       tom  command  in it by first binding the command to a keystroke (in your .screenrc file or
       at the "C-a :" command line) and then using it just like the "C-a c"  command.	In  addi-
       tion, new windows can be created by running a command like:

	      screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.	This will not run another copy of
       screen, but will instead supply the command name and its arguments to the  window  manager
       (specified  in  the  $STY  environment variable) who will use it to create the new window.
       The above example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch to its window.

       If "/etc/utmp" is writable by screen, an appropriate record will be written to  this  file
       for  each  window,  and removed when the window is terminated.  This is useful for working
       with "talk", "script", "shutdown", "rsend", "sccs" and other similar programs that use the
       utmp file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your terminal, the ter-
       minal's own record is removed from the utmp file. See also "C-a L".

       Before you begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you have correctly  selected  your
       terminal type, just as you would for any other termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this
       by using tset for example.)

       If you're impatient and want to get started without doing a lot more reading,  you  should
       remember  this  one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing these two characters will display a list of
       the available screen commands and their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the  sec-
       tion "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS". The manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents of
       your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the last  position  on
       the  screen  to be updated without scrolling the screen) consider to use a version of your
       terminal's termcap that has automatic margins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and
       optimal	update	of  the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals nowadays have "magic"
       margins (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the VT100 style type and per-
       fectly  suited for screen.  If all you've got is a "true" auto-margin terminal screen will
       be content to use it, but updating a character put into the last position  on  the  screen
       may  not  be possible until the screen scrolls or the character is moved into a safe posi-
       tion in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a terminal with  insert-char-
       acter capability.

       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include  all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each window's termcap, even
	    if screen must redraw parts of the display in order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt the sizes of all windows to the size of  the	current  terminal.   By  default,
	    screen  tries  to  restore its old window sizes when attaching to resizable terminals
	    (those with "WS" in its description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
	    override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc" to file.

       -d|-D [pid.tty.host]
	    does not start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running screen session. It has  the
	    same  effect  as typing "C-a d" from screen's controlling terminal. -D is the equiva-
	    lent to the power detach key.  If no session can be detached, this option is ignored.
	    In combination with the -r/-R option more powerful effects can be achieved:

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or even create it first.

       -d -RR  Reattach  a session and if necessary detach or create it. Use the first session if
	       more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary detach and logout remotely first.

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is running, then reattach.
	       If  necessary  detach  and logout remotely first.  If it was not running create it
	       and notify the user. This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

	    Note: It is always a good idea to check the status	of  your  sessions  by	means  of
	    "screen -list".

       -e xy
	    specifies  the  command character to be x and the character generating a literal com-
	    mand character to y (when typed after the command character).  The default	is  "C-a"
	    and  `a',  which  can  be specified as "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this
	    option sets the default command character. In a multiuser  session	all  users  added
	    will  start off with this command character. But when attaching to an already running
	    session, this option changes only the command character of the attaching user.   This
	    option is equivalent to either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
	    turns  flow-control on, off, or "automatic switching mode".  This can also be defined
	    through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
	    Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the display immediately  when
	    flow-control  is  on.   See  the "defflow" .screenrc command for details.  The use of
	    this option is discouraged.

       -l and -ln
	    turns login mode on or off (for  /etc/utmp	updating).   This  can	also  be  defined
	    through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls and -list
	    does  not  start  screen,  but prints a list of pid.tty.host strings identifying your
	    screen sessions.  Sessions marked `detached' can be resumed with "screen  -r".  Those
	    marked `attached' are running and have a controlling terminal. If the session runs in
	    multiuser mode, it is marked `multi'. Sessions marked as `unreachable' either live on
	    a  different host or are `dead'.  An unreachable session is considered dead, when its
	    name matches either the name of the local host, or the specified parameter,  if  any.
	    See  the  -r  flag	for  a	description how to construct matches.  Sessions marked as
	    `dead' should be thoroughly checked and removed.  Ask your	system	administrator  if
	    you are not sure. Remove sessions with the -wipe option.

       -L   tells  screen  your  auto-margin terminal has a writable last-position on the screen.
	    This can also be set in your .screenrc by specifying `LP' in a "termcap" command.

       -m   causes screen to ignore the $STY environment variable. With "screen -m" creation of a
	    new  session  is  enforced,  regardless  whether screen is called from within another
	    screen session or not. This flag has a special meaning in connection  with	the  `-d'

       -d -m   Start  screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but doesn't attach to
	       it. This is useful for system startup scripts.

       -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork a  new  process.  The
	       command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects a more optimal output mode for your terminal rather than true VT100 emulation
	    (only affects auto-margin terminals without `LP').	This can  also	be  set  in  your
	    .screenrc by specifying `OP' in a "termcap" command.

       -q   Suppress  printing	of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the exit value is as
	    follows: 9 indicates a directory without sessions. 10 indicates a directory with run-
	    ning but not attachable sessions. 11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.
	    In combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows: 10 indicates that there is  no
	    session  to  resume.  12  (or  more) indicates that there are 2 (or more) sessions to
	    resume and you should specify which one to choose.	In all other cases  "-q"  has  no

       -r [pid.tty.host]
       -r sessionowner/[pid.tty.host]
	    resumes a detached screen session.	No other options (except combinations with -d/-D)
	    may be specified, though an optional prefix of [pid.]tty.host may be needed  to  dis-
	    tinguish  between multiple detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to con-
	    nect to another user's screen session which runs in multiuser  mode.  This	indicates
	    that  screen  should  look	for  sessions  in another user's directory. This requires

       -R   attempts to resume the first detached screen session it finds.   If  successful,  all
	    other  command-line options are ignored.  If no detached session exists, starts a new
	    session using the specified options, just as if -R had not been specified. The option
	    is	set  by default if screen is run as a login-shell (actually screen uses "-xRR" in
	    that case).  For combinations with the -d/-D option see there.

       -s   sets the default shell to the program specified, instead of the value in the environ-
	    ment variable $SHELL (or "/bin/sh" if not defined).  This can also be defined through
	    the "shell" .screenrc command.

       -S sessionname
	    When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify a meaningful name for
	    the  session.  This  name  identifies  the session for "screen -list" and "screen -r"
	    actions. It substitutes the default [tty.host] suffix.

       -t name
	    sets the title (a.k.a.) for the default shell or specified	program.   See	also  the
	    "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -U   Run  screen  in  UTF-8  mode.  This  option tells screen that your terminal sends and
	    understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets the default encoding for new  win-
	    dows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
	    does the same as "screen -ls", but removes destroyed sessions instead of marking them
	    as `dead'.	An unreachable session is considered dead, when its name  matches  either
	    the  name  of  the local host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r
	    flag for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach to a not detached screen session. (Multi display mode).

       -X   Send the specified command to a running screen session. You can  use  the  -d  or  -r
	    option  to	tell  screen  to look only for attached or detached screen sessions. Note
	    that this command doesn't work if the session is password protected.

       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed  by  one	other  character.
       For  your convenience, all commands that are bound to lower-case letters are also bound to
       their control character counterparts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-
       a  c" as well as "C-a C-c" can be used to create a window. See section "CUSTOMIZATION" for
       a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings:

       C-a '	   (select)	 Prompt for a window name or number to switch to.

       C-a "	   (windowlist -b)
				 Present a list of all windows for selection.

       C-a 0	   (select 0)
	...	      ...
       C-a 9	   (select 9)
       C-a -	   (select -)	 Switch to window number 0 - 9, or to the blank window.

       C-a tab	   (focus)	 Switch the input focus to the next region.

       C-a C-a	   (other)	 Toggle to the window displayed previously.  Note that this bind-
				 ing  defaults to the command character typed twice, unless over-
				 ridden.  For instance, if you use the option "-e]x",  this  com-
				 mand becomes "]]".

       C-a a	   (meta)	 Send the command character (C-a) to window. See escape command.

       C-a A	   (title)	 Allow the user to enter a name for the current window.

       C-a b
       C-a C-b	   (break)	 Send a break to window.

       C-a B	   (pow_break)	 Reopen the terminal line and send a break.

       C-a c
       C-a C-c	   (screen)	 Create a new window with a shell and switch to that window.

       C-a C	   (clear)	 Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d	   (detach)	 Detach screen from this terminal.

       C-a D D	   (pow_detach)  Detach and logout.

       C-a f
       C-a C-f	   (flow)	 Toggle flow on, off or auto.

       C-a F	   (fit)	 Resize the window to the current region size.

       C-a C-g	   (vbell)	 Toggles screen's visual bell mode.

       C-a h	   (hardcopy)	 Write a hardcopy of the current window to the file "hardcopy.n".

       C-a H	   (log)	 Begins/ends  logging  of the current window to the file "screen-

       C-a i
       C-a C-i	   (info)	 Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k	   (kill)	 Destroy current window.

       C-a l
       C-a C-l	   (redisplay)	 Fully refresh current window.

       C-a L	   (login)	 Toggle this windows login slot. Available only if screen is con-
				 figured to update the utmp database.

       C-a m
       C-a C-m	   (lastmsg)	 Repeat the last message displayed in the message line.

       C-a M	   (monitor)	 Toggles monitoring of the current window.

       C-a space
       C-a n
       C-a C-n	   (next)	 Switch to the next window.

       C-a N	   (number)	 Show the number (and title) of the current window.

       C-a backspace
       C-a h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p	   (prev)	 Switch to the previous window (opposite of C-a n).

       C-a q
       C-a C-q	   (xon)	 Send a control-q to the current window.

       C-a Q	   (only)	 Delete all regions but the current one.

       C-a r
       C-a C-r	   (wrap)	 Toggle  the current window's line-wrap setting (turn the current
				 window's automatic margins on and off).

       C-a s
       C-a C-s	   (xoff)	 Send a control-s to the current window.

       C-a S	   (split)	 Split the current region into two new ones.

       C-a t
       C-a C-t	   (time)	 Show system information.

       C-a v	   (version)	 Display the version and compilation date.

       C-a C-v	   (digraph)	 Enter digraph.

       C-a w
       C-a C-w	   (windows)	 Show a list of window.

       C-a W	   (width)	 Toggle 80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x	   (lockscreen)  Lock this terminal.

       C-a X	   (remove)	 Kill the current region.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z	   (suspend)	 Suspend screen.  Your system must support BSD-style job-control.

       C-a Z	   (reset)	 Reset the virtual terminal to its "power-on" values.

       C-a .	   (dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap" file.

       C-a ?	   (help)	 Show key bindings.

       C-a C-\	   (quit)	 Kill all windows and terminate screen.

       C-a :	   (colon)	 Enter command line mode.

       C-a [
       C-a C-[
       C-a esc	   (copy)	 Enter copy/scrollback mode.

       C-a ]	   (paste .)	 Write the contents of the paste buffer to the stdin queue of the
				 current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }	   (history)	 Copy and paste a previous (command) line.

       C-a >	   (writebuf)	 Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <	   (readbuf)	 Reads the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.

       C-a =	   (removebuf)	 Removes the file used by C-a < and C-a >.

       C-a ,	   (license)	 Shows	where screen comes from, where it went to and why you can
				 use it.

       C-a _	   (silence)	 Start/stop monitoring the current window for inactivity.

       C-a *	   (displays)	 Show a listing of all currently attached displays.

       The "socket directory" defaults either to  $HOME/.screen  or  simply  to  /tmp/screens  or
       preferably  to  /usr/local/screens  chosen at compile-time. If screen is installed setuid-
       root, then the administrator should compile screen with	an  adequate  (not  NFS  mounted)
       socket  directory. If screen is not running setuid-root, the user can specify any mode 700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization commands from the files "/etc/screenrc"
       and  ".screenrc"  in the user's home directory. These are the "programmer's defaults" that
       can be overridden in the following ways: for the global screenrc file screen searches  for
       the  environment  variable $SYSSCREENRC (this override feature may be disabled at compile-
       time). The user specific screenrc file is searched  in  $SCREENRC,  then  $HOME/.screenrc.
       The command line option -c takes precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands  in these files are used to set options, bind functions to keys, and to automati-
       cally establish one or more windows at the beginning of your screen session.  Commands are
       listed  one per line, with empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated
       by tabs or spaces, and may be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A `#' turns the rest
       of  the	line into a comment, except in quotes.	Unintelligible lines are warned about and
       ignored.  Commands may contain references to environment  variables.  The  syntax  is  the
       shell-like "$VAR " or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous screen
       versions, as now the '$'-character has to be protected with '\' if no  variable	substitu-
       tion shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is also protected from variable substi-

       Two  configuration  files  are  shipped	as  examples  with  your   screen   distribution:
       "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a number of useful examples for various

       Customization can also be done 'on-line'. To enter the command mode  type  `C-a	:'.  Note
       that  commands starting with "def" change default values, while others change current set-

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]
       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be one  user  or  a  comma
       separated list of users. This command enables to attach to the screen session and performs
       the equivalent of `aclchg usernames +rwx "#?"'.	executed. To add a user  with  restricted
       access,	use  the `aclchg' command below.  If an optional second parameter is supplied, it
       should be a crypted password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is	a  synonym  to	`acladd'.
       Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list
       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits are represented as
       `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants the permission, `-' removes it. The third parameter
       is  a  comma  separated	list  of  commands  and/or windows (specified either by number or
       title). The special list `#' refers to all windows, `?' to all commands. if usernames con-
       sists  of  a single `*', all known users are affected.  A command can be executed when the
       user has the `x' bit for it.  The user can type input to a window when he has its `w'  bit
       set  and  no  other  user  obtains  a writelock for this window.  Other bits are currently
       ignored.  To withdraw the writelock from another user in window 2: `aclchg  username  -w+w
       2'.   To  allow	read-only  access  to the session: `aclchg username -w "#"'. As soon as a
       user's name is known to screen he can attach to the session and	(per  default)	has  full
       permissions  for  all command and windows. Execution permission for the acl commands, `at'
       and others should also be removed or the user may be  able  to  regain  write  permission.
       Rights  of  the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the "su" command).  `Chacl'
       is a synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently  attached,  all  the  user's
       displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach again.	Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates	groups	of  users  that  share common access rights. The name of the group is the
       username of the group leader. Each member of the group inherits the permissions	that  are
       granted to the group leader. That means, if a user fails an access check, another check is
       made for the group leader.  A user is removed from all groups the special value "none"  is
       used  for  groupname.   If  the	second parameter is omitted all groups the user is in are

       aclumask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]
       umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be created by  the  caller
       of  the command.  Users may be no, one or a comma separated list of known usernames. If no
       users are specified, a list of all currently known users is assumed.  Bits is any combina-
       tion  of  access control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg" command. The special user-
       name "?" predefines the access that not yet known users will be granted to any window ini-
       tially.	 The  special  username  "??"  predefines the access that not yet known users are
       granted to any command.	Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see  the
       "su" command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When any activity occurs in a background window that is being monitored, screen displays a
       notification in the message line.  The notification message can be re-defined by means  of
       the  "activity"	command.   Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of
       the window in which activity has occurred, and each occurrence of `^G' is replaced by  the
       definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

		   'Activity in window %n'

       Note  that  monitoring is off for all windows by default, but can be altered by use of the
       "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If set to on, only the current cursor line is refreshed on window  change.   This  affects
       all  windows  and  is useful for slow terminal lines. The previous setting of full/partial
       refresh for each window is restored with "allpartial off".  This is  a  global  flag  that
       immediately  takes  effect  on  all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It does not
       change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If set to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual  terminals,  just  like  in
       xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ... ]

       Execute	a  command  at	other  displays or windows as if it had been entered there.  "At"
       changes the context (the `current window' or `current display' setting) of the command. If
       the  first parameter describes a non-unique context, the command will be executed multiple
       times. If the first parameter is of the form  `identifier*'  then  identifier  is  matched
       against	user  names.   The  command  is  executed  once  for each display of the selected
       user(s). If the first parameter is of the form `identifier%' identifier is matched against
       displays.  Displays are named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty'
       may be omitted from the identifier.  If identifier has a `#' or	nothing  appended  it  is
       matched against window numbers and titles. Omitting an identifier in front of the `#', `*'
       or `%'-character selects all users, displays or windows because	a  prefix-match  is  per-
       formed.	Note that on the affected display(s) a short message will describe what happened.
       Permission is checked for initiator of the  "at"  command,  not	for  the  owners  of  the
       affected display(s).  Note that the '#' character works as a comment introducer when it is
       preceded by whitespace. This can be escaped by prefixing a '\'.	Permission is checked for
       the initiator of the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).
       Caveat:	When  matching against windows, the command is executed at least once per window.
       Commands that change the internal arrangement of windows  (like	"other")  may  be  called
       again.  In  shared windows the command will be repeated for each attached display. Beware,
       when issuing toggle commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require that	a
       display	is  associated	with  the  target windows.  These commands may not work correctly
       under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the color of the text. If the
       attribute  attrib is in use, the specified attribute/color modifier is also applied. If no
       modifier is given, the current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES"	chapter  for  the
       syntax  of  the	modifier.  Screen understands two pseudo-attributes, "i" stands for high-
       intensity foreground color and "I" for high-intensity background color.


	      attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

	      attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

	      attrcolor b "I"

       Use bright colors for bold text. Most terminal emulators do this already.

	      attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves  all  your  running
       programs  until they are resumed with a screen -r command.  When turned off, a hangup sig-
       nal will terminate screen and all the processes it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all the output that has not been  written
       to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all characters cleared by an
       erase/insert/scroll/clear operation will be displayed in  the  current  background  color.
       Otherwise the default background color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When  a	bell  character is sent to a background window, screen displays a notification in
       the message line.  The notification message can	be  re-defined	by  this  command.   Each
       occurrence  of  `%' in message is replaced by the number of the window to which a bell has
       been sent, and each occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the  definition  for  bell  in  your
       termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

		   'Bell in window %n'

       An empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to suppress output of a message
       line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current message is shown.

       bind [-c class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by screen are bound to
       one  or	more keys as indicated in the "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section, e.g. the command to
       create a new window is bound to "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be used to redefine
       the  key bindings and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either a single charac-
       ter, a two-character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a backslash followed by an
       octal  number  (specifying  the ASCII code of the character), or a backslash followed by a
       second character, such as "\^" or "\\".	The argument can also be quoted, if you like.  If
       no  further argument is given, any previously established binding for this key is removed.
       The command argument can be any command listed in this section.

       If a command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key is bound  for  the	specified
       class.  Use the "command" command to activate a class. Command classes can be used to cre-
       ate multiple command keys or multi-character bindings.

       Some examples:

		   bind ' ' windows
		   bind ^k
		   bind k
		   bind K kill
		   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
		   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a list of windows (so that the  com-
       mand  usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also be available as "C-a space"). The next three
       lines remove the default kill binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is  then  bound
       to  the	kill  command.	Then it binds "C-f" to the command "create a window with a TELNET
       connection to foobar", and bind "escape" to the command that creates an	non-login  window
       with  a.k.a.  "root"  in  slot  #9, with a superuser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000

		   bind -c demo1 0 select 10
		   bind -c demo1 1 select 11
		   bind -c demo1 2 select 12
		   bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

		   bind -c demo2 0 select 10
		   bind -c demo2 1 select 11
		   bind -c demo2 2 select 12
		   bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd args]]

       This command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry in one of  the  tables
       tells  screen  how  to react if a certain sequence of characters is encountered. There are
       three tables: one that should contain actions programmed by the user, one for the  default
       actions	used for terminal emulation and one for screen's copy mode to do cursor movement.
       See section "INPUT TRANSLATION" for a list of default key bindings.
       If the -d option is given, bindkey modifies the default table, -m changes  the  copy  mode
       table  and  with  neither  option  the user table is selected.  The argument string is the
       sequence of characters to which an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a
       termcap keyboard capability name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string if application mode is turned on
       (e.g the cursor keys).  Such keys have two entries  in  the  translation  table.  You  can
       select the application mode entry by specifying the -a option.
       The  -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One cannot turn off the tim-
       ing if a termcap capability is used.
       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number of args.  If cmd  is  omitted
       the key-binding is removed from the table.
       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

	       bindkey -d
       Show all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are marked with [A].

	       bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

	       bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make  "foo"  an	abbreviation  of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled so that users can
       type slowly.

	       bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This key-binding makes "^T" an escape character for key-bindings. If  you  did  the  above
       "stuff  barfoo"	binding,  you  can enter the word "foo" by typing "^Tfoo". If you want to
       insert a "^T" you have to press the key twice (i.e. escape the escape binding).

	       bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-Posix  systems  the
       time  interval  may  be	rounded up to full seconds.  Most useful if a character device is
       attached to the window rather than a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").  The
       maximum duration of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of	the  available methods of generating a break signal for terminal devices.
       This command should affect the current window only.  But it  still  behaves  identical  to
       "defbreaktype". This will be changed in the future.  Calling "breaktype" with no parameter
       displays the break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.	If  the  optional
       argument  to  the  "bufferfile"	command  is  omitted,  the default setting ("/tmp/screen-
       exchange") is reactivated.  The following example will paste the  system's  password  file
       into the screen window (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

		   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
		   C-a < C-a ]
		   C-a : bufferfile

       c1 [on|off]

       Change  c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells screen to treat the input characters between 128
       and 159 as control functions.  Such an 8-bit code is normally the same as ESC followed  by
       the  corresponding  7-bit  code.  The  default  setting	is to process c1 codes and can be
       changed with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters in the  c1
       positions may want to turn this off.

       caption always|splitonly [string]
       caption string [string]

       This  command controls the display of the window captions. Normally a caption is only used
       if more than one window is shown on the display (split screen mode). But if  the  type  is
       set  to always screen shows a caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is

       The second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use all  escapes	from  the
       "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       charset set

       Change  the  current  character	set slot designation and charset mapping.  The first four
       character of set are treated as charset designators while the fifth  and  sixth	character
       must be in range '0' to '3' and set the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may
       be used to indicate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set  is
       padded to six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New windows have "BBBB02" as
       default charset, unless a "encoding" command is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified directory or, if called without an
       argument,  to your home directory (the value of the environment variable $HOME).  All win-
       dows that are created by means of the "screen" command from within ".screenrc" or by means
       of  "C-a  :  screen  ..." or "C-a c" use this as their default directory.  Without a chdir
       command, this would be the directory from which screen  was  invoked.   Hardcopy  and  log
       files  are  always written to the window's default directory, not the current directory of
       the process running in the window.  You can  use  this  command	multiple  times  in  your
       .screenrc  to  start  various windows in different default directories, but the last chdir
       value will affect all the windows you create interactively.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for on-the-fly modification  of  key
       bindings,  specific  window creation and changing settings. Note that the "set" keyword no
       longer exists! Usually commands affect the current window rather than default settings for
       future windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def...'.

       If  you	consider  this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard "C-a esc" (copy
       mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This command has the same effect as typing the screen escape character (^A). It is  proba-
       bly  only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c" option is given, select the specified com-
       mand class.  See also "bind" and "bindkey".

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells screen weather to suppress trailing blank lines when scrolling up text into the
       history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs  or  un-grabs  the  machines  console  output  to a window.  Note: Only the owner of
       /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is only available if  the  machine
       supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter  copy/scrollback  mode. This allows you to copy text from the current window and its
       history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-like `full screen editor' is active:
       Movement keys:
	 h, j, k, l move the cursor line by line or column by column.
	 0, ^ and $ move to the leftmost column, to the first or last non-whitespace character on
	   the line.
	 H,  M	and L move the cursor to the leftmost column of the top, center or bottom line of
	   the window.
	 + and - positions one line up and down.
	 G moves to the specified absolute line (default: end of buffer).
	 | moves to the specified absolute column.
	 w, b, e move the cursor word by word.
	 B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
	 C-u and C-d scroll the display up/down by the specified amount of lines while preserving
	   the cursor position. (Default: half screen-full).
	 C-b and C-f scroll the display up/down a full screen.
	 g moves to the beginning of the buffer.
	 % jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.

	   Emacs  style  movement  keys can be customized by a .screenrc command.  (E.g. markkeys
	   "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is no simple method for a full  emacs-style	keymap,  as  this
	   involves multi-character codes.

	   The copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text between these marks will be
	   highlighted. Press
	 space to set the first or second mark respectively.
	 Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.
	 W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
	   Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by pressing digits
	 0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.
	   Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15 into the paste buffer.
	 / Vi-like search forward.
	 ? Vi-like search backward.
	 C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
	 C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
	   There are however some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi does not allow one to
	   yank rectangular blocks of text, but screen does. Press
	 c  or	C to set the left or right margin respectively. If no repeat count is given, both
	   default to the current cursor position.
	   Example: Try this on a rather full text screen: "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE	c  10  l  5  j	C

	   This  moves	one to the middle line of the screen, moves in 20 columns left, marks the
	   beginning of the paste buffer, sets the left column, moves 5 columns  down,	sets  the
	   right column, and then marks the end of the paste buffer. Now try:
	   "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

	   and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.
	 J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a newline character (012),
	   lines glued seamless, lines separated by  a	single	whitespace  and  comma	separated
	   lines.  Note that you can prepend the newline character with a carriage return charac-
	   ter, by issuing a "crlf on".
	 v is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it toggles the left margin between  col-
	   umn 9 and 1. Press
	 a  before  the  final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the contents of the paste
	   buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended to.
	 A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.
	 > sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the  paste  buffer  to  the  screen-
	   exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once copy-mode is finished.
	   This example demonstrates how to dump the whole scrollback buffer to that file: "C-A [
	   g SPACE G $ >".
	 C-g gives information about the current line and column.
	 x exchanges the first mark and the current cursor position. You can use this  to  adjust
	   an already placed mark.
	 @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.
	 All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If it is set to `on',
       lines will be separated by the two character sequence `CR' -  `LF'.   Otherwise	(default)
       only `LF' is used.  When no parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns  runtime debugging on or off. If screen has been compiled with option -DDEBUG debug-
       ging available and is turned on per default. Note that this command only affects debugging
       output  from the main "SCREEN" process correctly. Debug output from attacher processes can
       only be turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as the autonuke command except that the default setting for new displays is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you can use the special `AN' terminal  capability  if
       you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same  as  the bce command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Ini-
       tial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a break signal for terminal devices. The
       preferred  methods  are	tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK.  The third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete
       screen session for the duration of the break, but it may be the only way to generate  long
       breaks.	 Tcsendbreak  and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes (e.g. 4
       per second). This is not only system dependant, this also  differs  between  serial  board
       drivers.  Calling "defbreaktype" with no parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Shows
       current default if called without argument.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This is equivalent to the "escape" except that  it  is
       useful  multiuser sessions only. In a multiuser session "escape" changes the command char-
       acter of the calling user, where "defescape" changes the default  command  characters  for
       users that will be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as the flow command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Ini-
       tial setting is `auto'.	Specifying "defflow auto interrupt" is the same as  the  command-
       line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get is set to status.  This command is  use-
       ful to make the hardstatus of every window display the window number or title or the like.
       Status may contain the same directives as in the window messages, but the directive escape
       character  is  '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.	This was done to make a misinterpretation
       of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If the parameter status is omitted, the
       current	default  string  is displayed.	Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is

       defencoding enc

       Same as the encoding command except that the default setting for new windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is the encoding taken from the terminal.

       deflog on|off

       Same  as  the log command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Ini-
       tial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. This
       is initialized with `on' as distributed (see config.h.in).

       defmode mode

       The  mode  of  each  newly  allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an octal number.
       When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same as the monitor command except that the default setting for new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting for new displays is changed.
       Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can use the special 'OL' terminal  capability
       if you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same as the silence command except that the default setting for new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same  as the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same as the utf8 command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.  Ini-
       tial setting is `on' if screen was started with "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same  as the wrap command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Ini-
       tially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with the "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of
       "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same  as the writelock command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initially writelocks will off.

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym to the zombie command. Both currently change the default.  See there.

       detach [-h]

       Detach the screen session (disconnect it from the terminal  and	put  it  into  the  back-
       ground).   This	returns you to the shell where you invoked screen.  A detached screen can
       be resumed by  invoking	screen	with  the  -r  option  (see  also  section  "COMMAND-LINE
       OPTIONS").  The -h option tells screen to immediately close the connection to the terminal


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know why features  like
       color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows  a  tabular  listing of all currently connected user front-ends (displays).  This is
       most useful for multiuser sessions.

       digraph [preset]

       This command prompts the user for a digraph sequence. The next two  characters  typed  are
       looked  up in a builtin table and the resulting character is inserted in the input stream.
       For example, if the user enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will be inserted. If the first character
       entered	is  a  0  (zero),  screen will treat the following characters (up to three) as an
       octal number instead.  The optional argument preset is treated as user input, thus one can
       create an "umlaut" key.	For example the command "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user
       to generate an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the currently active window
       to  the file ".termcap" in the user's "$HOME/.screen" directory (or wherever screen stores
       its sockets. See the "FILES" section below).  This termcap entry is identical to the value
       of  the	environment  variable $TERMCAP that is set up by screen for each window. For ter-
       minfo based systems you will need to run a converter like captoinfo and then  compile  the
       entry with tic.

       echo [-n] message

       The  echo command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'message of the day'. Typically
       installed in a global /etc/screenrc.  The option "-n" may be used  to  suppress	the  line
       feed.   See  also  "sleep".   Echo is also useful for online checking of environment vari-

       escape xy

       Set the command character to x and the character generating a  literal  command	character
       (by  triggering	the  "meta"  command)  to y (similar to the -e option).  Each argument is
       either a single character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x"  (meaning  "C-x"),	a
       backslash  followed  by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character), or a
       backslash followed by a second character, such as "\^" or "\\".	The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1 [command2 ...]

       Parses and executes each argument as seperate command.

       exec [[fdpat] newcommand [args ...]]

       Run a unix subprocess (specified by an executable path newcommand and its  optional  argu-
       ments)  in  the	current window. The flow of data between newcommands stdin/stdout/stderr,
       the process originally started in the window (let us call  it  "application-process")  and
       screen itself (window) is controlled by the filedescriptor pattern fdpat.  This pattern is
       basically a three character sequence representing stdin, stdout and stderr of  newcommand.
       A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.  An exclamation mark (!) causes the file
       descriptor to be connected to the application-process. A colon (:)  combines  both.   User
       input  will  go	to  newcommand unless newcommand receives the application-process' output
       (fdpats first character is `!' or `:') or a pipe symbol (|) is added (as a fourth  charac-
       ter) to the end of fdpat.
       Invoking  `exec'  without arguments shows name and arguments of the currently running sub-
       process in this window. Only one subprocess a time can be running in each window.
       When a subprocess is running the `kill' command will affect  it	instead  of  the  windows
       Refer  to the postscript file `doc/fdpat.ps' for a confusing illustration of all 21 possi-
       ble combinations. Each drawing shows the digits 2,1,0 representing the three file descrip-
       tors  of  newcommand. The box marked `W' is the usual pty that has the application-process
       on its slave side.  The box marked `P' is the secondary pty that now  has  screen  at  its
       master side.

       Whitespace between the word `exec' and fdpat and the command can be omitted. Trailing dots
       and a fdpat consisting only of dots can be omitted. A simple `|'  is  synonymous  for  the
       pattern `!..|'; the word exec can be omitted here and can always be replaced by `!'.


	      exec ... /bin/sh
	      exec /bin/sh

       Creates	another shell in the same window, while the original shell is still running. Out-
       put of both shells is displayed and user input is sent to the new /bin/sh.

	      exec !.. stty 19200
	      exec ! stty 19200
	      !!stty 19200

       Set the speed of the window's tty. If your stty	command  operates  on  stdout,	then  add
       another `!'.

	      exec !..| less

       This  adds  a  pager to the window output. The special character `|' is needed to give the
       user control over the pager although it gets its input from  the  window's  process.  This
       works, because less listens on stderr (a behavior that screen would not expect without the
       `|') when its stdin is not a tty.  Less versions newer than 177 fail miserably here;  good
       old pg still works.

	      !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

       Sends  window  output to both, the user and the sed command. The sed inserts an additional
       bell character (oct. 007) to the window output seen by screen.  This will cause	"Bell  in
       window x" messages, whenever the string "Error" appears in the window.


       Change  the  window size to the size of the current region. This command is needed because
       screen doesn't adapt the window size automatically if the window is  displayed  more  than

       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets the flow-control mode for this window.  Without parameters it cycles the current win-
       dow's flow-control setting from "automatic" to "on"  to	"off".	 See  the  discussion  on
       "FLOW-CONTROL"  later  on in this document for full details and note, that this is subject
       to change in future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [up|down|top|bottom]

       Move the input focus to the next region. This is done in a cyclic  way  so  that  the  top
       region  is selected after the bottom one. If no subcommand is given it defaults to `down'.
       `up' cycles in the opposite order, `top' and `bottom' go to  the  top  and  bottom  region
       respectively. Useful bindings are (j and k as in vi)
	   bind j focus down
	   bind k focus up
	   bind t focus top
	   bind b focus bottom

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input character with the 8th bit
       set, it will use the charset stored in the GR slot and print the character  with  the  8th
       bit stripped. The default (see also "defgr") is not to process GR switching because other-
       wise the ISO88591 charset would not work.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes out the currently displayed image to the file file, or, if no  filename  is  speci-
       fied, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where n is the number of the current window.
       This either appends or overwrites the file if it exists. See below.  If the option  -h  is
       specified, dump also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If  set	to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by the command "C-a
       h", otherwise these files are overwritten each time.  Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines a directory where hardcopy files will be placed. If unset, hardcopys are dumped in
       screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This command configures the use and emulation of the terminal's hardstatus line. The first
       form toggles whether screen will use the hardware status line to display messages. If  the
       flag  is  set  to  `off', these messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the display
       line. The default setting is `on'.

       The second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't	have  a  hardstatus  line
       (i.e.  the  termcap/terminfo  capabilities  "hs", "ts", "fs" and "ds" are not set). If the
       type "lastline" is used, screen will reserve the last line of the display for the hardsta-
       tus.  "message" uses screen's message mechanism and "ignore" tells screen never to display
       the hardstatus.	If you prepend the word "always" to the type, screen will  use	the  type
       even if the terminal supports a hardstatus.

       The  third  form  specifies  the contents of the hardstatus line.  '%h' is used as default
       string, i.e. the stored hardstatus of the current window (settable via  "ESC]0;<string>^G"
       or  "ESC_<string>ESC\")	is  displayed.	 You  can  customize  this to any string you like
       including the escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. If you	leave  out  the  argument
       string, the current string is displayed.

       You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as additional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set  the  display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument is given it tog-
       gles between 24 and 42 lines display. You can also specify a width if you want  to  change
       both  values.  The -w option tells screen to leave the display size unchanged and just set
       the window size, -d vice versa.

       help [-c class]

       Not really a online help, but displays a help screen showing you  all  the  key	bindings.
       The first pages list all the internal commands followed by their current bindings.  Subse-
       quent pages will display the custom commands, one  command  per	key.   Press  space  when
       you're done reading each page, or return to exit early.	All other characters are ignored.
       If the "-c" option is given, display all bound commands for the specified  command  class.
       See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


       Usually users work with a shell that allows easy access to previous commands.  For example
       csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last command executed.  Screen allows you to have a
       primitive way of re-calling "the command that started ...": You just type the first letter
       of that command, then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous  line  that  matches
       with  the `prompt character' to the left of the cursor. This line is pasted into this win-
       dow's input queue.  Thus you have a crude command history (made up by the  visible  window
       and its scrollback buffer).

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell screen to ignore the case of caracters in searches. Default is `off'.


       Uses  the  message  line  to display some information about the current window: the cursor
       position in the form "(column,row)" starting with "(1,1)", the terminal width  and  height
       plus  the  size of the scrollback buffer in lines, like in "(80,24)+50", the current state
       of window XON/XOFF flow control is shown like this (See also section FLOW CONTROL):

	 +flow	   automatic flow control, currently on.
	 -flow	   automatic flow control, currently off.
	 +(+)flow  flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.
	 -(+)flow  flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
	 +(-)flow  flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
	 -(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.

       The current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap' not) is also shown.  The
       flags  `ins',  `org',  `app',  `log', `mon' or `nored' are displayed when the window is in
       insert mode, origin mode, application-keypad mode, has output logging, insert mode, origin
       mode,  application-keypad  mode,  output  logging,  activity  monitoring or partial redraw

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and in square brackets the terminal
       character  sets	that are currently designated as G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is
       in UTF-8 mode, the string "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional modes depending on the type of the window are displayed at the end of the  sta-
       tus line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").
       If  the state machine of the terminal emulator is in a non-default state, the info line is
       started with a string identifying the current state.
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument sets the encoding of the
       current	window. Each window can emulate a different encoding. The optional second parame-
       ter overwrites the encoding of the connected terminal. It should never be needed as screen
       uses  the locale setting to detect the encoding.  There is also a way to select a terminal
       encoding depending on the terminal type by using the "KJ" termcap entry.

       Supported encodings are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5, KOI8-R, CP1251, UTF-8, ISO8859-2,
       ISO8859-3,  ISO8859-4,  ISO8859-5, ISO8859-6, ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9, ISO8859-10,
       ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new window.


       Kill current window.
       If there is an `exec' command running then it is killed.  Otherwise  the  process  (shell)
       running	in  the  window  receives a HANGUP condition, the window structure is removed and
       screen (your display) switches to another window.  When	the  last  window  is  destroyed,
       screen exits.  After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.
       Note:  Emacs  users  should  keep this command in mind, when killing a line.  It is recom-
       mended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay the last contents of the message/status line.	Useful if you're  typing  when	a
       message appears, because  the message goes away when you press a key (unless your terminal
       has a hardware status line).  Refer to the commands "msgwait" and  "msgminwait"	for  fine


       Display	the  disclaimer  page.	This  is done whenever screen is started without options,
       which should be often enough. See also the "startup_message" command.


       Lock this display.  Call a  screenlock  program	(/local/bin/lck  or  /usr/bin/lock  or	a
       builtin if no other is available). Screen does not accept any command keys until this pro-
       gram terminates. Meanwhile processes in the windows may continue, as the  windows  are  in
       the  `detached' state. The screenlock program may be changed through the environment vari-
       able $LOCKPRG (which must be set in the shell from which screen is started)  and  is  exe-
       cuted with the user's uid and gid.
       Warning:  When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no password set on screen, the
       lock is void: One could easily re-attach from  an  unlocked  shell.  This  feature  should
       rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop  writing  output  of the current window to a file "screenlog.n" in the window's
       default directory, where n is the number of the	current  window.  This	filename  can  be
       changed with the `logfile' command. If no parameter is given, the state of logging is tog-
       gled. The session log is appended to the previous contents  of  the  file  if  it  already
       exists.	The  current contents and the contents of the scrollback history are not included
       in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the logfiles will get. The default is  "screenlog.%n".	The  second  form
       changes	the  number of seconds screen will wait before flushing the logfile buffer to the
       file-system. The default value is 10 seconds.

       login [on|off]

       Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database file for the current window.  This controls
       if  the	window is `logged in'.	When no parameter is given, the login state of the window
       is toggled.  Additionally to that toggle, it is convenient having a `log in'  and  a  `log
       out'  key.  E.g.  `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will map these keys to be C-a I
       and C-a O.  The default setting (in config.h.in) should be "on" for  a  screen  that  runs
       under  suid-root.   Use	the  "deflogin" command to change the default login state for new
       windows. Both commands are only present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]
       logtstamp after [secs]
       logtstamp string [string]

       This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-stamps  are  turned
       "on", screen adds a string containing the current time to the logfile after two minutes of
       inactivity.  When output continues and more than another two minutes have passed, a second
       time-stamp  is  added  to  document the restart of the output. You can change this timeout
       with the second form of the command. The third form is used for customizing the time-stamp
       string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp -- %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by default).


       Tell  screen that the next input character should only be looked up in the default bindkey
       table. See also "bindkey".


       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timo]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout of  timo  ms.  The
       default	timeout  is  300ms.  Maptimeout with no arguments shows the current setting.  See
       also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This is a method of changing the keymap used for copy/history mode.  The string is made up
       of  oldchar=newchar pairs which are separated by `:'. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will
       change the keys `C-b' and `C-f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).   This
       happens	to be the default binding for `B' and `F'.  The command "markkeys h=^B:l=^F:$=^E"
       would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your terminal  sends	characters,  that
       cause you to abort copy mode, then this command may help by binding these characters to do
       nothing.  The no-op character is `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do not
       want  to  use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this example, multiple keys
       can be assigned to one function in a single statement.

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum window number screen will create. Doesn't affect already existing windows.
       The number may only be decreased.


       Insert the command character (C-a) in the current window's input stream.

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles activity monitoring of windows.	When monitoring is turned on and an affected win-
       dow is switched into the background, you will receive the activity notification message in
       the status line at the first sign of output and the window will also be marked with an `@'
       in the window-status display.  Monitoring is initially off for all windows.

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message is currently displayed.  The
       default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines	the time a message is displayed if screen is not disturbed by other activity. The
       default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation is singleuser.  In
       multiuser  mode	the  commands  `acladd',  `aclchg',  `aclgrp' and `acldel' can be used to
       enable (and disable) other users accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are familiar  with	the  game
       "nethack", you may enjoy the nethack-style messages which will often blur the facts a lit-
       tle, but are much funnier to read. Anyway, standard messages often tend to be  unclear  as
       This  option  is  only available if screen was compiled with the NETHACK flag defined. The
       default setting is then determined by the presence of the environment variable $NETHACKOP-


       Switch  to the next window.  This command can be used repeatedly to cycle through the list
       of windows.

       nonblock [on|off]

       Enable or disable flow control for the current user interface (display).  It  is  used  to
       prevent	a  slow display from slowing down the processing of data output by a window. This
       command may be helpful when multiple displays show the same window. Nonblock is	initially
       off for all displays.

       number [n]

       Change  the  current windows number. If the given number n is already used by another win-
       dow, both windows exchange their numbers. If no argument is specified, the current  window
       number (and title) is shown.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If  the	output	buffer contains more bytes than the specified limit, no more data will be
       read from the windows. The default value is 256. If you have a fast display (like  xterm),
       you  can  set it to some higher value. If no argument is specified, the current setting is


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch to the window displayed previously. If this window does no longer exist, other  has
       the same effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines whether the display should be refreshed (as with redisplay) after switching to the
       current window. This command only affects the current window.  To immediately  affect  all
       windows	use the allpartial command.  Default is `off', of course.  This default is fixed,
       as there is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask for  it,  whenever
       someone attempts to resume a detached. This is useful if you have privileged programs run-
       ning under screen and you want to protect your session from reattach attempts  by  another
       user  masquerading as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is specified,
       screen prompts twice for typing a password and places its encryption in the paste  buffer.
       Default is `none', this disables password checking.

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write  the  (concatenated)  contents  of the specified registers to the stdin queue of the
       current window. The register '.' is treated as the paste buffer. If no parameter is  given
       the  user is prompted for a single register to paste.  The paste buffer can be filled with
       the copy, history and readbuf commands.	Other registers can be filled with the	register,
       readreg	and  paste  commands.  If paste is called with a second argument, the contents of
       the specified registers is pasted into the named destination register rather than the win-
       dow.  If '.' is used as the second argument, the displays paste buffer is the destination.
       Note, that "paste" uses a wide variety of resources: Whenever a second argument is  speci-
       fied  no  current  window is needed. When the source specification only contains registers
       (not the paste buffer) then there need not be a current display	(terminal  attached),  as
       the registers are a global resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell  screen to include font information in the paste buffer. The default is not to do so.
       This command is especially useful for multi character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen the window's terminal line and send a break condition. See `break'.


       Power detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP  signal  to  the  parent
       process	of  screen.   CAUTION: This will result in a logout, when screen was started from
       your login shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a `Power detach' was performed.  It  may  be
       used as a replacement for a logout message or to reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter,
       the current message is shown.


       Switch to the window with the next lower number.  This command can be used  repeatedly  to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If cmd is not an empty string, screen will not use the terminal capabilities "po/pf" if it
       detects an ansi print sequence ESC [ 5 i, but pipe the output into cmd.	This should  nor-
       mally be a command like "lpr" or "'cat > /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without a command dis-
       plays the current setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes the pipe.
       Warning: Be careful with this command! If other user have write access to  your	terminal,
       they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff  the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue. If no argument is
       given you are prompted for a register name. The text is parsed as if it had been typed  in
       from  the  user's  keyboard. This command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single


       Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style terminals  the	keys  C-4
       and  C-\ are identical.	This makes the default bindings dangerous: Be careful not to type
       C-a C-4 when selecting window no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in	"bind  '^\'")  to
       remove a key binding.

       readbuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Reads  the  contents of the specified file into the paste buffer.  You can tell screen the
       encoding of the file via the -e option.	If no  file  is  specified,  the  screen-exchange
       filename is used.  See also "bufferfile" command.

       readreg [-e encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero or one arguments it it
       duplicates the paste buffer contents into the register specified or entered at the prompt.
       With  two  arguments  it  reads	the contents of the named file into the register, just as
       readbuf reads the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.  You  can	tell  screen  the
       encoding  of  the  file	via the -e option.  The following example will paste the system's
       password file into the screen window (using register p, where a copy remains):

		   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
		   C-a : paste p


       Redisplay the current window. Needed to get a full redisplay when in partial redraw mode.

       register [-e encoding] key string

       Save the specified string to the register key.  The encoding of the string can  be  speci-
       fied via the -e option.	See also the "paste" command.


       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.


       Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the commands "writebuf" and "readbuf".


       Reset  the  virtual  terminal to its "power-on" values. Useful when strange settings (like
       scroll regions or graphics character set) are left over from an application.


       Resize the current region. The space will be removed from or added to the region below  or
       if there's not enough space from the region above.

	      resize +N   increase current region height by N

	      resize -N   decrease current region height by N

	      resize  N   set current region height to N

	      resize  =   make all windows equally high

	      resize  max maximize current region height

	      resize  min minimize current region height

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]]

       Establish a new window.	The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa), title (a.k.a.) option
       (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal type option (-T <term>),  the  all-capability-
       flag (-a) and scrollback option (-h <num>) may be specified with each command.  The option
       (-M) turns monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns  output  logging  on  for
       this  window.   If an optional number n in the range 0..9 is given, the window number n is
       assigned to the newly created window (or, if this  number  is  already  in-use,	the  next
       available number).  If a command is specified after "screen", this command (with the given
       arguments) is started in the window;  otherwise,  a  shell  is  created.   Thus,  if  your
       ".screenrc" contains the lines

		   # example for .screenrc:
		   screen 1
		   screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen  creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET connection to the
       machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title "foobar" in window #2) and will write
       a  logfile  ("screenlog.2") of the telnet session.  Note, that unlike previous versions of
       screen no additional default window is created when "screen" commands are included in your
       ".screenrc" file. When the initialization is completed, screen switches to the last window
       specified in your .screenrc file or, if none, opens a default window #0.
       Screen has built in some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".   See  also  chapter  "WINDOW

       scrollback num

       Set  the  size  of the scrollback buffer for the current windows to num lines. The default
       scrollback is 100 lines.  See also the "defscrollback" command and use "C-a i" to view the
       current setting.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch  to  the	window	identified  by	WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a window title
       (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The parameter is optional and if  omitted,
       you get prompted for an identifier.  When a new window is established, the first available
       number is assigned to this window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by "select 0".
       The number of windows is limited at compile-time by the MAXWIN configuration parameter.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename  the  current  session.  Note,  that  for "screen -list" the name shows up with the
       process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omitted, the name of this session is  dis-
       played.	Caution:  The  $STY  environment  variables still reflects the old name. This may
       result in confusion.  The default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is specified, the user will
       be  prompted  to enter a value.	If no parameters are specified, the user will be prompted
       for both variable and value. The environment  is  inherited  by	all  subsequently  forked

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally  screen  uses different sessions and process groups for the windows. If setsid is
       turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows will be in the same process group  as
       the  screen  backend process. This also breaks job-control, so be careful.  The default is
       on, of course. This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set the command to be used to create a new shell.  This overrides the value of  the  envi-
       ronment	variable  $SHELL.   This  is  useful if you'd like to run a tty-enhancer which is
       expecting to execute the program specified in $SHELL. If the command  begins  with  a  '-'
       character, the shell will be started as a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set  the  title	for  all  shells  created  during startup or by the C-A C-c command.  For
       details about what a title is, see the discussion entitled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles silence monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on and an  affected  window
       is  switched into the background, you will receive the silence notification message in the
       status line after a specified period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout  can  be
       changed	with  the  `silencewait'  command or by specifying a number of seconds instead of
       `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define the time that all windows monitored for silence should  wait  before  displaying	a
       message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This  command  will  pause  the	execution  of a .screenrc file for num seconds.  Keyboard
       activity will end the sleep.  It may be used to give users a chance to read  the  messages
       output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define  the speed at which text is inserted into the current window by the paste ("C-a ]")
       command.  If the slowpaste value is  nonzero  text  is  written	character  by  character.
       screen  will  make a pause of msec milliseconds after each single character write to allow
       the application to process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.

       source file

       Read  and  execute  commands  from  file  file. Source commands may be nested to a maximum
       recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path and  screen  already  processes	a
       source  command, the parent directory of the running source command file is used to search
       for the new command file before screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only work at startup and reattach time, so
       they must be reached via the default screenrc files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       Change  the  way screen does highlighting for text marking and printing messages.  See the
       "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of the modifiers.  The default  is  currently  "=s
       dd" (standout, default colors).


       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the display are resized to make
       room for the new region. The blank window is displayed on the new region.

       startup_message on|off

       Select whether you want to see the copyright notice during startup.  Default is	`on',  as
       you probably noticed.

       stuff string

       Stuff  the  string  string  in  the  input buffer of the current window.  This is like the
       "paste" command but with much less overhead.  You cannot  paste	large  buffers	with  the
       "stuff" command. It is most useful for key bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]

       Substitute the user of a display. The command prompts for all parameters that are omitted.
       If passwords are specified as parameters, they have to be specified un-crypted. The  first
       password  is  matched  against the systems passwd database, the second password is matched
       against the screen password as set with the commands "acladd" or "password".  "Su" may  be
       useful  for  the  screen  administrator to test multiuser setups.  When the identification
       fails, the user has access to the commands available for user nobody.  These are "detach",
       "license", "version", "help" and "displays".


       Suspend	screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state, while screen is suspended. This
       feature relies on the shell being able to do job control.

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the  $TERM  variable	is  set  to  "screen"  by
       default.   But  when no description for "screen" is installed in the local termcap or ter-
       minfo data base, you set $TERM to - say - "vt100". This won't do much harm, as  screen  is
       VT100/ANSI  compatible.	The use of the "term" command is discouraged for non-default pur-
       pose.  That is, one may want to specify special $TERM settings (e.g. vt100) for	the  next
       "screen	rlogin	othermachine"  command.  Use the command "screen -T vt100 rlogin otherma-
       chine" rather than setting and resetting the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]

       Use this command to modify your terminal's termcap entry without  going	through  all  the
       hassles	involved  in creating a custom termcap entry.  Plus, you can optionally customize
       the termcap generated for the windows.  You have to place these commands  in  one  of  the
       screenrc startup files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.
       If  your  system  works uses the terminfo database rather than termcap, screen will under-
       stand the `terminfo' command, which has the same effects as the	`termcap'  command.   Two
       separate  commands  are	provided,  as  there  are subtle syntactic differences, e.g. when
       parameter interpolation (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names of the	capabili-
       ties have to be used with the `terminfo' command.
       In  many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and termcap syntax, you can
       use the command `termcapinfo', which is just a shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and `ter-
       minfo' commands with identical arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should be affected by this definition.  You
       can specify multiple terminal names by separating them with `|'s.  Use `*'  to  match  all
       terminals and `vt*' to match all terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each  tweak  argument  contains	one  or  more  termcap	defines (separated by `:'s) to be
       inserted at the start of the appropriate termcap entry, enhancing it or overriding  exist-
       ing  values.   The  first tweak modifies your terminal's termcap, and contains definitions
       that your terminal uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged  (e.g.  '').	The second (optional) tweak modifies all the window termcaps, and
       should contain definitions that screen understands (see the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

	      termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs screen that all terminals that begin with  `xterm'  have  firm  auto-margins  that
       allow  the  last  position  on the screen to be updated (LP), but they don't really have a
       status line (no 'hs' - append `@' to turn entries off).	Note that we assume `LP' for  all
       terminal  names	that start with "vt", but only if you don't specify a termcap command for
       that terminal.

	      termcap vt*  LP
	      termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined `LP' capability for all terminals that begin  with  `vt',  and
       the  second  line  will	also add the escape-sequences to switch into (Z0) and back out of
       (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if this is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1
       in your termcap to use the width-changing commands.)

	      termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This  leaves  your  vt100  termcap alone and adds the function key labels to each window's
       termcap entry.

	      termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables	the  insert  mode
       (im)  and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@' in the `im' string is after the `=', so it
       is part of the string).	Having the `im' and `ei' definitions  put  into  your  terminal's
       termcap	will  cause  screen to automatically advertise the character-insert capability in
       each window's termcap.  Each window will also get  the  delete-character  capability  (dc)
       added  to  its  termcap,  which	screen will translate into a line-update for the terminal
       (we're pretending it doesn't support character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each window's termcap entry, you should instead set the
       $SCREENCAP variable prior to running screen.  See the discussion on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL"
       in this manual, and the termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time [string]

       Uses the message line to display the time of day, the host name,  and  the  load  averages
       over  1,  5,  and  15  minutes (if this is available on your system).  For window specific
       information use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like it is described in
       the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowalias]

       Set the name of the current window to windowalias. If no name is specified, screen prompts
       for one. This command was known as `aka' in previous releases.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off [on|off]]

       Change the encoding used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the	strings  sent  to
       the  window  will be UTF-8 encoded and vice versa. Omitting the parameter toggles the set-
       ting. If a second parameter is given, the display's encoding is also changed (this  should
       rather  be done with screen's "-U" option).  See also "defutf8", which changes the default
       setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets the visual bell setting for this window. Omitting the parameter toggles the  setting.
       If  vbell  is switched on, but your terminal does not support a visual bell, a `vbell-mes-
       sage' is displayed in the status line when the bell character (^G)  is  received.   Visual
       bell support of a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').
       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also `bell_msg'.

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line if the window receives
       a bell character (^G), vbell is set to "on", but the terminal does not  support	a  visual
       bell.   The  default message is "Wuff, Wuff!!".	Without parameter, the current message is

       vbellwait sec

       Define a delay in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell message. The  default
       is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If  verbose  is	switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a window is created (or
       resurrected from zombie state). Default is off.	Without parameter, the current setting is


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays. The message will appear in the terminal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle  the  window width between 80 and 132 columns or set it to cols columns if an argu-
       ment is specified.  This requires a capable terminal and  the  termcap  entries	"Z0"  and
       "Z1".   See  the "termcap" command for more information. You can also specify a new height
       if you want to change both values.  The -w option tells screen to leave the  display  size
       unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] | string [string] | title [title]

       Display	all  windows  in  a  table for visual window selection. The desired window can be
       selected via the standard movement keys (see the "copy" command)  and  activated  via  the
       return key.  If the -b option is given, screen will switch to the blank window before pre-
       senting the list, so that the current window is also selectable.

       The table format can be changed with the string and title option, the title  is	displayed
       as  table  heading, while the lines are made by using the string setting. The default set-
       ting is "Num Name%=Flags" for the title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.	See  the  "STRING
       ESCAPES" chapter for more codes (e.g. color settings).


       Uses the message line to display a list of all the windows.  Each window is listed by num-
       ber with the name of process that has been started in the window (or its title); the  cur-
       rent  window  is marked with a `*'; the previous window is marked with a `-'; all the win-
       dows that are "logged in" are marked with a `$'; a background window that has  received	a
       bell  is marked with a `!'; a background window that is being monitored and has had activ-
       ity occur is marked with an `@'; a window which has output logging  turned  on  is  marked
       with  `(L)';  windows  occupied	by other users are marked with `&'; windows in the zombie
       state are marked with `Z'.  If this list is too long to fit on the terminal's status  line
       only the portion around the current window is displayed.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets  the line-wrap setting for the current window.  When line-wrap is on, the second con-
       secutive printable character output at the last column of a line will wrap to the start of
       the  following  line.  As an added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through the left
       margin to the previous line.  Default is `on'.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes the contents of the paste buffer to the specified file, or  the  public  accessible
       screen-exchange	file  if no filename is given. This is thought of as a primitive means of
       communication between screen users on the same host. If an encoding is specified the paste
       buffer  is  recoded  on	the  fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with the
       bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write to the same window
       at once. Per default, writelock is in `auto' mode and grants exclusive input permission to
       the user who is the first to switch to the particular window. When he leaves  the  window,
       other  users may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the current window
       is disabled by the command "writelock off". If the user issues the command "writelock  on"
       he keeps the exclusive write permission while switching to other windows.


       Insert a CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the current window.

       zombie [keys]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as the windows process
       (e.g. shell) exits. When a string of two keys is specified to the zombie  command,  `dead'
       windows	will  remain  in the list.  The kill command may be used to remove such a window.
       Pressing the first key in the dead window has the same effect. When  pressing  the  second
       key,  screen  will attempt to resurrect the window. The process that was initially running
       in the window will be launched again. Calling zombie without  parameters  will  clear  the
       zombie setting, thus making windows disappear when their process exits.

       As the zombie-setting is manipulated globally for all windows, this command should only be
       called defzombie. Until we need this as a per window setting, the commands zombie and def-
       zombie are synonymous.

       Screen  displays  informational	messages  and other diagnostics in a message line.  While
       this line is distributed to appear at the bottom of the	screen,  it  can  be  defined  to
       appear  at  the	top of the screen during compilation.  If your terminal has a status line
       defined in its termcap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of  the	current  screen  will  be  temporarily overwritten and output will be momentarily
       interrupted. The message line is automatically removed after a few seconds delay,  but  it
       can also be removed early (on terminals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The  message  line facility can be used by an application running in the current window by
       means of the ANSI Privacy message control sequence.  For instance, from within the  shell,
       try something like:

	      echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where  '<esc>' is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and '\\' turns into a single back-

       Screen provides three different window types. New windows are created with screen's screen
       command (see also the entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZATION"). The first parameter to the screen
       command defines which type of window is created. The different window types are	all  spe-
       cial  cases  of	the normal type. They have been added in order to allow screen to be used
       efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       o  The normal window contains a shell (default, if no parameter is  given)  or  any  other
	  system command that could be executed from a shell (e.g.  slogin, etc...)

       o  If  a  tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is specified as the first
	  parameter, then the window is directly connected to this device.  This window  type  is
	  similar  to  "screen cu -l /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on the device
	  node, an exclusive open is attempted on the node to mark the connection line	as  busy.
	  An  optional	parameter is allowed consisting of a comma separated list of flags in the
	  notation used by stty(1):

		 Usually 300, 1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission as well  as  receive

	  cs8 or cs7
		 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

	  ixon or -ixon
		 Enables (or disables) software flow-control (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q) for sending data.

	  ixoff or -ixon
		 Enables (or disables) software flow-control for receiving data.

	  istrip or -istrip
		 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

	  You  may  want  to  specify as many of these options as applicable. Unspecified options
	  cause the terminal driver to make up the parameter values  of  the  connection.   These
	  values are system dependant and may be in defaults or values saved from a previous con-

	  For tty windows, the info command shows some of the modem control lines in  the  status
	  line. These may include `RTS', `CTS', 'DTR', `DSR', `CD' and more.  This depends on the
	  available ioctl()'s and system header files as well as the on the physical capabilities
	  of  the serial board.  Signals that are logical low (inactive) have their name preceded
	  by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal is logical high (active).  Signals not
	  supported by the hardware but available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.
	  When	the  CLOCAL  status  bit is true, the whole set of modem signals is placed inside
	  curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOCSOFTCAR bit is set, the signals  `CTS'
	  or `CD' are shown in parenthesis, respectively.

	  For  tty  windows,  the command break causes the Data transmission line (TxD) to go low
	  for a specified period of time. This is expected to be interpreted as break  signal  on
	  the  other  side.  No data is sent and no modem control line is changed when a break is

       o  If the first parameter is "//telnet", the second parameter is expected  to  be  a  host
	  name,  and  an  optional third parameter may specify a TCP port number (default decimal
	  23).	Screen will connect to a server listening on the remote host and use  the  telnet
	  protocol to communicate with that server.
	  For  telnet  windows,  the  command  info  shows details about the connection in square
	  brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

	  b	 BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

	  e	 ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

	  c	 SGA. The connection is in `character mode' (default: `line mode').

	  t	 TTYPE. The terminal type has been requested by the remote  host.   Screen  sends
		 the name "screen" unless instructed otherwise (see also the command `term').

	  w	 NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size changes.

	  f	 LFLOW.  The  remote  host  will  send flow control information.  (Ignored at the

	  Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED and NEWENV).

	  For telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet code IAC BREAK (decimal 243)  to
	  the remote host.

	  This	window	type  is  only	available  if screen was compiled with the BUILTIN_TELNET
	  option defined.

       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the current time into  mes-
       sages  or file names. The escape character is '%' with one exception: inside of a window's
       hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used instead.

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       a      either 'am' or 'pm'

       A      either 'AM' or 'PM'

       c      current time HH:MM in 24h format

       C      current time HH:MM in 12h format

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       f      flags of the window

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       l      current load of the system

       m      month number

       M      month name

       n      window number

       s      seconds

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' quailifier: up to the current  window;  with
	      '+' qualifier: starting with the window after the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       y      last two digits of the year number

       Y      full year number

       ?      the  part  to  the  next '%?' is displayed only if an escape expands to an nonempty

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad the string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill). If a number is specified,
	      pad to the percentage of the window's width.  A '0' qualifier tells screen to treat
	      the number as absolute position.	You can specify to pad relative to the last abso-
	      lute  pad position by adding a '+' qualifier or to pad relative to the right margin
	      by using '-'. The padding truncates the  string  if  the	specified  position  lies
	      before the current position. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark  the  current  text	position for the next truncation. When screen needs to do
	      truncation, it tries to do it in a way that the marked position gets moved  to  the
	      specified  percentage  of  the output area. (The area starts from the last absolute
	      pad position and ends with the position specified by the truncation operator.)  The
	      'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated parts with '...'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       The  'c'  and  'C'  escape  may be qualified with a '0' to make screen use zero instead of
       space as fill character. The '0' qualifier also makes the '=' escape  use  absolute  posi-
       tions. The 'n' and '=' escapes understand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can
       be prefixed with 'L' to generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if 'L'
       is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is is used to change the attributes or the color settings. Its
       format is "[attribute modifier] [color description]". The attribute modifier must be  pre-
       fixed  by  a change type indicator if it can be confused with a color desciption. The fol-
       lowing change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or a combination of  the
       following letters:

       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors  are  coded  either  as  a hexadecimal number or two letters specifying the desired
       background and foreground color (in that order). The following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The capitalized versions of the letter specify bright colors. You can also use the pseudo-
       color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave the color unchanged.
       A  one  digit/letter color description is treated as foreground or background color depen-
       dant on the current attributes: if reverse mode is set, the background  color  is  changed
       instead	of the foreground color.  If you don't like this, prefix the color with a ".". If
       you want the same behaviour for two-letter color descriptions, also  prefix  them  with	a
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that were set before the last
       change was made (i.e. pops one level of the color-change stack).


       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all attributes, write in default color on yellow background.

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
	      The available windows centered at the current window and truncated to the available
	      width. The current window is displayed white on blue.  This can be used with "hard-
	      status alwayslastline".

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
	      The window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if one is set.  Also use a
	      red background if this is the active focus. Useful for "caption string".

       Each  window  has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals with the XON and
       XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).  When flow-control is  turned  off,
       screen ignores the XON and XOFF characters, which allows the user to send them to the cur-
       rent program by simply typing them (useful for  the  emacs  editor,  for  instance).   The
       trade-off  is  that  it	will  take  longer for output from a "normal" program to pause in
       response to an XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON and XOFF	characters  are  used  to
       immediately  pause  the output of the current window.  You can still send these characters
       to the current program, but you must use the  appropriate  two-character  screen  commands
       (typically  "C-a  q" (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).	The xon/xoff commands are also useful for
       typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value set with either the -f option or  the  "def-
       flow"  .screenrc command. Per default the windows are set to automatic flow-switching.  It
       can then be toggled between the three states  'fixed  on',  'fixed  off'  and  'automatic'
       interactively with the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The  automatic  flow-switching  mode  deals with flow control using the TIOCPKT mode (like
       "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not support TIOCPKT, screen tries to find  out  the
       right  mode  based  on the current setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled,
       flow-control is turned off and visa versa.  Of course, you can still manipulate	flow-con-
       trol manually when needed.

       If you're running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing the interrupt key (usu-
       ally C-c) does not interrupt the display until another 6-8 lines  have  scrolled  by,  try
       running screen with the "interrupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow" command
       in your .screenrc, or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the output that screen
       has  accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.  One disadvantage is that the
       virtual terminal's memory contains the non-flushed version of the output,  which  in  rare
       cases  can cause minor inaccuracies in the output.  For example, if you switch screens and
       return, or update the screen with "C-a l" you would see the  version  of  the  output  you
       would  have  gotten  without "interrupt" being on.  Also, you might need to turn off flow-
       control (or use auto-flow mode to turn it off automatically) when running a  program  that
       expects	you  to type the interrupt character as input, as it is possible to interrupt the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-control is enabled.  If
       this happens, a simple refresh of the screen with "C-a l" will restore it.  Give each mode
       a try, and use whichever mode you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with the "windows" com-
       mand  (C-a  w)) by setting it with one of the title commands.  Normally the name displayed
       is the actual command name of the program created in the window.  However, it is sometimes
       useful  to  distinguish various programs of the same name or to change the name on-the-fly
       to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the  "shelltitle"  command  in  the
       .screenrc  file,  while all other windows are created with a "screen" command and thus can
       have their name set with the -t option.	Interactively, there is the title-string  escape-
       sequence  (<esc>kname<esc>\)  and  the  "title" command (C-a A).  The former can be output
       from an application to control the window's name under software control,  and  the  latter
       will  prompt  for a name when typed.  You can also bind pre-defined names to keys with the
       "title" command to set things quickly without prompting.

       Finally, screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled  by  setting  the  window's
       name  to "search|name" and arranging to have a null title escape-sequence output as a part
       of your prompt.	The search portion specifies an end-of-prompt search  string,  while  the
       name  portion  specifies the default shell name for the window.	If the name ends in a `:'
       screen will add what it believes to be the current command running in the  window  to  the
       end  of	the  window's  shell  name (e.g. "name:cmd").  Otherwise the current command name
       supersedes the shell name while it is running.

       Here's how it works:  you must modify your shell prompt to  output  a  null  title-escape-
       sequence  (<esc>k<esc>\)  as  a part of your prompt.  The last part of your prompt must be
       the same as the string you specified for the search portion of the title.   Once  this  is
       set  up,  screen will use the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command name and
       get ready for the next command.	Then, when a newline is received from the shell, a search
       is  made  for  the  end	of  the  prompt.  If found, it will grab the first word after the
       matched string and use it as the command name.  If the command  name  begins  with  either
       '!',  '%', or '^' screen will use the first word on the following line (if found) in pref-
       erence to the just-found name.  This helps csh users get better command names  when  using
       job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

	      screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding  this  line  to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of the "top" command in
       window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

		   shelltitle '> |csh'
		   screen 1

       These commands would start a shell with the given shelltitle.  The title specified  is  an
       auto-title  that  would expect the prompt and the typed command to look something like the

	      /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it looks after the '> ' for the command name).	The window status  would  show	the  name
       "trn" while the command was running, and revert to "csh" upon completion.

	      bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence "C-a R" to the "su" com-
       mand and give it an auto-title name of "root:".	For this auto-title to work,  the  screen
       could look something like this:

		   % !em
		   emacs file.c

       Here the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the previously entered "emacs"
       command.  The window status would show "root:emacs" during the execution of  the  command,
       and revert to simply "root:" at its completion.

		   bind o title
		   bind E title ""
		   bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it would prompt you for a title. when you
       type "C-a o".  The second binding would clear an auto-title's  current  setting	(C-a  E).
       The third binding would set the current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One  thing to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-sequence to your prompt is that
       some shells (like the csh) count all the non-control characters as part	of  the  prompt's
       length.	 If these invisible characters aren't a multiple of 8 then backspacing over a tab
       will result in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a  prompt  like

	      set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The  escape-sequence  "<esc>[0000m"  not only normalizes the character attributes, but all
       the zeros round the length of the invisible characters up to 8.	Bash users will  probably
       want to echo the escape sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

	      PROMPT_COMMAND='echo -n -e "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).

       Each  window  in  a  screen  session  emulates a VT100 terminal, with some extra functions
       added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other terminal types can be emulated.
       Usually screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI standard  as  possible.  But  if
       your  terminal  lacks  certain  capabilities,  the emulation may not be complete. In these
       cases screen has to tell the applications that some of the features are missing.  This  is
       no problem on machines using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to cus-
       tomize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your  machine  supports  only  terminfo  this
       method  fails. Because of this, screen offers a way to deal with these cases.  Here is how
       it works:

       When screen tries to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first looks  for	an  entry
       named  "screen.<term>",	where  <term> is the contents of your $TERM variable.  If no such
       entry exists, screen tries "screen" (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide  (132  cols  or
       more)).	If even this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The  idea  is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an important feature (e.g.
       delete char or clear to EOS) you can build a new termcap/terminfo entry for screen  (named
       "screen.<dumbterm>")  in  which	this  capability  has  been  disabled.	If  this entry is
       installed on your machines you are able to do a rlogin and still keep  the  correct  term-
       cap/terminfo  entry.   The  terminal name is put in the $TERM variable of all new windows.
       Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the capabilities of the virtual terminal
       emulated.  Notice that, however, on machines using the terminfo database this variable has
       no effect.  Furthermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number of each window.

       The actual set of capabilities supported by the virtual terminal depends on the	capabili-
       ties supported by the physical terminal.  If, for instance, the physical terminal does not
       support underscore mode, screen does not put the `us' and `ue' capabilities into the  win-
       dow's  $TERMCAP	variable, accordingly.	However, a minimum number of capabilities must be
       supported by a terminal in order to run screen; namely scrolling, clear screen, and direct
       cursor  addressing (in addition, screen does not run on hardcopy terminals or on terminals
       that over-strike).

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using the "termcap" .screenrc
       command,  or  by  defining  the	variable $SCREENCAP prior to startup.  When the is latter
       defined, its value will be copied verbatim into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can
       either  be the full terminal definition, or a filename where the terminal "screen" (and/or
       "screen-w") is defined.

       Note that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the system uses  the  terminfo
       database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the termcap entry for the terminal on which
       screen has been called, the terminal emulation of screen supports multiple character sets.
       This  allows an application to make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set
       or national character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are  supported:
       lock shift G0 (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock shift G3, single shift G2, and
       single shift G3.  When a virtual terminal is created or reset, the ASCII character set  is
       designated  as  G0  through G3.	When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates the
       capabilities `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence the  terminal  uses  to
       enable  and  start  the	graphics character set rather than SI.	`E0' is the corresponding
       replacement for SO. `C0' gives a character by character translation string  that  is  used
       during semi-graphics mode. This string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capability.

       When  the `po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's termcap entry, applica-
       tions running in a screen window can send output to the	printer  port  of  the	terminal.
       This  allows  a user to have an application in one window sending output to a printer con-
       nected to the terminal, while all other windows are still  active  (the	printer  port  is
       enabled	and disabled again for each chunk of output).  As a side-effect, programs running
       in different windows can send output to the printer  simultaneously.   Data  sent  to  the
       printer	is not displayed in the window.  The info command displays a line starting `PRIN'
       while the printer is active.

       Screen maintains a hardstatus line for every window. If a window gets selected,	the  dis-
       play's  hardstatus  will  be updated to match the window's hardstatus line. If the display
       has no hardstatus the line will be displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus
       line  can  be changed with the ANSI Application Program Command (APC): "ESC_<string>ESC\".
       As a convenience for xterm users the sequence "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of the virtual terminal if  they
       can be efficiently implemented by the physical terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line)
       is only put into the $TERMCAP variable if the terminal supports either delete line  itself
       or scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the session is reattached
       on a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The "alternate screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the altscreen	.screenrc
       command to enable it.

       The  following is a list of control sequences recognized by screen.  "(V)" and "(A)" indi-
       cate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific functions, respectively.

       ESC E			  Next Line

       ESC D			  Index

       ESC M			  Reverse Index

       ESC H			  Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7		     (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8		     (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s		     (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u		     (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c			  Reset to Initial State

       ESC g			  Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p 		  Cursor Visibility (97801)

	   Pn = 6		  Invisible

		7		  Visible

       ESC =		     (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >		     (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8		     (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \		     (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^		     (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !			  Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k			  A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P		     (A)  Device Control String.  Outputs a string directly to	the  host
				  terminal without interpretation.

       ESC _		     (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus, xterm title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute  screen  command. This only works if multi-user support
				  is compiled into screen. The pseudo-user ":window:" is used  to
				  check the access control list. Use "addacl :window: -rwx #?" to
				  create a user with no rights and allow  only	the  needed  com-

       Control-N	     (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O	     (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n		     (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o		     (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N		     (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O		     (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H		  Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f		  same as above

       ESC [ Pn J		  Erase in Display

	     Pn = None or 0	  From Cursor to End of Screen

		  1		  From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

		  2		  Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K		  Erase in Line

	     Pn = None or 0	  From Cursor to End of Line

		  1		  From Beginning of Line to Cursor

		  2		  Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X		  Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A		  Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B		  Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C		  Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D		  Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E		  Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F		  Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G		  Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `		  same as above

       ESC [ Pn d		  Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m	  Select Graphic Rendition

	     Ps = None or 0	  Default Rendition

		  1		  Bold

		  2	     (A)  Faint

		  3	     (A)  Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)

		  4		  Underlined

		  5		  Blinking

		  7		  Negative Image

		  22	     (A)  Normal Intensity

		  23	     (A)  Standout Mode off (ANSI: Italicized off)

		  24	     (A)  Not Underlined

		  25	     (A)  Not Blinking

		  27	     (A)  Positive Image

		  30	     (A)  Foreground Black

		  31	     (A)  Foreground Red

		  32	     (A)  Foreground Green

		  33	     (A)  Foreground Yellow

		  34	     (A)  Foreground Blue

		  35	     (A)  Foreground Magenta

		  36	     (A)  Foreground Cyan

		  37	     (A)  Foreground White

		  39	     (A)  Foreground Default

		  40	     (A)  Background Black


		  49	     (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g		  Tab Clear

	     Pn = None or 0	  Clear Tab at Current Position

		  3		  Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r	     (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I	     (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z	     (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L	     (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M	     (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @	     (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P	     (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S		  Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T		  Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^		  same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps h	  Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps l	  Reset Mode

	     Ps = 4	     (A)  Insert Mode

		  20	     (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

		  34		  Normal Cursor Visibility

		  ?1	     (V)  Application Cursor Keys

		  ?3	     (V)  Change Terminal Width to 132 columns

		  ?5	     (V)  Reverse Video

		  ?6	     (V)  Origin Mode

		  ?7	     (V)  Wrap Mode

		  ?9		  X10 mouse tracking

		  ?25	     (V)  Visible Cursor

		  ?47		  Alternate Screen (old xterm code)

		  ?1000      (V)  VT200 mouse tracking

		  ?1047 	  Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

		  ?1049 	  Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i	     (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i	     (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t	  Resize  the window to `Ph' lines and `Pw' columns (SunView spe-

       ESC [ c			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x			  Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c		  Send VT220 Secondary Device Attributes String

       ESC [ 6 n		  Send Cursor Position Report

       In order to do a full VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a sequence  of  characters
       in  the	input  stream  was  generated by a keypress on the user's keyboard and insert the
       VT100 style escape sequence. Screen has a very flexible way of doing  this  by  making  it
       possible  to  map  arbitrary  commands  on arbitrary sequences of characters. For standard
       VT100 emulation the command will always insert a string in the input buffer of the  window
       (see  also command stuff in the command table).	Because the sequences generated by a key-
       press can change after a reattach from a different terminal type, it is possible  to  bind
       commands  to  the  termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the correct binding after
       each reattach. See the bindkey command for further details on the syntax and examples.

       Here is the table of the default key bindings. (A) means that the command is  executed  if
       the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       Key name 	 Termcap name	 Command
       Cursor up	     ku 	 stuff \033[A
					 stuff \033OA	 (A)
       Cursor down	     kd 	 stuff \033[B
					 stuff \033OB	 (A)
       Cursor right	     kr 	 stuff \033[C
					 stuff \033OC	 (A)
       Cursor left	     kl 	 stuff \033[D
					 stuff \033OD	 (A)
       Function key 0	     k0 	 stuff \033[10~
       Function key 1	     k1 	 stuff \033OP
       Function key 2	     k2 	 stuff \033OQ
       Function key 3	     k3 	 stuff \033OR
       Function key 4	     k4 	 stuff \033OS
       Function key 5	     k5 	 stuff \033[15~
       Function key 6	     k6 	 stuff \033[17~
       Function key 7	     k7 	 stuff \033[18~
       Function key 8	     k8 	 stuff \033[19~
       Function key 9	     k9 	 stuff \033[20~
       Function key 10	     k; 	 stuff \033[21~
       Function key 11	     F1 	 stuff \033[23~
       Function key 12	     F2 	 stuff \033[24~
       Home		     kh 	 stuff \033[1~
       End		     kH 	 stuff \033[4~
       Insert		     kI 	 stuff \033[2~
       Delete		     kD 	 stuff \033[3~
       Page up		     kP 	 stuff \033[5~
       Page down	     kN 	 stuff \033[6~
       Keypad 0 	     f0 	 stuff 0
					 stuff \033Op	 (A)
       Keypad 1 	     f1 	 stuff 1
					 stuff \033Oq	 (A)
       Keypad 2 	     f2 	 stuff 2
					 stuff \033Or	 (A)
       Keypad 3 	     f3 	 stuff 3
					 stuff \033Os	 (A)
       Keypad 4 	     f4 	 stuff 4
					 stuff \033Ot	 (A)
       Keypad 5 	     f5 	 stuff 5
					 stuff \033Ou	 (A)
       Keypad 6 	     f6 	 stuff 6
					 stuff \033Ov	 (A)
       Keypad 7 	     f7 	 stuff 7
					 stuff \033Ow	 (A)
       Keypad 8 	     f8 	 stuff 8
					 stuff \033Ox	 (A)
       Keypad 9 	     f9 	 stuff 9
					 stuff \033Oy	 (A)
       Keypad + 	     f+ 	 stuff +
					 stuff \033Ok	 (A)
       Keypad - 	     f- 	 stuff -
					 stuff \033Om	 (A)
       Keypad * 	     f* 	 stuff *
					 stuff \033Oj	 (A)
       Keypad / 	     f/ 	 stuff /
					 stuff \033Oo	 (A)
       Keypad = 	     fq 	 stuff =
					 stuff \033OX	 (A)
       Keypad . 	     f. 	 stuff .
					 stuff \033On	 (A)
       Keypad , 	     f, 	 stuff ,
					 stuff \033Ol	 (A)
       Keypad enter	     fe 	 stuff \015
					 stuff \033OM	 (A)

       The  following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recognized by screen and
       are not in the termcap(5) manual.  You  can  place  these  capabilities	in  your  termcap
       entries (in `/etc/termcap') or use them with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and `term-
       capinfo' in your screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these  capabilities  in
       the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic margins'). Note that this capability
		    is obsolete because screen uses the standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize display. This capability has the desired width  and	height	as  argu-
		    ments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q direct to the application.
		    Same as 'flow off'. The opposite of this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset. Default is '\E(%.'.

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset. Default is '\E(B'.

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See  the  'ac'  capability
		    for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See the 'autonuke' command for more details.

       OL   (num)   Set the output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding' command for valid encod-

       AF   (str)   Change character foreground color in an ANSI  conform  way.  This  capability
		    will almost always be set to '\E[3%dm' ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does understand ANSI set default fg/bg color (\E[39m / \E[49m).

       XC   (str)   Describe  a  translation  of  characters  to strings depending on the current
		    font. More details follow in the next section.

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences (OSC, mouse tracking).

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g. Eterm).

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info entry. (Set by default).

       Screen has a powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary strings depending  on
       the  current  font  and terminal type.  Use this feature if you want to work with a common
       standard character set (say ISO8851-latin1)  even  on  terminals  that  scatter	the  more
       unusual characters over several national language font pages.

	   <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
	   <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A  <charset-mapping>  tells screen how to map characters in font <designator> ('B': Ascii,
       'A': UK, 'K': german, etc.)  to strings. Every <mapping> describes to what string a single
       character  will be translated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the codes
       have a lot in common (for example strings to switch to and  from  another  charset).  Each
       occurrence  of  '%'  in	<template>  gets  substituted  with  the <template-arg> specified
       together with the character. If your strings are not similar at all, then  use  '%'  as	a
       template  and  place  the  full string in <template-arg>. A quoting mechanism was added to
       make it possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes the special  characters  '\',
       '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

	   termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case umlaut characters on
       a hp700 terminal that has a german charset. '\304' gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B'  and  so
       on.   Note  that  this  line gets parsed *three* times before the internal lookup table is
       built, therefore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another extension was added to allow more emulation: If a mapping translates the  unquoted
       '%'  char,  it  will be sent to the terminal whenever screen switches to the corresponding
       <designator>. In this special case the template is assumed to  be  just	'%'  because  the
       charset switch sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

	   termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here, a part of the german ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If screen has to change
       to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will be sent to the terminal, i.e. the ASCII	charset  is  used
       instead.  The  template is just '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\'
       to '\326', and ']' to '\334'.

       COLUMNS	      Number of columns on the terminal (overrides termcap entry).
       HOME	      Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES	      Number of lines on the terminal (overrides termcap entry).
       LOCKPRG	      Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH	      Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL	      Default shell program for opening windows (default "/bin/sh").
       STY	      Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM	      Terminal name.
       TERMCAP	      Terminal description.
       WINDOW	      Window number of a window (at creation time).

       .../screen-3.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples in the screen distribution package for  private
					 and global initialization files.
       /etc/screenrc			 screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc			 Read in after /etc/screenrc
       /local/screens/S-<login> 	 Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>	 Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap	 Written by the "termcap" output function
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange		 screen `interprocess communication buffer'
       hardcopy.[0-9]			 Screen images created by the hardcopy function
       screenlog.[0-9]			 Output log files created by the log function
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*		 or
       /etc/termcap			 Terminal capability databases
       /etc/utmp			 Login records
       $LOCKPRG 			 Program that locks a terminal.

       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)

       Originally  created  by Oliver Laumann, this latest version was produced by Wayne Davison,
       Juergen Weigert and Michael Schroeder.

       Copyright (C) 1993-2002
	    Juergen Weigert (jnweiger@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
	    Michael Schroeder (mlschroe@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of
       the  GNU  General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either ver-
       sion 2, or (at your option) any later version.
       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY	WARRANTY;
       without	even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.
       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this  program
       (see  the  file	COPYING);  if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple
       Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA

       Ken Beal (kbeal@amber.ssd.csd.harris.com),
       Rudolf Koenig (rfkoenig@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de),
       Toerless Eckert (eckert@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de),
       Wayne Davison (davison@borland.com),
       Patrick Wolfe (pat@kai.com, kailand!pat),
       Bart Schaefer (schaefer@cse.ogi.edu),
       Nathan Glasser (nathan@brokaw.lcs.mit.edu),
       Larry W. Virden (lvirden@cas.org),
       Howard Chu (hyc@hanauma.jpl.nasa.gov),
       Tim MacKenzie (tym@dibbler.cs.monash.edu.au),
       Markku Jarvinen (mta@{cc,cs,ee}.tut.fi),
       Marc Boucher (marc@CAM.ORG),
       Doug Siebert (dsiebert@isca.uiowa.edu),
       Ken Stillson (stillson@tsfsrv.mitre.org),
       Ian Frechett (frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU),
       Brian Koehmstedt (bpk@gnu.ai.mit.edu),
       Don Smith (djs6015@ultb.isc.rit.edu),
       Frank van der Linden (vdlinden@fwi.uva.nl),
       Martin Schweikert (schweik@cpp.ob.open.de),
       David Vrona (dave@sashimi.lcu.com),
       E. Tye McQueen (tye%spillman.UUCP@uunet.uu.net),
       Matthew Green (mrg@mame.mu.oz.au),
       Christopher Williams (cgw@unt.edu),
       Matt Mosley (mattm@access.digex.net),
       Gregory Neil Shapiro (gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU),
       Johannes Zellner (johannes@zellner.org),
       Pablo Averbuj (pablo@averbuj.com).

       This is version 3.9.13. Its roots are a merge of a custom version 2.3PR7 by Wayne  Davison
       and  several enhancements to Oliver Laumann's version 2.0. Note that all versions numbered
       2.x are copyright by Oliver Laumann.

       The latest official release of screen available via anonymous  ftp  from  gnudist.gnu.org,
       nic.funet.fi or any other GNU distribution site. The home site of screen is ftp.uni-erlan-
       gen.de, in the directory pub/utilities/screen. The  subdirectory  `private'  contains  the
       latest beta testing release. If you want to help, send a note to screen@uni-erlangen.de.

       o  `dm'	(delete  mode)	and  `xs'  are	not handled correctly (they are ignored). `xn' is
	  treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       o  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But this is	the  only
	  area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       o  It is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP when reattaching under a
	  different terminal type.

       o  The support of terminfo based systems is very limited.  Adding  extra  capabilities  to
	  $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       o  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       o  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most systems in order to be able
	  to correctly change the owner of the tty device file for each window.  Special  permis-
	  sion may also be required to write the file "/etc/utmp".

       o  Entries  in  "/etc/utmp" are not removed when screen is killed with SIGKILL.	This will
	  cause some programs (like "w" or "rwho") to advertise that a	user  is  logged  on  who
	  really isn't.

       o  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       o  When	the  modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach (or quit) unless
	  the device driver is configured to send a HANGUP signal.  To detach  a  screen  session
	  use the -D or -d command line option.

       o  If a password is set, the command line options -d and -D still detach a session without

       o  Both "breaktype" and "defbreaktype" change the break generating method used by all ter-
	  minal  devices.  The	first  should  change a window specific setting, where the latter
	  should change only the default for new windows.

       o  When attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file is not  sourced.  Each
	  user's  personal settings have to be included in the .screenrc file from which the ses-
	  sion is booted, or have to be changed manually.

       o  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the features.

       o  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer	&  pizza  to  screen@uni-

4th Berkeley Distribution		     Aug 2002					SCREEN(1)
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